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Research Methodology
               Joey Phuah
Classification of Research Method
1. Quantitative Method
• Collection and analysis of numerical data to describe,
   explain, predict or control phenomenon of interest

2. Qualitative Method
• Collection, analysis and interpretation of comprehensive
   narrative and visual (i.e. non-numerical) data to gain insight
   into a particular phenomenon of interest
• Also know as interpretive research, naturalistic inquiry or
   field-oriented research
• Keywords that associated with qualitative research include
   complexity, contextual, exploration, discovery and inductive
   logic
Overview of Quantitative and
    Qualitative Research Characteristics
                            Quantitative Research                 Qualitative Research
                                                                  Non-numerical narrative and visual
Type of data collect        Numerical data
                                                                  data
Period of data collection   Shorter period                        Longer period
                                                                  Research problems and methods
                            Hypothesis and research
Research Problem                                                  evolve as understanding of topic
                            procedures stated before
                                                                  deepens
Manipulation of context     Yes                                   No
                                                                  Relies on categorizing and
                                                                  organizing data into patterns to
Research procedures         Relies on statistical procedures
                                                                  produce a descriptive, narrative
                                                                  synthesis
Participant interaction     Little interaction                    Extensive interaction

Underlying belief           We live in a stable and predictable   Meaning is situated in a particular
                            world that we can measure,            perspective or context that is
                            understand and generalize about       different for people and groups;
                                                                  therefore, the world has many
                                                                  meanings
Research Method

A. Quantitative Research Method also called
   Positivism
B. Qualitative Research Method also called
   Interpretivism
C. Mixed Method Research also called
   Pragmativism
A. Quantitative Research Method (Positivism)

• Several types of quantitative research
1. Survey Research
2. Correlational research
3. Causal-comparative research
4. Experimental research
5. Single-subject research
1. Survey Research
• Collecting numerical data to test hypotheses
  or answer questions about the current status
  of the subject of study.
• Assessing the preferences, attitudes,
  perceptions, practices, concerns or interests of
  a group of people
• Data are mainly collected through
  questionnaires, interviews or observations
1. Survey Research
• Find out the preferences, etc…
• Use SPSS program to analysis the data
• 1000 participants are the norm – if you need 1000
  participants, you need to send out 2500 survey
  instruments as the return rate was approximately 40%.
• Arrange the statements to some positive statement and
  some negative statement to minimize the problem of
  some participants that just circle all the same number –
  so they have to read before answer
• Report in the writing report the limitation of the survey
  method and the number of incomplete and number to
  send out
1. Survey Research
• Major challenges: Participants
(i) Failure to return questionnaires
(ii) Willingness to be surveyed over the phone
(iii) Ability to attend scheduled interviews

•   If the response rate is low, researcher unable
    to draw valid trustworthy conclusions
1. Survey Research
• Use four-point Likert Scale items ranging from
  Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree
• Try to avoid “neutral”, “not sure”, “undecided”
• Call the participants if incomplete and your
  target is not meet, but is have more than
  enough, then just forget about it.
1. Survey Research
• Examples of research questions that can be
     examined with survey research:
(i) How do university students spend their leisure
     time?
(ii) How will citizens of Malaysia vote in the next
     general election?

•   Could you think of other research questions
    that can be investigated with survey research?
2. Correlational research
• Collecting data to ascertain:
(i) Whether a relation exist between two or more
     variables and
(ii) To what degree the relation exists

•   The degree of relation is expressed as a
    correlation coefficient (a value ranging from 1.00
    to +1.00)

