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Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Examples of application inExamples of application in
sport/physical activitiessport/physical activities
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Application of knowledgeApplication of knowledge
 The following powerThe following power
point looks at apoint looks at a
variety of examples ofvariety of examples of
application of trainingapplication of training
principles, methods ofprinciples, methods of
training and exercisetraining and exercise
physiology to physicalphysiology to physical
activities/sport.activities/sport.
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SpecificitySpecificity
 In applying specificity to a trainingIn applying specificity to a training
programme one should look atprogramme one should look at
 The individual and the demands of theirThe individual and the demands of their
sport/activity.sport/activity.
 Components of fitness requiredComponents of fitness required
 Energy systems requiredEnergy systems required
 Specific patterns of joint and muscleSpecific patterns of joint and muscle
coordinationcoordination
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Components of fitnessComponents of fitness
 Basketball is going toBasketball is going to
be used as thebe used as the
example of applyingexample of applying
components of fitnesscomponents of fitness
to a trainingto a training
programme.programme.
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Basketball-Components ofBasketball-Components of
fitnessfitness
Cardio-respiratoryCardio-respiratory
enduranceendurance is required inis required in
general so that one cangeneral so that one can
keep producing energykeep producing energy
aerobically and to performaerobically and to perform
tasks involving the wholetasks involving the whole
body for extended periodsbody for extended periods
of time such as a game.of time such as a game.
 Speed (anaerobicSpeed (anaerobic
capacity):capacity): is required sois required so
that during a game one canthat during a game one can
put the body parts intoput the body parts into
motion quickly and sustainmotion quickly and sustain
high intensity efforts eg forhigh intensity efforts eg for
a fast break or on defensea fast break or on defense
to catch an attacker. (Note:to catch an attacker. (Note:
this component is closelythis component is closely
related to muscular strengthrelated to muscular strength
and power.and power.
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Basketball-Components ofBasketball-Components of
fitnessfitness
 Agility:Agility: is required foris required for
changing direction quicklychanging direction quickly
and retaining balance eg inand retaining balance eg in
turning, dodging, weaving,turning, dodging, weaving,
pivoting all required in thepivoting all required in the
game of basketball.game of basketball.
 Coordination:Coordination: hand-eyehand-eye
coordination is required tocoordination is required to
ensure tasks can beensure tasks can be
performed smoothly andperformed smoothly and
accurately such as passing,accurately such as passing,
dribbling and shooting indribbling and shooting in
basketball.basketball.
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Basketball-Basketball-
 Muscular endurance:Muscular endurance: isis
required so that therequired so that the
muscles in the legs canmuscles in the legs can
work for long periods ofwork for long periods of
time at less than maximumtime at less than maximum
effort eg for running up andeffort eg for running up and
down the court for thedown the court for the
duration of a game.duration of a game.
 Muscular Power:Muscular Power: isis
required to use strengthrequired to use strength
quickly to produce anquickly to produce an
explosive effort eg inexplosive effort eg in
jumping, dunking, threejumping, dunking, three
point shots, jump shots, andpoint shots, jump shots, and
being quick off the markbeing quick off the mark
etc… in the game ofetc… in the game of
basketball.basketball.
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Basketball-Basketball-
 Muscular strength:Muscular strength: isis
required to exert against arequired to exert against a
resistance in a singleresistance in a single
maximum contraction egmaximum contraction eg
jostling for position injostling for position in
basketball.basketball.
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Basketball-Basketball-
 There are obviously too many components to include in aThere are obviously too many components to include in a
training programme therefore priorities need to be made. Thistraining programme therefore priorities need to be made. This
may be done by focusing on weaknesses through testing, skillmay be done by focusing on weaknesses through testing, skill
analysis, knowledge of weaknesses or coaching. It could beanalysis, knowledge of weaknesses or coaching. It could be
driven by inherent needs of the sport eg specialistdriven by inherent needs of the sport eg specialist
requirements such as speed, agility and coordination overrequirements such as speed, agility and coordination over
general components such as cardio-respiratory and musculargeneral components such as cardio-respiratory and muscular
endurance (this can also depend on the stage of theendurance (this can also depend on the stage of the
season/year). It could also be positional eg a point guard mayseason/year). It could also be positional eg a point guard may
focus on agility, speed and coordination and a forward mayfocus on agility, speed and coordination and a forward may
focus on muscular strength and power.focus on muscular strength and power.
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Basketball-Basketball-
 In terms of components of fitness,In terms of components of fitness,
what ever activity/activities youwhat ever activity/activities you
choose to apply this to you shouldchoose to apply this to you should
measure progress by pre testing andmeasure progress by pre testing and
testing at stages during yourtesting at stages during your
programme so that success of goalsprogramme so that success of goals
can be measured.can be measured.
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Energy systemsEnergy systems
 Running over varietyRunning over variety
of distances will beof distances will be
looked at to showlooked at to show
specificityspecificity
requirements forrequirements for
energy systemenergy system
involvement.involvement.
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ENERGY SYSTEMSENERGY SYSTEMS During exercise production of ATP depends upon the Energy SystemDuring exercise production of ATP depends upon the Energy System
being used. This is in turn dependent on the intensity and duration ofbeing used. This is in turn dependent on the intensity and duration of
the exercise:the exercise:
ANAEROBIC / ATP-CPANAEROBIC / ATP-CP ANAEROBIC / LACTIC ACIDANAEROBIC / LACTIC ACID AEROBICAEROBIC
(Anaerobic Glycolysis)(Anaerobic Glycolysis) (Aerobic Glycolysis)(Aerobic Glycolysis)
Very rapidVery rapid RapidRapid SlowSlow
Chemical fuel: PCChemical fuel: PC Food fuel: glycogenFood fuel: glycogen FoodFood
fuels:fuels:glycogen,glycogen, fats,fats,
and proteinand protein
Very limited ATPVery limited ATP Limited ATP productionLimited ATP production Unlimited ATPUnlimited ATP
Prod.Prod.
ProductionProduction
Muscular stores limitedMuscular stores limited By-product, lactic acid,By-product, lactic acid, No fatiguingNo fatiguing
by-prod.by-prod.
causes muscular fatigue Produces H20,causes muscular fatigue Produces H20,
CO2, heatCO2, heat
Used with sprint or anyUsed with sprint or any Used with activities ofUsed with activities of Used withUsed with
endurance orendurance or Adapted from (VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)Adapted from (VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)
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Examples of the overlap of energyExamples of the overlap of energy
systems in sprints/running events.systems in sprints/running events.
ATP/ CPATP/ CP ANAEROBIC AEROBICANAEROBIC AEROBIC EXAMPLESEXAMPLES
50%50% 40%40% 10%10% 100m sprint100m sprint
10%10% 60%60% 30%30% 200m sprint200m sprint
5%5% 55%55% 40%40% 400m run400m run
1% 34% 65% 800m run1% 34% 65% 800m run
- 20%- 20% 80%80% 1500m run1500m run
- 10%- 10% 90%90% 3000m run3000m run
-- 5%5% 95%95% 10,000 run10,000 run
-- 1%1% 99%99% marathonmarathon
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Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and
muscle coordinationmuscle coordination
 This should differ fromThis should differ from
one individual to anotherone individual to another
and is dependant on theand is dependant on the
position you play if this isposition you play if this is
applicable. We are goingapplicable. We are going
to use rugby as anto use rugby as an
example of this as thereexample of this as there
is such a range ofis such a range of
positional requirements.positional requirements.
