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ORGANIZATIONAL
DEVELOPMENT
BY, RADHA DEOSTHALEE
BHA 6th SEM
 INTRODUCTION:
• There is the organizational change which occurs over a long period of time and
requires considerable planning and implementation.
• OD is a long-term, more encompassing change approach meant to move the
entire organization to higher levels of functioning while improving greatly the
performance and satisfaction of organization members.
• OD is a system-wise process of data collection, diagnosis, action planning,
intervention, and evaluation aimed at:
1. Enhancing congruence among organizational structure,
process, strategy, people & culture.
2. Developing new and creative organizational solutions,
3. Developing the organizations self-renewing capacity.
 OD APPROACH HAS FOLLOWING
CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Planned Change.
2. Comprehensive Change.
3. Emphasis upon work groups.
4. Long-range Change.
5. Participation of a Change Agent.
6. Emphasis on Intervention.
7. Collaborative Management.
8. Organizational Culture.
9. Action Research.
 ORGANIZATIONAL TARGETS/ METHODS FOR
CHANGE:
TARGETS POSSIBLE CHANGE METHODS
1. Purpose and
Objectives
1. Clarify overall mission, modify existing objectives, use MBO.
2. Strategy 2. Modify strategic plans, operational plans, policies &
procedures.
3.Tasks 3. Modify job designs, use job enrichment.
4. Technology 4. Improve equipment's and facilities, improve methods and
work flows.
5. People 5. Modify selection criteria.
6. Structure 6. Modify job descriptions, organizational design, adjust co-
ordination mechanisms, modify distribution of authority.
 PREREQUISITES FOR OD:
1. Perceptions of organizational problems by key people and perceptions of
the relevance of the behavioural sciences in solving these problems.
2. The introduction into the system of a behavioural science consultant.
3. Initial top level involvement, or at least support from a higher echelon with
subsequent top management involvement.
4. Participation of intact work teams, including the formal leader.
5. The operationalising of the action research model.
6. Early successes, with expansion of the effort stemming from these
successes.
7. An open, educational philosophy about the theory and technology of OD.
 SITUATIONS APPROPRIATE FOR OD:
1. The organisations managerial strategy (e.g., communication
pattern, location of decision-making).
2. The culture of the organization (e.g., norms, values, power
structure).
3. Structure and role in the organization.
4. Intergroup collaboration.
5. Motivational levels of employees.
6. Trust and support among organisational members.
7. Synergistic solutions to problems.
 ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
TECHNIQUES:
1. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES (MBO):
 MBO is a technique designed to;
a) Increase the precision of the planning process at the
organizational level, and
b) Reduce the gap between employee and organizational goals.
GOAL SETTING
BY TOP
MANAGEMENT
SETTING
INDIVIDUAL
GOALS
AUTONOMY FOR
SELECTING MEANS
FOR GOAL
ACHIEVEMENT
REVIEW OF
PERFORMANCE
THE MBO CYCLE:
2. GRID TRAINING:
 Grid training seeks to promote organizational excellence by fostering
concern for production and concern for people.
 Working on the premise that most organisational problems stem from
poor communication and inadequate planning, Blake and Mouton
proposed a multistep process for improving organizations by
attempting to cultivate these skills.
STEP 1: GRID SEMINAR:
STEP
2:
TRAINING Key managers learn about grid concept and
how they are applied in a week long seminar
STEP
3:
TEAM DEVELOPMENT The trained managers bring their new
understanding of managerial grid concepts
to the work situation.
STEP
4:
INTER-GROUP
DEVELOPMENT
Focuses on organizational work groups to
improve co-ordination and co-operation.
STEP
5:
ORGANISATIONAL GOAL
SETTING
Top managers together create an ideal
model of the organisation.
STEP
6:
GOAL ATTAINMENT Organisation members seek to make the
ideal model a reality.
STEP
7:
STABILISATION Evaluation of results from all the phases
and focuses on areas of improvement.