                       -1 < r < 1
                  0 = no relationship
2. Correlational research




 -1               0               -1

X↑,Y↓                         X↑,Y↑
X↓,Y↑                         X↓,Y↓
2. Correlational research
• Two variables that are not related have a correlation
  coefficient of zero
• A correlation coefficient near +1.00 indicates a highly/
  strongly positive correlation
• A correlation coefficient near 1.00 indicates a highly/
  strongly negative correlation
• A positive correlation: As the value of one variable
  increases, the value of other variable also increases. E.g.,
  students with higher scores in mathematics also have
  higher scores in physics
• A negative correlation: As the value of one variable
  increases, the value of other variable decreases. E.g.,
  students with high CGPA have the least likelihood of
  dropping out.
2. Correlational research
• Results of correlational studies do not suggest cause-
  effect relations among variables
• A positive correlation between scores in mathematics
  and scores in physics DOES NOT imply that scores in
  mathematics causes scores in physics or scores in
  physics causes scores in mathematics
• The positive correlation indicates only that students
  with higher scores in mathematics tend to have higher
  scores in physics and students with lower scores in
  mathematics tend to have lower scores in physics
• In correlational studies, we CANNOT conclude that one
  variable is the cause of the other.
2. Correlational research
• Examples of research questions that can be
  examined with correlational research:
1. What is the relation between IQ and self-
   esteem?
2. Does a statistic aptitude test predict success in a
   statistic course? (if the correlation is high, the
   aptitude test is a good predictor of success in a
   statistics)
• Could you think of the other research questions
   that can be investigated with correlational
   research?
2. Example of Correlational research
• Hawes, C.A, & Ploure, L. A (2005). Parental
  involvement and its influence on the reading
  achievement of sixth grade students. Reading
  Improvement, 42(I), 47 – 57
• Purpose of the study: To determine the relationship
  between reading achievement and parental
  involvement for sixth grade middle school students.
• Participants: 48 sixth grade students and their parents.
  They completed a parental involvement questionaire.
• Students’ reading level was determined by McLeod
  Reading Comprehension Test
• Data were analyzed using the Pearson Product-
  Moment Correlation
3. Causal-Comparative Research
• Attempts to determine the cause-effect relations
  among groups
• Attempts to determine the cause (or reason) for the
  existing differences in the behavior or status of groups
  of individuals
• The cause (i.e., the behavior or characteristic believed
  to influence some other behavior or characteristic) is
  known as the grouping variable. The effect or result
  (i.e., the change or difference in a behavior or
  characteristic) is known as the dependent variable
  (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2009,p.10)
3. Causal-Comparative Research
• A weakness of causal-comparative research: Other
  relevant variables (extraneous variables) that may
  affect the outcome (dependant variables) or the study
  are NOT controlled.
• Thus, causal-comparative research provides limited
  cause-effect information
• True cause-effect relations can be determined only
  through experimental research (Gay, Mills, & Airasian,
  2009, p.10)
• When experimental research is inappropriate or
  unethical, causal-comparative research is more
  appropriate. E.g., research on the effect of heavy
  smoking on lung cancer. It is unethical to ask one group
  of people to smoke heavily because of the potential
  harm to those who were forced to smoke
3. Causal-Comparative Research
• Example of research question that can be
  examined with causal-comparative research:
1. How does having a single-parent family affect a
   student’s academic achievement?
   (Grouping variable is the type of family: single-
   parent family and two-parent family. Dependent
   variable is academic achievement. The
   researcher identifies one group of students who
   comes from a single-parent family and another
   group of students who comes from a two-parent
   family and see it they differ in their
   achievement)
3. Example of Causal-Comparative Research

• Wolgemuth, J.R., Cobb, R B, Winokur, M. A.,
  Leech, N., & Ellerby, D. (2006) Comparing
  longitudinal academic achievement of full-day
  and half-day kindergarten students. The Journal
  of Educational Research, 99 (5), 260-269.
• Purpose of the study: Comparing mathematics
  and reading achievement of full day and half day
  kindergarten students
• Participants: 489 students who attended FDK and
  HDK in a Colorado city of United States.
4. Experimental Research
•    In experimental research, researcher manipulates at least one independent
     variable, controls other relevant variables (extraneous variables) that may affect
     the outcome (dependent variables) of the study and observes the effect on one or
     more dependent variables
•    The independent variable (IV) also know as treatment, causal or experimental
     variable is the treatment or characteristic believed to make a difference.

• E.g. of IVs:
1. Method of instruction
2. Type of reinforcement
3. Arrangement of learning environment
4. Type of learning materials
5. Length of treatment

•     3 types of experimental study
1.    Pre-experiment study
2.    True experiment study
3.    Quasi experiment study
4. Experimental Research
• The dependent variable (DV) also known as
  criterion, effect or posttest variable is the
  outcome of the study, the change or
  difference in groups that occurs as a result of
  the independent variable (IV)
• The DV can be measured by a test or some
  other quantitative measure (e.g., attendance,
  time on task)
Manipulation and Control
• Manipulation of an independent variable (IV). What does it
  mean? It means that the researcher choose the treatments
  and determines which group will receive which treatment
• Control refers to the researcher’s efforts to remove the
  influence of any variable (extraneous variable), other than
  the independent variable (IV), that may affect performance
  on dependent variable (DV) – can control other variables
  except independent variable
• In other words, in an experimental design, the groups
  should differ only on the independent variable (IV). E.g.,
  time of tutoring must be controlled (must be the same) in
  order to make a fair comparison of the effectiveness of
  tutoring of peer tutors and parent tutors
4. Experimental Research
• In experimental research, the researchers compare the
  effects of different treatment (or treatment versus no
  treatment) on two or more groups of people
• True experimental research provides the strongest
  results of any of the quantitative research approaches
  because it provides clear evidence for linking variables
  (Gay, Mills & Airasian, 2009, p.11)
• True experimental research also provides
  generalizabilty (i.e. applicability of findings to other
  settings and contexts)
4. Experimental Research
• Example of research question that can be
  examined with experimental research
• Is constructivist teaching method more effective
  for increasing students’ mathematics
  achievement than traditional teaching method?
  (The IV is type of teaching method: constructivist
  and traditional. The DV is mathematics
  achievement)
• Could you think of other research questions that
  can be investigated with experimental research?
4. Example of an Experimental Research
• Xin, Y.P., Jitendra, A.K, & Deatline-Buchman, A. (2005).
  Effects of mathematical word problem-solving instruction
  on middle school students with learning problems. The
  Journal of Special Education, 39 (3), 181-192.
• Purpose of the study: Examine the effects of two word
  problem-solving instruction approaches (schema-based
  instruction & general strategy instruction) on the
  mathematical word problem-solving performance of
  middle school students with learning problems
• Participants: 22 students with learning problems