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Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and
muscle coordinationmuscle coordination
 This is dependent on positional play andThis is dependent on positional play and
therefore we will go through a variety oftherefore we will go through a variety of
positions and look at what is applicable inpositions and look at what is applicable in
terms of specific joint and muscleterms of specific joint and muscle
coordination. We are not going to break itcoordination. We are not going to break it
down to anatomical movements, ratherdown to anatomical movements, rather
just demonstrate the type ofjust demonstrate the type of
skills/movements required in practice.skills/movements required in practice.
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Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and
muscle coordinationmuscle coordination
 Props (No 1 and 3)Props (No 1 and 3)  These will include patternsThese will include patterns
such as those required forsuch as those required for
pushing in the scrum, liftingpushing in the scrum, lifting
in the line out, maul andin the line out, maul and
ruck movements andruck movements and
tackling movementtackling movement
requirements.requirements.
 They are also required toThey are also required to
take part in game basicstake part in game basics
such as passing, sprintingsuch as passing, sprinting
evading.evading.
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Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and
muscle coordinationmuscle coordination
 Hookers (No 2)Hookers (No 2)  These will include patternsThese will include patterns
such as those required forsuch as those required for
throwing into the line out,throwing into the line out,
pushing in the scrum,pushing in the scrum,
hooking in the scrum, maulhooking in the scrum, maul
and ruck movements andand ruck movements and
tackling movementtackling movement
requirements.requirements.
 They are required to takeThey are required to take
part in game basics such aspart in game basics such as
passing, sprinting evading.passing, sprinting evading.
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Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and
muscle coordinationmuscle coordination
 Locks (no 4 and 5)Locks (no 4 and 5)  These will include patternsThese will include patterns
such as those required forsuch as those required for
being lifted in the lineout,being lifted in the lineout,
lifting in the lineout, scrumlifting in the lineout, scrum
technique, ruck and maultechnique, ruck and maul
movements and tacklingmovements and tackling
movement requirements.movement requirements.
 They are required to takeThey are required to take
part in game basics such aspart in game basics such as
passing, sprinting evading.passing, sprinting evading.
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Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and
muscle coordinationmuscle coordination
 Flanker (No 6 and 7)Flanker (No 6 and 7)  These will include patternsThese will include patterns
such as those required forsuch as those required for
being lifted in the lineout,being lifted in the lineout,
lifting in the lineout, scrumlifting in the lineout, scrum
technique, ruck and maultechnique, ruck and maul
movements and tacklingmovements and tackling
movement requirements.movement requirements.
 They are required to takeThey are required to take
part in game basics such aspart in game basics such as
passing, sprinting evading.passing, sprinting evading.
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Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and
muscle coordinationmuscle coordination
 No 8’sNo 8’s  These will include patternsThese will include patterns
such as those required forsuch as those required for
being lifted in the lineout,being lifted in the lineout,
lifting in the lineout, scrumlifting in the lineout, scrum
technique, movements offtechnique, movements off
the back of the scrum, ruckthe back of the scrum, ruck
and maul movements andand maul movements and
tackling movementtackling movement
requirements.requirements.
 They are required to takeThey are required to take
part in game basics such aspart in game basics such as
passing, sprinting evading.passing, sprinting evading.
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Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and
muscle coordinationmuscle coordination
 Half Backs (No 9)Half Backs (No 9)  These will include patternsThese will include patterns
such as those required forsuch as those required for
feeding the scrum, work atfeeding the scrum, work at
the back of thethe back of the
scrum/ruck/maul, passingscrum/ruck/maul, passing
from the ground, passing,from the ground, passing,
evading, taking the ball toevading, taking the ball to
ground, box kicking,ground, box kicking,
clearing kicks, tackling,clearing kicks, tackling,
taking and distributing balltaking and distributing ball
from the line out etc…from the line out etc…
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Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and
muscle coordinationmuscle coordination
 11stst
Five (No 10)Five (No 10)  These will include patternsThese will include patterns
such as those required forsuch as those required for
all types of kicking (clearing,all types of kicking (clearing,
drop kicks, box kicks, chipdrop kicks, box kicks, chip
kicks etc…), receiving andkicks etc…), receiving and
passing, tackling, evading,passing, tackling, evading,
patterns for specificpatterns for specific
backline moves etc…backline moves etc…
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Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and
muscle coordinationmuscle coordination
 22ndnd
Five and Centre (12Five and Centre (12
and 13)and 13)
 These will include patternsThese will include patterns
such as those receiving andsuch as those receiving and
passing, tackling, evading,passing, tackling, evading,
crashing, kicking, ruckcrashing, kicking, ruck
movements, patterns formovements, patterns for
specific backline movesspecific backline moves
etc…etc…
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Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and
muscle coordinationmuscle coordination
 WingerWinger  These will include patternsThese will include patterns
such as those required forsuch as those required for
receiving and passing,receiving and passing,
taking high balls, taking ataking high balls, taking a
mark, taking quick line outs,mark, taking quick line outs,
tackling, evading, chiptackling, evading, chip
kicks, clearing kicks,kicks, clearing kicks,
sprinting, patterns forsprinting, patterns for
specific backline movesspecific backline moves
etc…etc…
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Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and
muscle coordinationmuscle coordination
 FullbackFullback  These will include patternsThese will include patterns
such as those required forsuch as those required for
chip kicks, clearing kicks,chip kicks, clearing kicks,
drop kicks, receiving anddrop kicks, receiving and
passing, taking high balls,passing, taking high balls,
taking a mark, taking quicktaking a mark, taking quick
line outs, tackling, evading,line outs, tackling, evading,
sprinting, patterns forsprinting, patterns for
specific backline movesspecific backline moves
etc…etc…
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Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and
muscle coordinationmuscle coordination
 These patterns can be developed throughThese patterns can be developed through
skill training, circuit training, andskill training, circuit training, and
resistance training where the movementresistance training where the movement
patterns and relevant muscle groups arepatterns and relevant muscle groups are
used to develop efficiency and skill.used to develop efficiency and skill.
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The F.I.T.T principle.The F.I.T.T principle.
 We are going to useWe are going to use
water polo as anwater polo as an
example of how toexample of how to
apply the F.I.T.Tapply the F.I.T.T
principle.principle.
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The F.I.T.T principle.The F.I.T.T principle.
 In applying the F.I.T.TIn applying the F.I.T.T
principle it does dependprinciple it does depend
on what stage of theon what stage of the
training year thetraining year the
individual/team are in.individual/team are in.
We will look at examplesWe will look at examples
from different stages.from different stages.
Obviously this differsObviously this differs
from an elite athlete to anfrom an elite athlete to an
amateur player.amateur player.
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The F.I.T.T principle.The F.I.T.T principle.
 FrequencyFrequency
 Dependant on stageDependant on stage
of the training year.of the training year.
 When working forWhen working for
endurance 4-5 x aendurance 4-5 x a
week.week.
 Speed, power,Speed, power,
strength etc… 3-4 x astrength etc… 3-4 x a
week.week.
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The F.I.T.T principle.The F.I.T.T principle.
