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States of Matter Matter exists in 4 states: SOLID, LIQUID, GAS, PLASMA Particles move more The state of the matter depends on its temperature.
Kinetic Theory of Matter All matter is made up of tiny particles that are in constant motion.  EVEN SOLIDS, except their tiny particles move more slowly than liquids, gases or plasmas.
States of Matter SOLID = Definite shape &volume LIQUID = NO definite shape but has definite volume ! GAS = NO definite shape or  volume
SOLIDS Tiny particles in solids are held very close together, but they still vibrate.  Thus, solids maintain their shape and volume
LIQUIDS Tiny particles in liquids are held close together, but they can move around one another.  Thus, liquids can change shape but their volume DOESN’T CHANGE
GASES Tiny particles in gases have enough energy to separate and move around in all directions.  Thus, gases take the shape of their containers AND can be compressed or expanded.
PLASMA A gas-like mixture of positively and negatively charged particles. This state of matter doesn’t occur naturally on earth.
Thermal Expansion The characteristic of matter whereby it expands as it gets hotter and contracts as it cools. Ex: liquid in thermometers Ex:  guitar strings? Others?
Energy Temp solid liquid melts gas (vaporization) condenses freezes + energy - energy Phase Changes
Heat Needed to Change State Heat of Fusion-  amount of energy needed to change solid to liquid. 2.Heat of Vaporization-  Amount of energy needed to change liquid to gas.
Energy Temp solid liquid melts gas (vaporization) Heat of Fusion Heat of Vap.
Solid-Liquid Phase Change Melting- Change of a solid to a liquid. Occurs when a substance absorbs energy (heat). Melting point - Temp. at  which a solid changes to a  liquid. ex. H 2 O = 0 0 C
Liquid-Solid Phase Change Freezing- Change of a liquid to a solid. Occurs when a liquid loses heat (energy). Freezing Point- The temp. at which a substance  changes from a liquid to a  solid. ex. H 2 O = 0 0 C
Liquid-Gas Phase Change Vaporization- The change of a substance from a liquid to a gas. Occurs when the particles of a liquid absorb energy (heat). Evaporation- When  vaporization takes place at the surface of the liquid.
Liquid-Gas Phase Change Boiling- Process in which particles inside a liquid as well as those on the surface of a liquid change to gas. Boiling Point- Temp. at  which a substance changes from the liquid phase to the gas phase.
Gas-Liquid Phase Change Condensation- A change  from the gas to the liquid phase.  Occurs when a substance in the gas phase loses energy (heat).
Solid - Gas Phase Change Sublimation- When the surface particles of a solid escape directly into the gas phase.
The Ideal Gas Laws: Boyle’s Law- The volume of  a fixed amount of gas varies inversely with the pressure  of a gas. As the pressure  increases the volume of the gas decreases and vice-versa. P 1 V 1  = P 2 V 2
The Ideal Gas Laws: Charles’s Law- As the temp. of a gas increases the  volume increases.  As the temp. of a gas decreases the volume decreases. T 1 V 2  = T 2 V 1
Boyle’ Law With a fixed amount of gas, when the ___________ is  increased, the volume ____________. When the  ___________ is decreased, the volume ___________. pressure decreases pressure increases
Charle’s Law With a fixed amount of gas, when the _______ is increased the volume ___________. When the _______ is decreased the volume ___________. temp. increases temp. decreases

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Physical Science Chapter 8

  • 1. States of Matter Matter exists in 4 states: SOLID, LIQUID, GAS, PLASMA Particles move more The state of the matter depends on its temperature.
  • 2. Kinetic Theory of Matter All matter is made up of tiny particles that are in constant motion. EVEN SOLIDS, except their tiny particles move more slowly than liquids, gases or plasmas.
  • 3. States of Matter SOLID = Definite shape &volume LIQUID = NO definite shape but has definite volume ! GAS = NO definite shape or volume
  • 4. SOLIDS Tiny particles in solids are held very close together, but they still vibrate. Thus, solids maintain their shape and volume
  • 5. LIQUIDS Tiny particles in liquids are held close together, but they can move around one another. Thus, liquids can change shape but their volume DOESN’T CHANGE
  • 6. GASES Tiny particles in gases have enough energy to separate and move around in all directions. Thus, gases take the shape of their containers AND can be compressed or expanded.
  • 7. PLASMA A gas-like mixture of positively and negatively charged particles. This state of matter doesn’t occur naturally on earth.
  • 8. Thermal Expansion The characteristic of matter whereby it expands as it gets hotter and contracts as it cools. Ex: liquid in thermometers Ex: guitar strings? Others?
  • 9. Energy Temp solid liquid melts gas (vaporization) condenses freezes + energy - energy Phase Changes
  • 10. Heat Needed to Change State Heat of Fusion- amount of energy needed to change solid to liquid. 2.Heat of Vaporization- Amount of energy needed to change liquid to gas.
  • 11. Energy Temp solid liquid melts gas (vaporization) Heat of Fusion Heat of Vap.
  • 12. Solid-Liquid Phase Change Melting- Change of a solid to a liquid. Occurs when a substance absorbs energy (heat). Melting point - Temp. at which a solid changes to a liquid. ex. H 2 O = 0 0 C
  • 13. Liquid-Solid Phase Change Freezing- Change of a liquid to a solid. Occurs when a liquid loses heat (energy). Freezing Point- The temp. at which a substance changes from a liquid to a solid. ex. H 2 O = 0 0 C
  • 14. Liquid-Gas Phase Change Vaporization- The change of a substance from a liquid to a gas. Occurs when the particles of a liquid absorb energy (heat). Evaporation- When vaporization takes place at the surface of the liquid.
  • 15. Liquid-Gas Phase Change Boiling- Process in which particles inside a liquid as well as those on the surface of a liquid change to gas. Boiling Point- Temp. at which a substance changes from the liquid phase to the gas phase.
  • 16. Gas-Liquid Phase Change Condensation- A change from the gas to the liquid phase. Occurs when a substance in the gas phase loses energy (heat).
  • 17. Solid - Gas Phase Change Sublimation- When the surface particles of a solid escape directly into the gas phase.
  • 18. The Ideal Gas Laws: Boyle’s Law- The volume of a fixed amount of gas varies inversely with the pressure of a gas. As the pressure increases the volume of the gas decreases and vice-versa. P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2
  • 19. The Ideal Gas Laws: Charles’s Law- As the temp. of a gas increases the volume increases. As the temp. of a gas decreases the volume decreases. T 1 V 2 = T 2 V 1
  • 20. Boyle’ Law With a fixed amount of gas, when the ___________ is increased, the volume ____________. When the ___________ is decreased, the volume ___________. pressure decreases pressure increases
  • 21. Charle’s Law With a fixed amount of gas, when the _______ is increased the volume ___________. When the _______ is decreased the volume ___________. temp. increases temp. decreases