  (the more the participants, the effect size will be larger –
  normally is 50 – 100 participants on classroom size)
5. Single Subject Research
• In single subject research, the researchers compare a
  single person’s behavior before treatment to behavior
  exhibited during the experiment
• May also study a number of people together as one
  group
• In single-subject experimental designs, the researchers
  study the behavior change that an individual or group
  exhibits as a result of some intervention or treatment
  (Gay, Mills & Airasian, 2009, p.11). In these designs, the
  size of the sample is considered as one – one group
5. Example of a Single Subject Research
• Hughes, C.A., Ruhl, K.L.Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D.
  (2002). Effects of instruction in an assignment completion
  strategy on the homework performance of students with
  learning disabilities in general education. Learning
  Disabilities Research and Practice, 17 (1), 1-18.
• Purpose of the study: Determine how instruction in a
  comprehensive, independent assignment completion
  strategy affected the quality of homework and the
  homework completion rate of students with learning
  disabilities
• Participants: 8 students with learning disabilities - one
  group
• Design: used single-subject experimental design
Research Method

A. Quantitative Research Method also called
   Positivism
B. Qualitative Research Method also called
   Interpretivism
C. Mixed Method Research also called
   Pragmativism
B. Qualitative Research Method (Interpretivism)

• Several types of quanlitative research
1. Case study research
2. Ethnographic research (or ethnography)
3. Ethology research
4. Ethnomethodology research
5. Grounded theory research
6. Phenomenology research
7. Symbolic interaction research
8. Historical research
9. Narrative research
Example
• Identify the types of qualitative research for each of
  the following statement
1. Studies that describe the lives of individuals –
   narrative
2. Studies that focus in depth on a group’s cultural
   patterns and perspectives to understand participants’
   behavior and their context – ethnographic
3. Studies that derive theory using multiple steps of data
   collection and interpretation that link actions of
   participants to general social science theory or work
   inductively to arrive at a theory that explains a
   particular phenomenon – grounded theory
Example
4. Studies that look for common understandings
  that have emerged to give meaning to
  participants’ interactions – symbolic
  interaction
5. Studies that examine how multiple cultures
  compare to one another – ethology
6. Studies that focus on capturing the
  experience of an activity or concept from
  participants’ perspective – phenomenology
Example
7. Studies that focus on the exploration of
  phenomena that occur within a bounded
  system (e.g., a person, event, program, life
  cycle) – case study
8. Studies that seek to understand the past by
  studying documents, relics and interviews. –
  historical
9. Studies that examine people’s understanding
  of their daily activities – ethnometadology
1. Case Study Research

• Researchers focus on a unit of study or bounded
  system (e.g., a student, a classroom, or a school is
  considered as a case) – as small group as one
  student.
• The term case study is also used for the product
  of case study research
• Case study research is appropriate when the
  researcher wants to answer a descriptive
  question (e.g., what happened?) or explanatory
  question (e.g., how or why did something
  happen?)
1. Case Study Research

• Example of research question that can be
  examined with case study research:

1. How do doctors and nurses manage and cope
   with multiple innovations?
1. Example of a Case Study Research

• Koerner, M.E., & Abdul-Tawwab, N. (2006). Using
  community as a resource for teacher education: A
  case study: Equality and Execellence in Education,
  39, 37-46.
• Purpose of the study: Examine the processes of
  using a community organization to lead the
  discussion and obstacles inherent to university
  settings
• Duration and sites: About two years (or four
  semesters) at a university and a neighboring
  community
2. Ethnographic Research (or ethnography)

• Examine the cultural patterns and perspectives of
  participants in their natural settings (e.g., a
  village, college, office)
• Focuses on a particular site or sites that provide
  the researcher with a context in which to study
  both the setting and the participants who inhabit
  it
• The participants are observed as they take part in
  naturally occurring activities within the setting
2. Ethnographic Research (or ethnography)

• Example of research question that can be
  examined with ethnographic research:

1. What is the working culture of managers in a
   multinational company?
2. Example of an Ethnographic Research (or ethnography)

 • Lenski, S. D., Crawford, K, Crumplet, T, & Stallworth, C.
   (2005). Preparing preservice teachers in a diverse
   world. Action in Teacher Education, 27 (3), 3-12.
 • Purpose of the study: Provide a more adequate
   preparation for working in high-need schools by
   assisting educators in the development of “habits of
   mind” that incorporate an understanding and valuing
   of students’ culture and a recognition of the need to
   consider those cultures in teaching practices.
 • Participants: 28 preservice teachers who enrolled in an
   elementary education program
3. Historical Research

• Focuses primarily on the past
• Some aspect of the past is studied by perusing documents
  of the period, by examining relics, or by interviewing
  individuals who lived during the time (Fraenkel & Wallen,
  2010, p.534)
• An attempt is then made to reconstruct what happened
  during that time as completely and as accurately as
  possible and (usually) to explained why it happened-
  although this can never be fully accomplished since
  information from and about the past is always incomplete
  (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2010, p.534)
• Attempt to describe, explain and understand actions or
  events that happened in the past.
3. Historical Research

• Primary sources (Berger, 2011, p.161):
1. Newspaper articles
2. Records from diaries
3. Data from diaries
4. Speeches
5. Interviews
6. Autobiographies – write something on
   him/herself
3. Historical Research

• Secondary sources (Berger, 2011, p.161):
1. Articles by other historians
2. Articles and books by scholars
3. Idea from philosophers
4. Editorials
5. Commentaries
6. Biographies – write something on other
   person life
3. Historical Research

• Example of research questions that can be
  examined with historical research:

1. How were students educated in Malaysia
   during the British colonization?
2. What has been the role of the federal
   government of Malaysia in education?
3. Example of a Historical Research