 IntensityIntensity
 For training the aerobicFor training the aerobic
systems the target heartsystems the target heart
rate is approx 70-85% ofrate is approx 70-85% of
MHR.MHR.
 For training the anaerobicFor training the anaerobic
systems the target heartsystems the target heart
rate is approx 85-100%rate is approx 85-100%
MHR.MHR.
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The F.I.T.T principle.The F.I.T.T principle.
 Time (duration)-Time (duration)-
sessionsession
 This differs from 1hr ofThis differs from 1hr of
a variety ofa variety of
components to focus ofcomponents to focus of
just one component atjust one component at
different stages of adifferent stages of a
seasonseason
 Time (duration)-Time (duration)-
programmeprogramme
 Can be a wholeCan be a whole
training year at thetraining year at the
elite level.elite level.
 Could be minimum 12Could be minimum 12
weeks for othersweeks for others http://www.inet.hr/~davgolub/planing.htm
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Sample training session-varietySample training session-variety
of components.of components.
http://www.inet.hr/~davgolub/planing.htm
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Example periodisation- waterExample periodisation- water
polo.polo.
 In this graphic chart symbols are following:In this graphic chart symbols are following:
numbersnumbers- represent months;- represent months; a-a- generalgeneral
preparation phase,preparation phase, b-b- basic preparation phase,basic preparation phase,
c-c- specific water polo preparation phase,specific water polo preparation phase, d-d-
precompetition preparation phase;precompetition preparation phase; I.-I.-
preparation period,preparation period, II.-II.- competition period andcompetition period and
III.-III.- relax period.relax period.
http://www.inet.hr/~davgolub/planing.htm
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The F.I.T.T principle.The F.I.T.T principle.
 TypeType
 Again dependent on theAgain dependent on the
stage of the training year.stage of the training year.
 Most training is water basedMost training is water based
and includes swimming, legand includes swimming, leg
training, balls skills, gametraining, balls skills, game
skills/strategies etc…skills/strategies etc…
 At different times of the yearAt different times of the year
as well as within sessionsas well as within sessions
methods can include,methods can include,
continuous training, intervalcontinuous training, interval
training, circuit training,training, circuit training,
resistance training, skillresistance training, skill
training etc…training etc…
http://www.inet.hr/~davgolub/planing.htm
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VarietyVariety
 Dependant on goals,Dependant on goals,
focus, etc… variety isfocus, etc… variety is
important to keep upimportant to keep up
motivation. An examplemotivation. An example
could be if cardio-could be if cardio-
respiratory endurancerespiratory endurance
was the focus continuouswas the focus continuous
training could include,training could include,
swimming, running,swimming, running,
cycling etc… or fartlek,cycling etc… or fartlek,
circuit training could becircuit training could be
used to “add spice”.used to “add spice”.
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Progressive overloadProgressive overload
 Across a programme this principle should be applied.Across a programme this principle should be applied.
This could occur by…This could occur by…
 Increasing frequency eg running 3x a weekIncreasing frequency eg running 3x a week
increasing to 5x by the end of the programme.increasing to 5x by the end of the programme.
 Increasing distance eg increasing from 3km -5kmIncreasing distance eg increasing from 3km -5km
over the course of the programmeover the course of the programme
 Increasing intensity eg increasing from 60%-85%Increasing intensity eg increasing from 60%-85%
MHR over the programmeMHR over the programme
 Increasing duration eg increasing from 30min runsIncreasing duration eg increasing from 30min runs
to 50mins by the end of the programme.to 50mins by the end of the programme.
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RowingRowing
 We are going to useWe are going to use
rowing as an examplerowing as an example
of some of theof some of the
methods of trainingmethods of training
you can use whenyou can use when
applying to aapplying to a
particular sport. Weparticular sport. We
will also look at anwill also look at an
example ofexample of
periodisation.periodisation.
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The aim of the program:The aim of the program:
1. Increase Maximum1. Increase Maximum
VOVO22 ..
 2. Increase Strength2. Increase Strength
Endurance.Endurance.
 3. Increase Maximum3. Increase Maximum
Strength.Strength.
 4. Higher efficiency of4. Higher efficiency of
Rowing Technique.Rowing Technique.
 5. Better Flexibility and5. Better Flexibility and
Coordination.Coordination.
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Periodisation examplePeriodisation example
 Training ProgramTraining Program
 Period 1 :Period 1 : June - September.June - September.
(Preparation period 1).(Preparation period 1).
Program June:Program June: Main Effect:Main Effect:
Maximum Strength.Maximum Strength.
Secondary: GeneralSecondary: General
Endurance.Endurance.
Program July:Program July: Main Effect:Main Effect:
Maximum Strength andMaximum Strength and
General Endurance.General Endurance.
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Periodisation example.Periodisation example.
 Period 2 :Period 2 :
 October - NovemberOctober - November
(Preparation period 2).(Preparation period 2).
Program Oct &Program Oct &
Nov:Nov: Main Effect:Main Effect:
General EnduranceGeneral Endurance
and Muscularand Muscular
Endurance.Endurance.
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Periodisation example.Periodisation example.
 Period 3 :Period 3 :
 December (Pre-December (Pre-
competition period).competition period).
ProgramProgram
December:December: MainMain
Effect: Basic SpecificEffect: Basic Specific
Endurance andEndurance and
Rowing Technique.Rowing Technique.
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Periodisation example.Periodisation example.
 Period 4 :Period 4 :
 January - April (CompetitionJanuary - April (Competition
period).period).
Program weeks withoutProgram weeks without
competition:competition: Main Effect:Main Effect:
Increased Specific Endurance.Increased Specific Endurance.
 Program weeks withProgram weeks with
competition:competition: Main Effect:Main Effect:
"Super-Compensation" effect"Super-Compensation" effect
and Race preparationand Race preparation
Program "Peak" forProgram "Peak" for
Championships orChampionships or
Important Regatta:Important Regatta: MainMain
Effect: "Peak" for theEffect: "Peak" for the
Championships.Championships.
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Periodisation examplePeriodisation example
 Period 5 :Period 5 :
 May (RecoveryMay (Recovery
period).period).
Program May:Program May: MainMain
Effect: ActiveEffect: Active
recovery.recovery.
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Training methods.-Short IntervalTraining methods.-Short Interval
 Short interval involvesShort interval involves
work periods up to twowork periods up to two
minutes and rests thatminutes and rests that
are so short that oxygenare so short that oxygen
uptake and the pulse (inuptake and the pulse (in
the rest) does notthe rest) does not
decrease appreciablydecrease appreciably
before the start of thebefore the start of the
next work period.next work period.
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Training methods.-Long IntervalTraining methods.-Long Interval
 Long interval involvesLong interval involves
work period from twowork period from two
minutes and up to 10-15minutes and up to 10-15
minutes, and rest lengthsminutes, and rest lengths
such that work intensitysuch that work intensity
can be maintainedcan be maintained
approximately constantapproximately constant
during each work period.during each work period.
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Training methods.-IntervalTraining methods.-Interval
 The short interval isThe short interval is
very important duringvery important during
the regatta season tothe regatta season to
keep a good quantitykeep a good quantity
of training in the rightof training in the right
area of race velocity,area of race velocity,
and use of stroke rateand use of stroke rate
valid for competition.valid for competition.