3. SURVEY FEEDBACK:
It involves two basic activities:
1) Collecting data about the organisation through the use of
questionnaires, and
2) Conducting feedback meetings and workshops in which the
data are presented to organisational members.
Survey feedback is useful in as much as it helps bring about
changes in attitudes and perceptions of participants.
It supports team building which generates a positive feedback in
the organization.
The data is to
be collected
via
questionnaire
 Analysis
and
interpretation
of the
gathered data.
Identify
problems,
assess the
results and
draft solutions.
Managerial
meetings with
subordinates
to interpret
the solutions.
PROCESS OF SURVEY FEEDBACK.
4. TEAM BUILDING:
Team Building is the process of diagnosing and improving the
effectiveness of a work group with particular attention to
work procedures and inter-personal relationships within it,
especially the role of the leader in relation to other group
members.
Both the groups tasks procedures and its human interactions
are the subjects of study in team building.
Team building can be directed at 2 different types of teams of working groups :
a) FAMILY GROUP: Of the existing or permanent team made up of manager and
his subordinates;
b) SPECIAL GROUP: A new group which may have been created through a
merger or other structural change in the organization or formed to solve a specific
problem.
For both kinds of groups team building activities aim at :
1. Diagnosing the barriers through effective team performance
2. Improving task accomplishments
3. Improving relationships among team members.
4. Improving processes operative in the team such as communication and task
assignment.
5. SENSITIVITY TRAINING:
 Sensitivity training asks employees to interact in order to better
understand each other.
 Carrying out free communications and forming interpersonal
relationships are bound to improve their group experience as a
team, offering members the chance to unequivocally express
themselves in a safe and controlled workplace.
 Sensitivity training will not only increase awareness of self but also
awareness of others.
6. QUALITY OF WORK LIFE PROGRAMMES
(QWL):
1.WORK RESTRUCTURING
2.QUALITY CIRCLES (QCS)
 BENEFITS:
A. Increased Job Satisfaction.
B. Organisational Commitment.
C. Reduced Turnover among workforce.
D. Increased Productivity.
7. STRUCTURAL TECHNIQUES:
A. CHANGE THE ORGANISATIONS FORMAL STRUCTURE.
B. JOB DESIGN.
C. HUMAN RESOURCE PROGRAMMES (in training & career
development).
D. MODIFYING ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE.
 EFFECTIVENESS OF OD PROGRAMMING:
1.It is difficult to measure the number, nature and magnitude of
confounding variables.
2.Preintervention measures of behaviour are not taken.
3.Those doing the evaluations of OD programmes have a vested
interest in proving success.
 CONCLUSION:
 To conclude on the OD techniques they can be modified into 3 ways:
1. Research has shown that OD interventions tend to be more effective
among blue-collar employees than among white-collar ones.
2. Effectiveness of OD depends on the degree of support they receive
from top management.
3. OD can be influenced by using several techniques than just one
which helps organization in making necessary changes as changes in the
employee behaviour affects the organization as a whole.
THANK YOU..

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Organizational development

  • 2.  INTRODUCTION: • There is the organizational change which occurs over a long period of time and requires considerable planning and implementation. • OD is a long-term, more encompassing change approach meant to move the entire organization to higher levels of functioning while improving greatly the performance and satisfaction of organization members. • OD is a system-wise process of data collection, diagnosis, action planning, intervention, and evaluation aimed at:
  • 3. 1. Enhancing congruence among organizational structure, process, strategy, people & culture. 2. Developing new and creative organizational solutions, 3. Developing the organizations self-renewing capacity.
  • 4.  OD APPROACH HAS FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS: 1. Planned Change. 2. Comprehensive Change. 3. Emphasis upon work groups. 4. Long-range Change. 5. Participation of a Change Agent. 6. Emphasis on Intervention. 7. Collaborative Management. 8. Organizational Culture. 9. Action Research.