• Fox, V.C. (2000) Lydia Ann Stow: Self-
  actualization in a period of transition. Journal
  of Psychology, 28 (1), 62-71
• Focus of the study: Attempt to describe a
  nineteenth-century women who made a
  significant impact on education.
4. Narrative Research

• The study of how people experience the world
  around them
• It allows people to tell the stories of their life
• The researcher typically focuses on a single
  person and gathers data by collecting stories
  about the person’s life. The researcher and
  participant then construct a written account,
  know as a narrative about the individual’s
  experience and the meanings the individual
  attributes to the experiences (Gay, Mills &
  Airasian, 2009, p.12)
4. Example of a Narrative Research

• Kim, Jeng-Hee (2006, August 15). For whom the school
  bell tolls: Conflicting voices inside an alternative high
  school. International Journal of Education & the Arts,
  7(6). Retrieved December 27, 2011, from
  http://www.ijea.org/v7n6/index .html
• Purpose of the study: Provide readers with vicarious
  access to tensions that exist in an alternative school, so
  that they may engage in questioning the nature and
  purpose of these spaces.
• Participants: A principal, teacher, male student, female
  student and school security guard.
Research Method

A. Quantitative Research Method also called
   Positivism
B. Qualitative Research Method also called
   Interpretivism
C. Mixed Method Research also called
   Pragmativism
C. Mixed Method Research (Pragmativism)

• Integrating quantitative and qualitative methods in a
  single study
• Build on the synergy and strength that exists between
  quantitative and qualitative research methods to
  understand a phenomenon more fully than is possible
  using either quantitative or qualitative methods alone
  (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2009, p.462)
• Provide an understanding both broad (e.g., from survey
  results) and deep (e.g., from interview data)
• Not possible to achieve such and understanding
  through a quantitative or qualitative design alone
C. Mixed Method Research (Pragmativism)

• Three common types of mixed methods research
  designs (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2009, p.463)
1. The QUAL – quan model
2. The QUAN – qual model         Upper case
3. The QUAL – QUAN model                Lower case

• The method in uppercase letters is weighted
   more heavily (dominant) than the method in
   lowercase letters
• They are in balance when both methods are in
   uppercase
C. Mixed Method Research (Pragmativism)

                                               • Sample must be from the group
    Qualitative
                                               • The sample of QUAN must bigger than
                                                 QUAL or vice-versa




                                 Qualitative
                                                 Saturated – further to take the data/
    Mixed Method
                                                 interview won’t help you - so start
                                                 analysis


Qualitative – no formula to determine the number of sample

Quantitative will help if we have more number and there is a formula to determine
the number of sample to start off analysis whenever you get the data.
1. QUAL – quan Model

• Known as the sequential exploratory mixed
  methods designs
• Qualitative data are collected first
• Qualitative data are more heavily weighted
  (dominant) than quantitative data
• Phase 1 – using qualitative
• Phase 2 – using quantitative
2. QUAN – qual Model

• Known as the sequential explanatory mixed
  methods designs
• Quantitative data are collected first
• Quantitative data are more heavily weighted
  (dominant) than qualitative data
3. QUAL – QUAN Model

• Known as the concurrent triangulation mixed
  methods designs
• Quantitative and qualitative data are collected
  concurrently throughout the study
• Quantitative and qualitative data are equally
  weighted
• The strengths of the qualitative data offset the
  weaknesses of the quantitative data and vice
  versa
C. Example of Mixed Method Research (Pragmativism)

• Iglo, L.B., Riccomini, P.J, bruning, R.H, & Pope, G.G
  (2006). How should middle-school students with
  LD (learning disabilities) approach online note
  taking? A mixed methods study: Learning
  Disability Quarterly, 29, 89-100
• Using the QUAN-qual model
• Quantitative data were collected first from
  experimental enquiry
• Qualitative data were collected from interview
  and students’ notes
How to Identify Studies That Using Mixed Methods Designs?


• Through the following characteristic (Gay, Mills &
  Airasian, 2009, pg. 466-467)
1. The study title includes such terms as quantitative
   and qualitative, mixed methods, integrated, triangular
   or other terms that suggest a mixture of methods
2. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used in
   the study
3. The researcher describes the kinds of mixed methods
   applied
4. The data collection describes the kinds of data that
   are collected (narrative, numerical or both)
How to Identify Studies That Using Mixed Methods Designs?


5. The purpose statement or the researcher
  questions indicate the type(s) of method(s)
  used
6. Questions are stated and described for both
  quantitative and qualitative approaches.
7. The researcher indicates the preference given
  to quantitative or qualitative data collection
  techniques
How to Identify Studies That Using Mixed Methods Designs?


8. The researcher indicates the sequence in
  which quantitative, qualitative or both type of
  data were collected
9. The researcher describes how data were
  analyzed using both quantitative and
  qualitative strategies.
10. The writing is balanced in terms of
  quantitative and qualitative approaches
How to Evaluate A Mixed Methods Study?

• Through the following questions (Gay, Mills &
  Airasian, 2009, p.467)
1. Does the study include a rationale for using a
   mixed methods research design?
2. Is the correct type of mixed methods
   research design used?
3. Does the study appropriately use both
   quantitative and qualitative data collection
   method?
How to Evaluate A Mixed Methods Study?