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Training methods.-ContinuousTraining methods.-Continuous
 Aerobic training withAerobic training with
metabolic balance.metabolic balance.
Energy covered 100%Energy covered 100%
aerobic or with a smallaerobic or with a small
amount of anaerobicamount of anaerobic
capacity involved, butcapacity involved, but
without accumulatedwithout accumulated
production of acid lactate.production of acid lactate.
This can be completed inThis can be completed in
the boat or on an ERG.the boat or on an ERG.
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Training methods.-FartlekTraining methods.-Fartlek
 Training according to theTraining according to the
interval principle, ofinterval principle, of
relatively long duration (8-relatively long duration (8-
12 km), with improvised12 km), with improvised
alteration between high andalteration between high and
low intensity, and with thelow intensity, and with the
main purpose of increasingmain purpose of increasing
or maintaining aerobicor maintaining aerobic
endurance. Gives a goodendurance. Gives a good
opportunity to control theopportunity to control the
technique during differenttechnique during different
level of intensity.level of intensity.
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Training methods.-AgeTraining methods.-Age
dependant.dependant.
 Junior rowers should haveJunior rowers should have
passed the "Puberty" andpassed the "Puberty" and
have a settled body beforehave a settled body before
they start withthey start with heavyheavy
weight trainingweight training. The best. The best
period to improve muscleperiod to improve muscle
volume and strength seemsvolume and strength seems
to be between 18 and 23to be between 18 and 23
years. For younger rowersyears. For younger rowers
their own "bodyweight" cantheir own "bodyweight" can
be used as load.be used as load. CircuitCircuit
training and endurancetraining and endurance
training is preferred.training is preferred.
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Training methods-ResistanceTraining methods-Resistance
training.training.
 Olympic rowing coach Terry O’Neil believes that a weightOlympic rowing coach Terry O’Neil believes that a weight
training programme for his sport should mirror actualtraining programme for his sport should mirror actual
race requirements as closely as possible (a principle thatrace requirements as closely as possible (a principle that
should always be adhered to regardless of sport). Thisshould always be adhered to regardless of sport). This
means that:means that:
 The exercises selected must be relevant to rowing;The exercises selected must be relevant to rowing;
 They must be performed ultimately at a pace equivalentThey must be performed ultimately at a pace equivalent
to the actual stroke;to the actual stroke;
 They must create conditions that mirror the heart rateThey must create conditions that mirror the heart rate
levels sustained during a 2K race andlevels sustained during a 2K race and
 Reflect the time it takes to complete the race distance.Reflect the time it takes to complete the race distance.
http://www.pponline.co.uk/encyc/1024.htm
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Acute and chronic effects ofAcute and chronic effects of
exercise.exercise.
 No matter what you choose as aNo matter what you choose as a
sport/activity/focus you will need tosport/activity/focus you will need to
monitor some of the acute and chronicmonitor some of the acute and chronic
effects of exercise. In terms of acute aneffects of exercise. In terms of acute an
example would be working out whatexample would be working out what
intensity you are working at. In terms ofintensity you are working at. In terms of
chronic effects you can work out whatchronic effects you can work out what
types of gains you have made eg VOtypes of gains you have made eg VO22
Max or Muscle strength.Max or Muscle strength.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
ApplicationApplication
 All the examples have given a specific sport orAll the examples have given a specific sport or
physical activity as a focus. Your applicationphysical activity as a focus. Your application
may not be based on a specific sport or activity,may not be based on a specific sport or activity,
but rather based on specific components etc…but rather based on specific components etc…
Therefore your principles of training, methods ofTherefore your principles of training, methods of
training, and exercise physiology knowledgetraining, and exercise physiology knowledge
should be based on these. There is strong linksshould be based on these. There is strong links
between your goals setting and your application.between your goals setting and your application.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
What should I consider whenWhat should I consider when
planning a programme?planning a programme?
 What time period (duration) do I have available toWhat time period (duration) do I have available to
complete the programme?complete the programme?
 What are my goals?What are my goals?
 How can I best achieve these goals and measure this?How can I best achieve these goals and measure this?
 What training principles will I apply and how?What training principles will I apply and how?
 What components of fitness are my focus and whatWhat components of fitness are my focus and what
methods best apply for improvement in thesemethods best apply for improvement in these
components?components?
 What energy systems are relevant to the focus/goals IWhat energy systems are relevant to the focus/goals I
am trying to achieve?am trying to achieve?
 What methods will I apply and how?What methods will I apply and how?
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
What should I consider whenWhat should I consider when
planning a programme?planning a programme?
 What acute and chronic effects of exercise can IWhat acute and chronic effects of exercise can I
measure and use to show improvement and success ofmeasure and use to show improvement and success of
achieving goals?achieving goals?
 What components of fitness can I measure and use toWhat components of fitness can I measure and use to
show improvement and success of achieving goals?show improvement and success of achieving goals?
 If I am focussing on a sport activity I compete in whatIf I am focussing on a sport activity I compete in what
stage of the training year am I at?stage of the training year am I at?
 What already occurs in my life that may impact on thisWhat already occurs in my life that may impact on this
programme?programme?
 How can I best manage these influences (positive orHow can I best manage these influences (positive or
negative)?negative)?
 How do I fit in current physical activity into the trainingHow do I fit in current physical activity into the training
without overtraining?without overtraining?
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
If I am required to evaluate/critically evaluateIf I am required to evaluate/critically evaluate
this programme what should I consider?this programme what should I consider?
 Consider all the aims/ goals and you made inConsider all the aims/ goals and you made in
planning.planning.
 Consider success/difficulties of trainingConsider success/difficulties of training
principles, methods of training, components ofprinciples, methods of training, components of
fitness etc…fitness etc…
 Monitoring as you go so that you have specificMonitoring as you go so that you have specific
information to support/justify statementsinformation to support/justify statements
 Consider Biophysical aspects as well as socio-Consider Biophysical aspects as well as socio-
cultural eg barriers, enablers, outside influences.cultural eg barriers, enablers, outside influences.
 ““Healthism” and the ideologies the programme isHealthism” and the ideologies the programme is
based on.based on.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
If I am required to evaluate/critically evaluateIf I am required to evaluate/critically evaluate
this programme what should I consider?this programme what should I consider?
 In terms of modifications for the future or ifIn terms of modifications for the future or if
you did it again, look at all the knowledgeyou did it again, look at all the knowledge
you have gained over the module andyou have gained over the module and
decide if you applied this knowledgedecide if you applied this knowledge
successfully/appropriately. If you think thatsuccessfully/appropriately. If you think that
you could have done some things better,you could have done some things better,
what and how?what and how?
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
AssessmentAssessment
 If this knowledge is being applied forIf this knowledge is being applied for
assessment purposes you will be givenassessment purposes you will be given
this kind of guidance. However, it isthis kind of guidance. However, it is
important to monitor as you go to ensureimportant to monitor as you go to ensure
relevant knowledge is applied andrelevant knowledge is applied and
evaluated.evaluated.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
BibliographyBibliography
 WebsitesWebsites
 BooksBooks
http://www.inet.hr/~davgolub/planing.htm
http://www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid=56&ArticleID=5
http://www.pponline.co.uk/encyc/1024.htm
VCE Physical Education Book 2 (1999)VCE Physical Education Book 2 (1999)

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Applied pots

  • 1. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Examples of application inExamples of application in sport/physical activitiessport/physical activities
  • 2. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Application of knowledgeApplication of knowledge  The following powerThe following power point looks at apoint looks at a variety of examples ofvariety of examples of application of trainingapplication of training principles, methods ofprinciples, methods of training and exercisetraining and exercise physiology to physicalphysiology to physical activities/sport.activities/sport.