  • 5.  ORGANIZATIONAL TARGETS/ METHODS FOR CHANGE: TARGETS POSSIBLE CHANGE METHODS 1. Purpose and Objectives 1. Clarify overall mission, modify existing objectives, use MBO. 2. Strategy 2. Modify strategic plans, operational plans, policies & procedures. 3.Tasks 3. Modify job designs, use job enrichment. 4. Technology 4. Improve equipment's and facilities, improve methods and work flows. 5. People 5. Modify selection criteria. 6. Structure 6. Modify job descriptions, organizational design, adjust co- ordination mechanisms, modify distribution of authority.
  • 6.  PREREQUISITES FOR OD: 1. Perceptions of organizational problems by key people and perceptions of the relevance of the behavioural sciences in solving these problems. 2. The introduction into the system of a behavioural science consultant. 3. Initial top level involvement, or at least support from a higher echelon with subsequent top management involvement. 4. Participation of intact work teams, including the formal leader. 5. The operationalising of the action research model. 6. Early successes, with expansion of the effort stemming from these successes. 7. An open, educational philosophy about the theory and technology of OD.
  • 7.  SITUATIONS APPROPRIATE FOR OD: 1. The organisations managerial strategy (e.g., communication pattern, location of decision-making). 2. The culture of the organization (e.g., norms, values, power structure). 3. Structure and role in the organization. 4. Intergroup collaboration. 5. Motivational levels of employees. 6. Trust and support among organisational members. 7. Synergistic solutions to problems.
  • 8.  ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TECHNIQUES: 1. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES (MBO):  MBO is a technique designed to; a) Increase the precision of the planning process at the organizational level, and b) Reduce the gap between employee and organizational goals.
  • 9. GOAL SETTING BY TOP MANAGEMENT SETTING INDIVIDUAL GOALS AUTONOMY FOR SELECTING MEANS FOR GOAL ACHIEVEMENT REVIEW OF PERFORMANCE THE MBO CYCLE:
  • 10. 2. GRID TRAINING:  Grid training seeks to promote organizational excellence by fostering concern for production and concern for people.  Working on the premise that most organisational problems stem from poor communication and inadequate planning, Blake and Mouton proposed a multistep process for improving organizations by attempting to cultivate these skills.
  • 11. STEP 1: GRID SEMINAR:
  • 12. STEP 2: TRAINING Key managers learn about grid concept and how they are applied in a week long seminar STEP 3: TEAM DEVELOPMENT The trained managers bring their new understanding of managerial grid concepts to the work situation. STEP 4: INTER-GROUP DEVELOPMENT Focuses on organizational work groups to improve co-ordination and co-operation. STEP 5: ORGANISATIONAL GOAL SETTING Top managers together create an ideal model of the organisation. STEP 6: GOAL ATTAINMENT Organisation members seek to make the ideal model a reality. STEP 7: STABILISATION Evaluation of results from all the phases and focuses on areas of improvement.
  • 13. 3. SURVEY FEEDBACK: It involves two basic activities: 1) Collecting data about the organisation through the use of questionnaires, and 2) Conducting feedback meetings and workshops in which the data are presented to organisational members. Survey feedback is useful in as much as it helps bring about changes in attitudes and perceptions of participants. It supports team building which generates a positive feedback in the organization.
  • 14. The data is to be collected via questionnaire  Analysis and interpretation of the gathered data. Identify problems, assess the results and draft solutions. Managerial meetings with subordinates to interpret the solutions. PROCESS OF SURVEY FEEDBACK.
  • 15. 4. TEAM BUILDING: Team Building is the process of diagnosing and improving the effectiveness of a work group with particular attention to work procedures and inter-personal relationships within it, especially the role of the leader in relation to other group members. Both the groups tasks procedures and its human interactions are the subjects of study in team building.
  • 16. Team building can be directed at 2 different types of teams of working groups : a) FAMILY GROUP: Of the existing or permanent team made up of manager and his subordinates; b) SPECIAL GROUP: A new group which may have been created through a merger or other structural change in the organization or formed to solve a specific problem. For both kinds of groups team building activities aim at : 1. Diagnosing the barriers through effective team performance 2. Improving task accomplishments 3. Improving relationships among team members. 4. Improving processes operative in the team such as communication and task assignment.