4. Is the priority given quantitative and qualitative
    data collection and the sequence of their use
    reasonable, given the research question?
5. Was the study feasible given the amount of data
    to be collected and concomitant issues of
    resources, time and expertise?
6. Does the study clearly identify quantitative and
    qualitative data collection techniques?
7. Does the study use appropriate data analysis
    techniques for the type of mixed methods
    design?
Closure

• Research Methodology:
1. Quantitative methods
2. Qualitative methods
3. Mixed methods

•  The methodological history can be summarized as
   three waves (Punch, 2009, p.289)
1. The dominance of quantitative methods as wave 1
2. The emergence of qualitative methods as wave 2
3. The growth of mixed methods as wave 3
Closure

• Which method is more appropriate for your
  study? – depends of the nature of the study/
  topic
• The appropriate method for a given study is
  determined by the nature of the research
  question, topic or problem to be investigated
• Consider other factors as well (e.g., time and
  resources)

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Overview of Research Methodology

  • 1. Research Methodology Joey Phuah
  • 2. Classification of Research Method 1. Quantitative Method • Collection and analysis of numerical data to describe, explain, predict or control phenomenon of interest 2. Qualitative Method • Collection, analysis and interpretation of comprehensive narrative and visual (i.e. non-numerical) data to gain insight into a particular phenomenon of interest • Also know as interpretive research, naturalistic inquiry or field-oriented research • Keywords that associated with qualitative research include complexity, contextual, exploration, discovery and inductive logic
  • 3. Overview of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Characteristics Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Non-numerical narrative and visual Type of data collect Numerical data data Period of data collection Shorter period Longer period Research problems and methods Hypothesis and research Research Problem evolve as understanding of topic procedures stated before deepens Manipulation of context Yes No Relies on categorizing and organizing data into patterns to Research procedures Relies on statistical procedures produce a descriptive, narrative synthesis Participant interaction Little interaction Extensive interaction Underlying belief We live in a stable and predictable Meaning is situated in a particular world that we can measure, perspective or context that is understand and generalize about different for people and groups; therefore, the world has many meanings
  • 4. Research Method A. Quantitative Research Method also called Positivism B. Qualitative Research Method also called Interpretivism C. Mixed Method Research also called Pragmativism
  • 5. A. Quantitative Research Method (Positivism) • Several types of quantitative research 1. Survey Research 2. Correlational research 3. Causal-comparative research 4. Experimental research 5. Single-subject research
  • 6. 1. Survey Research • Collecting numerical data to test hypotheses or answer questions about the current status of the subject of study. • Assessing the preferences, attitudes, perceptions, practices, concerns or interests of a group of people • Data are mainly collected through questionnaires, interviews or observations
  • 7. 1. Survey Research • Find out the preferences, etc… • Use SPSS program to analysis the data • 1000 participants are the norm – if you need 1000 participants, you need to send out 2500 survey instruments as the return rate was approximately 40%. • Arrange the statements to some positive statement and some negative statement to minimize the problem of some participants that just circle all the same number – so they have to read before answer • Report in the writing report the limitation of the survey method and the number of incomplete and number to send out
  • 8. 1. Survey Research • Major challenges: Participants (i) Failure to return questionnaires (ii) Willingness to be surveyed over the phone (iii) Ability to attend scheduled interviews • If the response rate is low, researcher unable to draw valid trustworthy conclusions
  • 9. 1. Survey Research • Use four-point Likert Scale items ranging from Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree • Try to avoid “neutral”, “not sure”, “undecided” • Call the participants if incomplete and your target is not meet, but is have more than enough, then just forget about it.
  • 10. 1. Survey Research • Examples of research questions that can be examined with survey research: (i) How do university students spend their leisure time? (ii) How will citizens of Malaysia vote in the next general election? • Could you think of other research questions that can be investigated with survey research?
  • 11. 2. Correlational research • Collecting data to ascertain: (i) Whether a relation exist between two or more variables and (ii) To what degree the relation exists • The degree of relation is expressed as a correlation coefficient (a value ranging from 1.00 to +1.00) -1 < r < 1 0 = no relationship
  • 12. 2. Correlational research -1 0 -1 X↑,Y↓ X↑,Y↑ X↓,Y↑ X↓,Y↓
  • 13. 2. Correlational research • Two variables that are not related have a correlation coefficient of zero • A correlation coefficient near +1.00 indicates a highly/ strongly positive correlation • A correlation coefficient near 1.00 indicates a highly/ strongly negative correlation • A positive correlation: As the value of one variable increases, the value of other variable also increases. E.g., students with higher scores in mathematics also have higher scores in physics • A negative correlation: As the value of one variable increases, the value of other variable decreases. E.g., students with high CGPA have the least likelihood of dropping out.
  • 14. 2. Correlational research • Results of correlational studies do not suggest cause- effect relations among variables • A positive correlation between scores in mathematics and scores in physics DOES NOT imply that scores in mathematics causes scores in physics or scores in physics causes scores in mathematics • The positive correlation indicates only that students with higher scores in mathematics tend to have higher scores in physics and students with lower scores in mathematics tend to have lower scores in physics • In correlational studies, we CANNOT conclude that one variable is the cause of the other.