  • 3. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited SpecificitySpecificity  In applying specificity to a trainingIn applying specificity to a training programme one should look atprogramme one should look at  The individual and the demands of theirThe individual and the demands of their sport/activity.sport/activity.  Components of fitness requiredComponents of fitness required  Energy systems requiredEnergy systems required  Specific patterns of joint and muscleSpecific patterns of joint and muscle coordinationcoordination
  • 4. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Components of fitnessComponents of fitness  Basketball is going toBasketball is going to be used as thebe used as the example of applyingexample of applying components of fitnesscomponents of fitness to a trainingto a training programme.programme.
  • 5. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Basketball-Components ofBasketball-Components of fitnessfitness Cardio-respiratoryCardio-respiratory enduranceendurance is required inis required in general so that one cangeneral so that one can keep producing energykeep producing energy aerobically and to performaerobically and to perform tasks involving the wholetasks involving the whole body for extended periodsbody for extended periods of time such as a game.of time such as a game.  Speed (anaerobicSpeed (anaerobic capacity):capacity): is required sois required so that during a game one canthat during a game one can put the body parts intoput the body parts into motion quickly and sustainmotion quickly and sustain high intensity efforts eg forhigh intensity efforts eg for a fast break or on defensea fast break or on defense to catch an attacker. (Note:to catch an attacker. (Note: this component is closelythis component is closely related to muscular strengthrelated to muscular strength and power.and power.
  • 6. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Basketball-Components ofBasketball-Components of fitnessfitness  Agility:Agility: is required foris required for changing direction quicklychanging direction quickly and retaining balance eg inand retaining balance eg in turning, dodging, weaving,turning, dodging, weaving, pivoting all required in thepivoting all required in the game of basketball.game of basketball.  Coordination:Coordination: hand-eyehand-eye coordination is required tocoordination is required to ensure tasks can beensure tasks can be performed smoothly andperformed smoothly and accurately such as passing,accurately such as passing, dribbling and shooting indribbling and shooting in basketball.basketball.
  • 7. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Basketball-Basketball-  Muscular endurance:Muscular endurance: isis required so that therequired so that the muscles in the legs canmuscles in the legs can work for long periods ofwork for long periods of time at less than maximumtime at less than maximum effort eg for running up andeffort eg for running up and down the court for thedown the court for the duration of a game.duration of a game.  Muscular Power:Muscular Power: isis required to use strengthrequired to use strength quickly to produce anquickly to produce an explosive effort eg inexplosive effort eg in jumping, dunking, threejumping, dunking, three point shots, jump shots, andpoint shots, jump shots, and being quick off the markbeing quick off the mark etc… in the game ofetc… in the game of basketball.basketball.
  • 8. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Basketball-Basketball-  Muscular strength:Muscular strength: isis required to exert against arequired to exert against a resistance in a singleresistance in a single maximum contraction egmaximum contraction eg jostling for position injostling for position in basketball.basketball.
  • 9. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Basketball-Basketball-  There are obviously too many components to include in aThere are obviously too many components to include in a training programme therefore priorities need to be made. Thistraining programme therefore priorities need to be made. This may be done by focusing on weaknesses through testing, skillmay be done by focusing on weaknesses through testing, skill analysis, knowledge of weaknesses or coaching. It could beanalysis, knowledge of weaknesses or coaching. It could be driven by inherent needs of the sport eg specialistdriven by inherent needs of the sport eg specialist requirements such as speed, agility and coordination overrequirements such as speed, agility and coordination over general components such as cardio-respiratory and musculargeneral components such as cardio-respiratory and muscular endurance (this can also depend on the stage of theendurance (this can also depend on the stage of the season/year). It could also be positional eg a point guard mayseason/year). It could also be positional eg a point guard may focus on agility, speed and coordination and a forward mayfocus on agility, speed and coordination and a forward may focus on muscular strength and power.focus on muscular strength and power.
  • 10. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Basketball-Basketball-  In terms of components of fitness,In terms of components of fitness, what ever activity/activities youwhat ever activity/activities you choose to apply this to you shouldchoose to apply this to you should measure progress by pre testing andmeasure progress by pre testing and testing at stages during yourtesting at stages during your programme so that success of goalsprogramme so that success of goals can be measured.can be measured.
  • 11. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Energy systemsEnergy systems  Running over varietyRunning over variety of distances will beof distances will be looked at to showlooked at to show specificityspecificity requirements forrequirements for energy systemenergy system involvement.involvement.
  • 12. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited ENERGY SYSTEMSENERGY SYSTEMS During exercise production of ATP depends upon the Energy SystemDuring exercise production of ATP depends upon the Energy System being used. This is in turn dependent on the intensity and duration ofbeing used. This is in turn dependent on the intensity and duration of the exercise:the exercise: ANAEROBIC / ATP-CPANAEROBIC / ATP-CP ANAEROBIC / LACTIC ACIDANAEROBIC / LACTIC ACID AEROBICAEROBIC (Anaerobic Glycolysis)(Anaerobic Glycolysis) (Aerobic Glycolysis)(Aerobic Glycolysis) Very rapidVery rapid RapidRapid SlowSlow Chemical fuel: PCChemical fuel: PC Food fuel: glycogenFood fuel: glycogen FoodFood fuels:fuels:glycogen,glycogen, fats,fats, and proteinand protein Very limited ATPVery limited ATP Limited ATP productionLimited ATP production Unlimited ATPUnlimited ATP Prod.Prod. ProductionProduction Muscular stores limitedMuscular stores limited By-product, lactic acid,By-product, lactic acid, No fatiguingNo fatiguing by-prod.by-prod. causes muscular fatigue Produces H20,causes muscular fatigue Produces H20, CO2, heatCO2, heat Used with sprint or anyUsed with sprint or any Used with activities ofUsed with activities of Used withUsed with endurance orendurance or Adapted from (VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)Adapted from (VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)
  • 13. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Examples of the overlap of energyExamples of the overlap of energy systems in sprints/running events.systems in sprints/running events. ATP/ CPATP/ CP ANAEROBIC AEROBICANAEROBIC AEROBIC EXAMPLESEXAMPLES 50%50% 40%40% 10%10% 100m sprint100m sprint 10%10% 60%60% 30%30% 200m sprint200m sprint 5%5% 55%55% 40%40% 400m run400m run 1% 34% 65% 800m run1% 34% 65% 800m run - 20%- 20% 80%80% 1500m run1500m run - 10%- 10% 90%90% 3000m run3000m run -- 5%5% 95%95% 10,000 run10,000 run -- 1%1% 99%99% marathonmarathon
  • 14. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and muscle coordinationmuscle coordination  This should differ fromThis should differ from one individual to anotherone individual to another and is dependant on theand is dependant on the position you play if this isposition you play if this is applicable. We are goingapplicable. We are going to use rugby as anto use rugby as an example of this as thereexample of this as there is such a range ofis such a range of positional requirements.positional requirements.
  • 15. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and muscle coordinationmuscle coordination  This is dependent on positional play andThis is dependent on positional play and therefore we will go through a variety oftherefore we will go through a variety of positions and look at what is applicable inpositions and look at what is applicable in terms of specific joint and muscleterms of specific joint and muscle coordination. We are not going to break itcoordination. We are not going to break it down to anatomical movements, ratherdown to anatomical movements, rather just demonstrate the type ofjust demonstrate the type of skills/movements required in practice.skills/movements required in practice.
  • 16. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and muscle coordinationmuscle coordination  Props (No 1 and 3)Props (No 1 and 3)  These will include patternsThese will include patterns such as those required forsuch as those required for pushing in the scrum, liftingpushing in the scrum, lifting in the line out, maul andin the line out, maul and ruck movements andruck movements and tackling movementtackling movement requirements.requirements.  They are also required toThey are also required to take part in game basicstake part in game basics such as passing, sprintingsuch as passing, sprinting evading.evading.
  • 17. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and muscle coordinationmuscle coordination  Hookers (No 2)Hookers (No 2)  These will include patternsThese will include patterns such as those required forsuch as those required for throwing into the line out,throwing into the line out, pushing in the scrum,pushing in the scrum, hooking in the scrum, maulhooking in the scrum, maul and ruck movements andand ruck movements and tackling movementtackling movement requirements.requirements.  They are required to takeThey are required to take part in game basics such aspart in game basics such as passing, sprinting evading.passing, sprinting evading.
  • 18. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and muscle coordinationmuscle coordination  Locks (no 4 and 5)Locks (no 4 and 5)  These will include patternsThese will include patterns such as those required forsuch as those required for being lifted in the lineout,being lifted in the lineout, lifting in the lineout, scrumlifting in the lineout, scrum technique, ruck and maultechnique, ruck and maul movements and tacklingmovements and tackling movement requirements.movement requirements.  They are required to takeThey are required to take part in game basics such aspart in game basics such as passing, sprinting evading.passing, sprinting evading.
  • 19. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and muscle coordinationmuscle coordination  Flanker (No 6 and 7)Flanker (No 6 and 7)  These will include patternsThese will include patterns such as those required forsuch as those required for being lifted in the lineout,being lifted in the lineout, lifting in the lineout, scrumlifting in the lineout, scrum technique, ruck and maultechnique, ruck and maul movements and tacklingmovements and tackling movement requirements.movement requirements.  They are required to takeThey are required to take part in game basics such aspart in game basics such as passing, sprinting evading.passing, sprinting evading.
  • 20. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and muscle coordinationmuscle coordination  No 8’sNo 8’s  These will include patternsThese will include patterns such as those required forsuch as those required for being lifted in the lineout,being lifted in the lineout, lifting in the lineout, scrumlifting in the lineout, scrum technique, movements offtechnique, movements off the back of the scrum, ruckthe back of the scrum, ruck and maul movements andand maul movements and tackling movementtackling movement requirements.requirements.  They are required to takeThey are required to take part in game basics such aspart in game basics such as passing, sprinting evading.passing, sprinting evading.
  • 21. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and muscle coordinationmuscle coordination  Half Backs (No 9)Half Backs (No 9)  These will include patternsThese will include patterns such as those required forsuch as those required for feeding the scrum, work atfeeding the scrum, work at the back of thethe back of the scrum/ruck/maul, passingscrum/ruck/maul, passing from the ground, passing,from the ground, passing, evading, taking the ball toevading, taking the ball to ground, box kicking,ground, box kicking, clearing kicks, tackling,clearing kicks, tackling, taking and distributing balltaking and distributing ball from the line out etc…from the line out etc…
  • 22. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and muscle coordinationmuscle coordination  11stst Five (No 10)Five (No 10)  These will include patternsThese will include patterns such as those required forsuch as those required for all types of kicking (clearing,all types of kicking (clearing, drop kicks, box kicks, chipdrop kicks, box kicks, chip kicks etc…), receiving andkicks etc…), receiving and passing, tackling, evading,passing, tackling, evading, patterns for specificpatterns for specific backline moves etc…backline moves etc…
  • 23. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and muscle coordinationmuscle coordination  22ndnd Five and Centre (12Five and Centre (12 and 13)and 13)  These will include patternsThese will include patterns such as those receiving andsuch as those receiving and passing, tackling, evading,passing, tackling, evading, crashing, kicking, ruckcrashing, kicking, ruck movements, patterns formovements, patterns for specific backline movesspecific backline moves etc…etc…
  • 24. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and muscle coordinationmuscle coordination  WingerWinger  These will include patternsThese will include patterns such as those required forsuch as those required for receiving and passing,receiving and passing, taking high balls, taking ataking high balls, taking a mark, taking quick line outs,mark, taking quick line outs, tackling, evading, chiptackling, evading, chip kicks, clearing kicks,kicks, clearing kicks, sprinting, patterns forsprinting, patterns for specific backline movesspecific backline moves etc…etc…
  • 25. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and muscle coordinationmuscle coordination  FullbackFullback  These will include patternsThese will include patterns such as those required forsuch as those required for chip kicks, clearing kicks,chip kicks, clearing kicks, drop kicks, receiving anddrop kicks, receiving and passing, taking high balls,passing, taking high balls, taking a mark, taking quicktaking a mark, taking quick line outs, tackling, evading,line outs, tackling, evading, sprinting, patterns forsprinting, patterns for specific backline movesspecific backline moves etc…etc…
  • 26. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Specific patterns of joint andSpecific patterns of joint and muscle coordinationmuscle coordination  These patterns can be developed throughThese patterns can be developed through skill training, circuit training, andskill training, circuit training, and resistance training where the movementresistance training where the movement patterns and relevant muscle groups arepatterns and relevant muscle groups are used to develop efficiency and skill.used to develop efficiency and skill.
  • 27. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited The F.I.T.T principle.The F.I.T.T principle.  We are going to useWe are going to use water polo as anwater polo as an example of how toexample of how to apply the F.I.T.Tapply the F.I.T.T principle.principle.
  • 28. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited The F.I.T.T principle.The F.I.T.T principle.  In applying the F.I.T.TIn applying the F.I.T.T principle it does dependprinciple it does depend on what stage of theon what stage of the training year thetraining year the individual/team are in.individual/team are in. We will look at examplesWe will look at examples from different stages.from different stages. Obviously this differsObviously this differs from an elite athlete to anfrom an elite athlete to an amateur player.amateur player.
  • 29. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited The F.I.T.T principle.The F.I.T.T principle.  FrequencyFrequency  Dependant on stageDependant on stage of the training year.of the training year.  When working forWhen working for endurance 4-5 x aendurance 4-5 x a week.week.  Speed, power,Speed, power, strength etc… 3-4 x astrength etc… 3-4 x a week.week.
  • 30. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited The F.I.T.T principle.The F.I.T.T principle.  IntensityIntensity  For training the aerobicFor training the aerobic systems the target heartsystems the target heart rate is approx 70-85% ofrate is approx 70-85% of MHR.MHR.  For training the anaerobicFor training the anaerobic systems the target heartsystems the target heart rate is approx 85-100%rate is approx 85-100% MHR.MHR.