  • 15. 2. Correlational research • Examples of research questions that can be examined with correlational research: 1. What is the relation between IQ and self- esteem? 2. Does a statistic aptitude test predict success in a statistic course? (if the correlation is high, the aptitude test is a good predictor of success in a statistics) • Could you think of the other research questions that can be investigated with correlational research?
  • 16. 2. Example of Correlational research • Hawes, C.A, & Ploure, L. A (2005). Parental involvement and its influence on the reading achievement of sixth grade students. Reading Improvement, 42(I), 47 – 57 • Purpose of the study: To determine the relationship between reading achievement and parental involvement for sixth grade middle school students. • Participants: 48 sixth grade students and their parents. They completed a parental involvement questionaire. • Students’ reading level was determined by McLeod Reading Comprehension Test • Data were analyzed using the Pearson Product- Moment Correlation
  • 17. 3. Causal-Comparative Research • Attempts to determine the cause-effect relations among groups • Attempts to determine the cause (or reason) for the existing differences in the behavior or status of groups of individuals • The cause (i.e., the behavior or characteristic believed to influence some other behavior or characteristic) is known as the grouping variable. The effect or result (i.e., the change or difference in a behavior or characteristic) is known as the dependent variable (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2009,p.10)
  • 18. 3. Causal-Comparative Research • A weakness of causal-comparative research: Other relevant variables (extraneous variables) that may affect the outcome (dependant variables) or the study are NOT controlled. • Thus, causal-comparative research provides limited cause-effect information • True cause-effect relations can be determined only through experimental research (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2009, p.10) • When experimental research is inappropriate or unethical, causal-comparative research is more appropriate. E.g., research on the effect of heavy smoking on lung cancer. It is unethical to ask one group of people to smoke heavily because of the potential harm to those who were forced to smoke
  • 19. 3. Causal-Comparative Research • Example of research question that can be examined with causal-comparative research: 1. How does having a single-parent family affect a student’s academic achievement? (Grouping variable is the type of family: single- parent family and two-parent family. Dependent variable is academic achievement. The researcher identifies one group of students who comes from a single-parent family and another group of students who comes from a two-parent family and see it they differ in their achievement)
  • 20. 3. Example of Causal-Comparative Research • Wolgemuth, J.R., Cobb, R B, Winokur, M. A., Leech, N., & Ellerby, D. (2006) Comparing longitudinal academic achievement of full-day and half-day kindergarten students. The Journal of Educational Research, 99 (5), 260-269. • Purpose of the study: Comparing mathematics and reading achievement of full day and half day kindergarten students • Participants: 489 students who attended FDK and HDK in a Colorado city of United States.
  • 21. 4. Experimental Research • In experimental research, researcher manipulates at least one independent variable, controls other relevant variables (extraneous variables) that may affect the outcome (dependent variables) of the study and observes the effect on one or more dependent variables • The independent variable (IV) also know as treatment, causal or experimental variable is the treatment or characteristic believed to make a difference. • E.g. of IVs: 1. Method of instruction 2. Type of reinforcement 3. Arrangement of learning environment 4. Type of learning materials 5. Length of treatment • 3 types of experimental study 1. Pre-experiment study 2. True experiment study 3. Quasi experiment study
  • 22. 4. Experimental Research • The dependent variable (DV) also known as criterion, effect or posttest variable is the outcome of the study, the change or difference in groups that occurs as a result of the independent variable (IV) • The DV can be measured by a test or some other quantitative measure (e.g., attendance, time on task)
  • 23. Manipulation and Control • Manipulation of an independent variable (IV). What does it mean? It means that the researcher choose the treatments and determines which group will receive which treatment • Control refers to the researcher’s efforts to remove the influence of any variable (extraneous variable), other than the independent variable (IV), that may affect performance on dependent variable (DV) – can control other variables except independent variable • In other words, in an experimental design, the groups should differ only on the independent variable (IV). E.g., time of tutoring must be controlled (must be the same) in order to make a fair comparison of the effectiveness of tutoring of peer tutors and parent tutors
  • 24. 4. Experimental Research • In experimental research, the researchers compare the effects of different treatment (or treatment versus no treatment) on two or more groups of people • True experimental research provides the strongest results of any of the quantitative research approaches because it provides clear evidence for linking variables (Gay, Mills & Airasian, 2009, p.11) • True experimental research also provides generalizabilty (i.e. applicability of findings to other settings and contexts)
  • 25. 4. Experimental Research • Example of research question that can be examined with experimental research • Is constructivist teaching method more effective for increasing students’ mathematics achievement than traditional teaching method? (The IV is type of teaching method: constructivist and traditional. The DV is mathematics achievement) • Could you think of other research questions that can be investigated with experimental research?
  • 26. 4. Example of an Experimental Research • Xin, Y.P., Jitendra, A.K, & Deatline-Buchman, A. (2005). Effects of mathematical word problem-solving instruction on middle school students with learning problems. The Journal of Special Education, 39 (3), 181-192. • Purpose of the study: Examine the effects of two word problem-solving instruction approaches (schema-based instruction & general strategy instruction) on the mathematical word problem-solving performance of middle school students with learning problems • Participants: 22 students with learning problems (the more the participants, the effect size will be larger – normally is 50 – 100 participants on classroom size)