  • 31. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited The F.I.T.T principle.The F.I.T.T principle.  Time (duration)-Time (duration)- sessionsession  This differs from 1hr ofThis differs from 1hr of a variety ofa variety of components to focus ofcomponents to focus of just one component atjust one component at different stages of adifferent stages of a seasonseason  Time (duration)-Time (duration)- programmeprogramme  Can be a wholeCan be a whole training year at thetraining year at the elite level.elite level.  Could be minimum 12Could be minimum 12 weeks for othersweeks for others http://www.inet.hr/~davgolub/planing.htm
  • 32. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Sample training session-varietySample training session-variety of components.of components. http://www.inet.hr/~davgolub/planing.htm
  • 33. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Example periodisation- waterExample periodisation- water polo.polo.  In this graphic chart symbols are following:In this graphic chart symbols are following: numbersnumbers- represent months;- represent months; a-a- generalgeneral preparation phase,preparation phase, b-b- basic preparation phase,basic preparation phase, c-c- specific water polo preparation phase,specific water polo preparation phase, d-d- precompetition preparation phase;precompetition preparation phase; I.-I.- preparation period,preparation period, II.-II.- competition period andcompetition period and III.-III.- relax period.relax period. http://www.inet.hr/~davgolub/planing.htm
  • 34. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited The F.I.T.T principle.The F.I.T.T principle.  TypeType  Again dependent on theAgain dependent on the stage of the training year.stage of the training year.  Most training is water basedMost training is water based and includes swimming, legand includes swimming, leg training, balls skills, gametraining, balls skills, game skills/strategies etc…skills/strategies etc…  At different times of the yearAt different times of the year as well as within sessionsas well as within sessions methods can include,methods can include, continuous training, intervalcontinuous training, interval training, circuit training,training, circuit training, resistance training, skillresistance training, skill training etc…training etc… http://www.inet.hr/~davgolub/planing.htm
  • 35. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited VarietyVariety  Dependant on goals,Dependant on goals, focus, etc… variety isfocus, etc… variety is important to keep upimportant to keep up motivation. An examplemotivation. An example could be if cardio-could be if cardio- respiratory endurancerespiratory endurance was the focus continuouswas the focus continuous training could include,training could include, swimming, running,swimming, running, cycling etc… or fartlek,cycling etc… or fartlek, circuit training could becircuit training could be used to “add spice”.used to “add spice”.
  • 36. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Progressive overloadProgressive overload  Across a programme this principle should be applied.Across a programme this principle should be applied. This could occur by…This could occur by…  Increasing frequency eg running 3x a weekIncreasing frequency eg running 3x a week increasing to 5x by the end of the programme.increasing to 5x by the end of the programme.  Increasing distance eg increasing from 3km -5kmIncreasing distance eg increasing from 3km -5km over the course of the programmeover the course of the programme  Increasing intensity eg increasing from 60%-85%Increasing intensity eg increasing from 60%-85% MHR over the programmeMHR over the programme  Increasing duration eg increasing from 30min runsIncreasing duration eg increasing from 30min runs to 50mins by the end of the programme.to 50mins by the end of the programme.
  • 37. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited RowingRowing  We are going to useWe are going to use rowing as an examplerowing as an example of some of theof some of the methods of trainingmethods of training you can use whenyou can use when applying to aapplying to a particular sport. Weparticular sport. We will also look at anwill also look at an example ofexample of periodisation.periodisation. http://www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid=56&ArticleID=5
  • 38. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited The aim of the program:The aim of the program: 1. Increase Maximum1. Increase Maximum VOVO22 ..  2. Increase Strength2. Increase Strength Endurance.Endurance.  3. Increase Maximum3. Increase Maximum Strength.Strength.  4. Higher efficiency of4. Higher efficiency of Rowing Technique.Rowing Technique.  5. Better Flexibility and5. Better Flexibility and Coordination.Coordination. http://www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid=56&ArticleID=5
  • 39. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Periodisation examplePeriodisation example  Training ProgramTraining Program  Period 1 :Period 1 : June - September.June - September. (Preparation period 1).(Preparation period 1). Program June:Program June: Main Effect:Main Effect: Maximum Strength.Maximum Strength. Secondary: GeneralSecondary: General Endurance.Endurance. Program July:Program July: Main Effect:Main Effect: Maximum Strength andMaximum Strength and General Endurance.General Endurance. http://www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid=56&ArticleID=5
  • 40. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Periodisation example.Periodisation example.  Period 2 :Period 2 :  October - NovemberOctober - November (Preparation period 2).(Preparation period 2). Program Oct &Program Oct & Nov:Nov: Main Effect:Main Effect: General EnduranceGeneral Endurance and Muscularand Muscular Endurance.Endurance. http://www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid=56&ArticleID=5
  • 41. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Periodisation example.Periodisation example.  Period 3 :Period 3 :  December (Pre-December (Pre- competition period).competition period). ProgramProgram December:December: MainMain Effect: Basic SpecificEffect: Basic Specific Endurance andEndurance and Rowing Technique.Rowing Technique. http://www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid=56&ArticleID=5
  • 42. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Periodisation example.Periodisation example.  Period 4 :Period 4 :  January - April (CompetitionJanuary - April (Competition period).period). Program weeks withoutProgram weeks without competition:competition: Main Effect:Main Effect: Increased Specific Endurance.Increased Specific Endurance.  Program weeks withProgram weeks with competition:competition: Main Effect:Main Effect: "Super-Compensation" effect"Super-Compensation" effect and Race preparationand Race preparation Program "Peak" forProgram "Peak" for Championships orChampionships or Important Regatta:Important Regatta: MainMain Effect: "Peak" for theEffect: "Peak" for the Championships.Championships. http://www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid=56&ArticleID=5
  • 43. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Periodisation examplePeriodisation example  Period 5 :Period 5 :  May (RecoveryMay (Recovery period).period). Program May:Program May: MainMain Effect: ActiveEffect: Active recovery.recovery. http://www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid=56&ArticleID=5
  • 44. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Training methods.-Short IntervalTraining methods.-Short Interval  Short interval involvesShort interval involves work periods up to twowork periods up to two minutes and rests thatminutes and rests that are so short that oxygenare so short that oxygen uptake and the pulse (inuptake and the pulse (in the rest) does notthe rest) does not decrease appreciablydecrease appreciably before the start of thebefore the start of the next work period.next work period. http://www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid=56&ArticleID=5
  • 45. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Training methods.-Long IntervalTraining methods.-Long Interval  Long interval involvesLong interval involves work period from twowork period from two minutes and up to 10-15minutes and up to 10-15 minutes, and rest lengthsminutes, and rest lengths such that work intensitysuch that work intensity can be maintainedcan be maintained approximately constantapproximately constant during each work period.during each work period. http://www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid=56&ArticleID=5
  • 46. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Training methods.-IntervalTraining methods.-Interval  The short interval isThe short interval is very important duringvery important during the regatta season tothe regatta season to keep a good quantitykeep a good quantity of training in the rightof training in the right area of race velocity,area of race velocity, and use of stroke rateand use of stroke rate valid for competition.valid for competition. http://www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid=56&ArticleID=5
  • 47. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Training methods.-ContinuousTraining methods.-Continuous  Aerobic training withAerobic training with metabolic balance.metabolic balance. Energy covered 100%Energy covered 100% aerobic or with a smallaerobic or with a small amount of anaerobicamount of anaerobic capacity involved, butcapacity involved, but without accumulatedwithout accumulated production of acid lactate.production of acid lactate. This can be completed inThis can be completed in the boat or on an ERG.the boat or on an ERG. http://www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid=56&ArticleID=5