  • 27. 5. Single Subject Research • In single subject research, the researchers compare a single person’s behavior before treatment to behavior exhibited during the experiment • May also study a number of people together as one group • In single-subject experimental designs, the researchers study the behavior change that an individual or group exhibits as a result of some intervention or treatment (Gay, Mills & Airasian, 2009, p.11). In these designs, the size of the sample is considered as one – one group
  • 28. 5. Example of a Single Subject Research • Hughes, C.A., Ruhl, K.L.Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D. (2002). Effects of instruction in an assignment completion strategy on the homework performance of students with learning disabilities in general education. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 17 (1), 1-18. • Purpose of the study: Determine how instruction in a comprehensive, independent assignment completion strategy affected the quality of homework and the homework completion rate of students with learning disabilities • Participants: 8 students with learning disabilities - one group • Design: used single-subject experimental design
  • 29. Research Method A. Quantitative Research Method also called Positivism B. Qualitative Research Method also called Interpretivism C. Mixed Method Research also called Pragmativism
  • 30. B. Qualitative Research Method (Interpretivism) • Several types of quanlitative research 1. Case study research 2. Ethnographic research (or ethnography) 3. Ethology research 4. Ethnomethodology research 5. Grounded theory research 6. Phenomenology research 7. Symbolic interaction research 8. Historical research 9. Narrative research
  • 31. Example • Identify the types of qualitative research for each of the following statement 1. Studies that describe the lives of individuals – narrative 2. Studies that focus in depth on a group’s cultural patterns and perspectives to understand participants’ behavior and their context – ethnographic 3. Studies that derive theory using multiple steps of data collection and interpretation that link actions of participants to general social science theory or work inductively to arrive at a theory that explains a particular phenomenon – grounded theory
  • 32. Example 4. Studies that look for common understandings that have emerged to give meaning to participants’ interactions – symbolic interaction 5. Studies that examine how multiple cultures compare to one another – ethology 6. Studies that focus on capturing the experience of an activity or concept from participants’ perspective – phenomenology
  • 33. Example 7. Studies that focus on the exploration of phenomena that occur within a bounded system (e.g., a person, event, program, life cycle) – case study 8. Studies that seek to understand the past by studying documents, relics and interviews. – historical 9. Studies that examine people’s understanding of their daily activities – ethnometadology
  • 34. 1. Case Study Research • Researchers focus on a unit of study or bounded system (e.g., a student, a classroom, or a school is considered as a case) – as small group as one student. • The term case study is also used for the product of case study research • Case study research is appropriate when the researcher wants to answer a descriptive question (e.g., what happened?) or explanatory question (e.g., how or why did something happen?)
  • 35. 1. Case Study Research • Example of research question that can be examined with case study research: 1. How do doctors and nurses manage and cope with multiple innovations?
  • 36. 1. Example of a Case Study Research • Koerner, M.E., & Abdul-Tawwab, N. (2006). Using community as a resource for teacher education: A case study: Equality and Execellence in Education, 39, 37-46. • Purpose of the study: Examine the processes of using a community organization to lead the discussion and obstacles inherent to university settings • Duration and sites: About two years (or four semesters) at a university and a neighboring community
  • 37. 2. Ethnographic Research (or ethnography) • Examine the cultural patterns and perspectives of participants in their natural settings (e.g., a village, college, office) • Focuses on a particular site or sites that provide the researcher with a context in which to study both the setting and the participants who inhabit it • The participants are observed as they take part in naturally occurring activities within the setting
  • 38. 2. Ethnographic Research (or ethnography) • Example of research question that can be examined with ethnographic research: 1. What is the working culture of managers in a multinational company?
  • 39. 2. Example of an Ethnographic Research (or ethnography) • Lenski, S. D., Crawford, K, Crumplet, T, & Stallworth, C. (2005). Preparing preservice teachers in a diverse world. Action in Teacher Education, 27 (3), 3-12. • Purpose of the study: Provide a more adequate preparation for working in high-need schools by assisting educators in the development of “habits of mind” that incorporate an understanding and valuing of students’ culture and a recognition of the need to consider those cultures in teaching practices. • Participants: 28 preservice teachers who enrolled in an elementary education program
  • 40. 3. Historical Research • Focuses primarily on the past • Some aspect of the past is studied by perusing documents of the period, by examining relics, or by interviewing individuals who lived during the time (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2010, p.534) • An attempt is then made to reconstruct what happened during that time as completely and as accurately as possible and (usually) to explained why it happened- although this can never be fully accomplished since information from and about the past is always incomplete (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2010, p.534) • Attempt to describe, explain and understand actions or events that happened in the past.
  • 41. 3. Historical Research • Primary sources (Berger, 2011, p.161): 1. Newspaper articles 2. Records from diaries 3. Data from diaries 4. Speeches 5. Interviews 6. Autobiographies – write something on him/herself
  • 42. 3. Historical Research • Secondary sources (Berger, 2011, p.161): 1. Articles by other historians 2. Articles and books by scholars 3. Idea from philosophers 4. Editorials 5. Commentaries 6. Biographies – write something on other person life
  • 43. 3. Historical Research • Example of research questions that can be examined with historical research: 1. How were students educated in Malaysia during the British colonization? 2. What has been the role of the federal government of Malaysia in education?
  • 44. 3. Example of a Historical Research • Fox, V.C. (2000) Lydia Ann Stow: Self- actualization in a period of transition. Journal of Psychology, 28 (1), 62-71 • Focus of the study: Attempt to describe a nineteenth-century women who made a significant impact on education.
  • 45. 4. Narrative Research • The study of how people experience the world around them • It allows people to tell the stories of their life • The researcher typically focuses on a single person and gathers data by collecting stories about the person’s life. The researcher and participant then construct a written account, know as a narrative about the individual’s experience and the meanings the individual attributes to the experiences (Gay, Mills & Airasian, 2009, p.12)
  • 46. 4. Example of a Narrative Research • Kim, Jeng-Hee (2006, August 15). For whom the school bell tolls: Conflicting voices inside an alternative high school. International Journal of Education & the Arts, 7(6). Retrieved December 27, 2011, from http://www.ijea.org/v7n6/index .html • Purpose of the study: Provide readers with vicarious access to tensions that exist in an alternative school, so that they may engage in questioning the nature and purpose of these spaces. • Participants: A principal, teacher, male student, female student and school security guard.
  • 47. Research Method A. Quantitative Research Method also called Positivism B. Qualitative Research Method also called Interpretivism C. Mixed Method Research also called Pragmativism
  • 48. C. Mixed Method Research (Pragmativism) • Integrating quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study • Build on the synergy and strength that exists between quantitative and qualitative research methods to understand a phenomenon more fully than is possible using either quantitative or qualitative methods alone (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2009, p.462) • Provide an understanding both broad (e.g., from survey results) and deep (e.g., from interview data) • Not possible to achieve such and understanding through a quantitative or qualitative design alone
  • 49. C. Mixed Method Research (Pragmativism) • Three common types of mixed methods research designs (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2009, p.463) 1. The QUAL – quan model 2. The QUAN – qual model Upper case 3. The QUAL – QUAN model Lower case • The method in uppercase letters is weighted more heavily (dominant) than the method in lowercase letters • They are in balance when both methods are in uppercase
  • 50. C. Mixed Method Research (Pragmativism) • Sample must be from the group Qualitative • The sample of QUAN must bigger than QUAL or vice-versa Qualitative Saturated – further to take the data/ Mixed Method interview won’t help you - so start analysis Qualitative – no formula to determine the number of sample Quantitative will help if we have more number and there is a formula to determine the number of sample to start off analysis whenever you get the data.
  • 51. 1. QUAL – quan Model • Known as the sequential exploratory mixed methods designs • Qualitative data are collected first • Qualitative data are more heavily weighted (dominant) than quantitative data • Phase 1 – using qualitative • Phase 2 – using quantitative
  • 52. 2. QUAN – qual Model • Known as the sequential explanatory mixed methods designs • Quantitative data are collected first • Quantitative data are more heavily weighted (dominant) than qualitative data
  • 53. 3. QUAL – QUAN Model • Known as the concurrent triangulation mixed methods designs • Quantitative and qualitative data are collected concurrently throughout the study • Quantitative and qualitative data are equally weighted • The strengths of the qualitative data offset the weaknesses of the quantitative data and vice versa
  • 54. C. Example of Mixed Method Research (Pragmativism) • Iglo, L.B., Riccomini, P.J, bruning, R.H, & Pope, G.G (2006). How should middle-school students with LD (learning disabilities) approach online note taking? A mixed methods study: Learning Disability Quarterly, 29, 89-100 • Using the QUAN-qual model • Quantitative data were collected first from experimental enquiry • Qualitative data were collected from interview and students’ notes
  • 55. How to Identify Studies That Using Mixed Methods Designs? • Through the following characteristic (Gay, Mills & Airasian, 2009, pg. 466-467) 1. The study title includes such terms as quantitative and qualitative, mixed methods, integrated, triangular or other terms that suggest a mixture of methods 2. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used in the study 3. The researcher describes the kinds of mixed methods applied 4. The data collection describes the kinds of data that are collected (narrative, numerical or both)
  • 56. How to Identify Studies That Using Mixed Methods Designs? 5. The purpose statement or the researcher questions indicate the type(s) of method(s) used 6. Questions are stated and described for both quantitative and qualitative approaches. 7. The researcher indicates the preference given to quantitative or qualitative data collection techniques
  • 57. How to Identify Studies That Using Mixed Methods Designs? 8. The researcher indicates the sequence in which quantitative, qualitative or both type of data were collected 9. The researcher describes how data were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative strategies. 10. The writing is balanced in terms of quantitative and qualitative approaches
  • 58. How to Evaluate A Mixed Methods Study? • Through the following questions (Gay, Mills & Airasian, 2009, p.467) 1. Does the study include a rationale for using a mixed methods research design? 2. Is the correct type of mixed methods research design used? 3. Does the study appropriately use both quantitative and qualitative data collection method?
  • 59. How to Evaluate A Mixed Methods Study? 4. Is the priority given quantitative and qualitative data collection and the sequence of their use reasonable, given the research question? 5. Was the study feasible given the amount of data to be collected and concomitant issues of resources, time and expertise? 6. Does the study clearly identify quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques? 7. Does the study use appropriate data analysis techniques for the type of mixed methods design?
  • 60. Closure • Research Methodology: 1. Quantitative methods 2. Qualitative methods 3. Mixed methods • The methodological history can be summarized as three waves (Punch, 2009, p.289) 1. The dominance of quantitative methods as wave 1 2. The emergence of qualitative methods as wave 2 3. The growth of mixed methods as wave 3
  • 61. Closure • Which method is more appropriate for your study? – depends of the nature of the study/ topic • The appropriate method for a given study is determined by the nature of the research question, topic or problem to be investigated • Consider other factors as well (e.g., time and resources)