  • 48. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Training methods.-FartlekTraining methods.-Fartlek  Training according to theTraining according to the interval principle, ofinterval principle, of relatively long duration (8-relatively long duration (8- 12 km), with improvised12 km), with improvised alteration between high andalteration between high and low intensity, and with thelow intensity, and with the main purpose of increasingmain purpose of increasing or maintaining aerobicor maintaining aerobic endurance. Gives a goodendurance. Gives a good opportunity to control theopportunity to control the technique during differenttechnique during different level of intensity.level of intensity. http://www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid=56&ArticleID=5
  • 49. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Training methods.-AgeTraining methods.-Age dependant.dependant.  Junior rowers should haveJunior rowers should have passed the "Puberty" andpassed the "Puberty" and have a settled body beforehave a settled body before they start withthey start with heavyheavy weight trainingweight training. The best. The best period to improve muscleperiod to improve muscle volume and strength seemsvolume and strength seems to be between 18 and 23to be between 18 and 23 years. For younger rowersyears. For younger rowers their own "bodyweight" cantheir own "bodyweight" can be used as load.be used as load. CircuitCircuit training and endurancetraining and endurance training is preferred.training is preferred. http://www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid=56&ArticleID=5
  • 50. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Training methods-ResistanceTraining methods-Resistance training.training.  Olympic rowing coach Terry O’Neil believes that a weightOlympic rowing coach Terry O’Neil believes that a weight training programme for his sport should mirror actualtraining programme for his sport should mirror actual race requirements as closely as possible (a principle thatrace requirements as closely as possible (a principle that should always be adhered to regardless of sport). Thisshould always be adhered to regardless of sport). This means that:means that:  The exercises selected must be relevant to rowing;The exercises selected must be relevant to rowing;  They must be performed ultimately at a pace equivalentThey must be performed ultimately at a pace equivalent to the actual stroke;to the actual stroke;  They must create conditions that mirror the heart rateThey must create conditions that mirror the heart rate levels sustained during a 2K race andlevels sustained during a 2K race and  Reflect the time it takes to complete the race distance.Reflect the time it takes to complete the race distance. http://www.pponline.co.uk/encyc/1024.htm
  • 51. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Acute and chronic effects ofAcute and chronic effects of exercise.exercise.  No matter what you choose as aNo matter what you choose as a sport/activity/focus you will need tosport/activity/focus you will need to monitor some of the acute and chronicmonitor some of the acute and chronic effects of exercise. In terms of acute aneffects of exercise. In terms of acute an example would be working out whatexample would be working out what intensity you are working at. In terms ofintensity you are working at. In terms of chronic effects you can work out whatchronic effects you can work out what types of gains you have made eg VOtypes of gains you have made eg VO22 Max or Muscle strength.Max or Muscle strength.
  • 52. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited ApplicationApplication  All the examples have given a specific sport orAll the examples have given a specific sport or physical activity as a focus. Your applicationphysical activity as a focus. Your application may not be based on a specific sport or activity,may not be based on a specific sport or activity, but rather based on specific components etc…but rather based on specific components etc… Therefore your principles of training, methods ofTherefore your principles of training, methods of training, and exercise physiology knowledgetraining, and exercise physiology knowledge should be based on these. There is strong linksshould be based on these. There is strong links between your goals setting and your application.between your goals setting and your application.
  • 53. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited What should I consider whenWhat should I consider when planning a programme?planning a programme?  What time period (duration) do I have available toWhat time period (duration) do I have available to complete the programme?complete the programme?  What are my goals?What are my goals?  How can I best achieve these goals and measure this?How can I best achieve these goals and measure this?  What training principles will I apply and how?What training principles will I apply and how?  What components of fitness are my focus and whatWhat components of fitness are my focus and what methods best apply for improvement in thesemethods best apply for improvement in these components?components?  What energy systems are relevant to the focus/goals IWhat energy systems are relevant to the focus/goals I am trying to achieve?am trying to achieve?  What methods will I apply and how?What methods will I apply and how?
  • 54. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited What should I consider whenWhat should I consider when planning a programme?planning a programme?  What acute and chronic effects of exercise can IWhat acute and chronic effects of exercise can I measure and use to show improvement and success ofmeasure and use to show improvement and success of achieving goals?achieving goals?  What components of fitness can I measure and use toWhat components of fitness can I measure and use to show improvement and success of achieving goals?show improvement and success of achieving goals?  If I am focussing on a sport activity I compete in whatIf I am focussing on a sport activity I compete in what stage of the training year am I at?stage of the training year am I at?  What already occurs in my life that may impact on thisWhat already occurs in my life that may impact on this programme?programme?  How can I best manage these influences (positive orHow can I best manage these influences (positive or negative)?negative)?  How do I fit in current physical activity into the trainingHow do I fit in current physical activity into the training without overtraining?without overtraining?
  • 55. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited If I am required to evaluate/critically evaluateIf I am required to evaluate/critically evaluate this programme what should I consider?this programme what should I consider?  Consider all the aims/ goals and you made inConsider all the aims/ goals and you made in planning.planning.  Consider success/difficulties of trainingConsider success/difficulties of training principles, methods of training, components ofprinciples, methods of training, components of fitness etc…fitness etc…  Monitoring as you go so that you have specificMonitoring as you go so that you have specific information to support/justify statementsinformation to support/justify statements  Consider Biophysical aspects as well as socio-Consider Biophysical aspects as well as socio- cultural eg barriers, enablers, outside influences.cultural eg barriers, enablers, outside influences.  ““Healthism” and the ideologies the programme isHealthism” and the ideologies the programme is based on.based on.
  • 56. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited If I am required to evaluate/critically evaluateIf I am required to evaluate/critically evaluate this programme what should I consider?this programme what should I consider?  In terms of modifications for the future or ifIn terms of modifications for the future or if you did it again, look at all the knowledgeyou did it again, look at all the knowledge you have gained over the module andyou have gained over the module and decide if you applied this knowledgedecide if you applied this knowledge successfully/appropriately. If you think thatsuccessfully/appropriately. If you think that you could have done some things better,you could have done some things better, what and how?what and how?
  • 57. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited AssessmentAssessment  If this knowledge is being applied forIf this knowledge is being applied for assessment purposes you will be givenassessment purposes you will be given this kind of guidance. However, it isthis kind of guidance. However, it is important to monitor as you go to ensureimportant to monitor as you go to ensure relevant knowledge is applied andrelevant knowledge is applied and evaluated.evaluated.
  • 58. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited BibliographyBibliography  WebsitesWebsites  BooksBooks http://www.inet.hr/~davgolub/planing.htm http://www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid=56&ArticleID=5 http://www.pponline.co.uk/encyc/1024.htm VCE Physical Education Book 2 (1999)VCE Physical Education Book 2 (1999)