  • 17. 5. SENSITIVITY TRAINING:  Sensitivity training asks employees to interact in order to better understand each other.  Carrying out free communications and forming interpersonal relationships are bound to improve their group experience as a team, offering members the chance to unequivocally express themselves in a safe and controlled workplace.  Sensitivity training will not only increase awareness of self but also awareness of others.
  • 18. 6. QUALITY OF WORK LIFE PROGRAMMES (QWL): 1.WORK RESTRUCTURING 2.QUALITY CIRCLES (QCS)  BENEFITS: A. Increased Job Satisfaction. B. Organisational Commitment. C. Reduced Turnover among workforce. D. Increased Productivity.
  • 19. 7. STRUCTURAL TECHNIQUES: A. CHANGE THE ORGANISATIONS FORMAL STRUCTURE. B. JOB DESIGN. C. HUMAN RESOURCE PROGRAMMES (in training & career development). D. MODIFYING ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE.
  • 20.  EFFECTIVENESS OF OD PROGRAMMING: 1.It is difficult to measure the number, nature and magnitude of confounding variables. 2.Preintervention measures of behaviour are not taken. 3.Those doing the evaluations of OD programmes have a vested interest in proving success.
  • 21.  CONCLUSION:  To conclude on the OD techniques they can be modified into 3 ways: 1. Research has shown that OD interventions tend to be more effective among blue-collar employees than among white-collar ones. 2. Effectiveness of OD depends on the degree of support they receive from top management. 3. OD can be influenced by using several techniques than just one which helps organization in making necessary changes as changes in the employee behaviour affects the organization as a whole.

Editor's Notes

  1. OD is process implemented after organ. Change. After change of individuals or groups in the org. is planned it develops or grows after their implementation by the individuals and groups in the org. Org change occurs when an org system is distributed by some internal (mgmt. decisions, formulation of policies/procedures, recession,etc) & external (legal/political factors, geographical factors, socio economic factoers, technology , competition.) Change can be at individual,group &org level.
  2. Change intervention Covering entire organization Mostly oriented towards groups as groups cover individuals and change in working groups results in OD. Continuous and long term Services of an outside expert are generally considered and implemented. OD results in an active participationer involvement in the implementation of activities designed by change agent. In contrast to traditional mgmt. structure where orders were issued from top level and received by lower level i.e, collaboration among levels. Culture includes accepted patterns of behaviour, norms, org. objectives, value systems, OD recognizes that all the organizations have different work culture & systems to be followed hence, for a problem there wont be a particular solution which can be implemented. Identifying org. problems gathering an analysisng data taking actions to resolve problems.
  3. 7. Relating to the interaction or cooperation of 2 or more groups or organizations or agents to find out solutions for problems.
  4. Grid organizational development, an extension of the managerial grid concept developed by blake and mouton is usually carried out on an organization wide basis.
  5. The line managers who are previously trained help the employees analyse their own managerial styles. This is done using a questionnaire that allows manager to determine how they stand with respect to 2 dimensions. 1,1 are scared and are evidence of impoverished management 9,1 Task management style high production less concern for people 1,9 country club style high concern for people and less production. 5,5 equally treating 9,9 team management style
  6. They asses their own managerial styles and work on improving such skills as team development, group problem solving & communication. Emphasis is made on improving manager subordinate relationships & team effectiveness so that team will operate on 9,9 grid level. Inter group tensions are dealt with openly and joint problem solving procedures are developed.
  7. Collected data helps in managerial decision making. The answers to survey feedback will range from quality of work, working condition, working hours, salaries & employees attitude in relation to all of above.
  8. As a result, team members get better acquainted, form bonds, cease to be judgmental and prone to become more motivated and efficient in the working environment.
  9. QWL have been designed by OD managers to create work situations that enhance employees motivation, satisfaction & commitment that contribute to high level of org performance. Changing the ways of job done. Job enrichment and job enlargement. QCS are small groups of employees who meet regularly on voluntary basis to identify and solve problems related to quality of work they perform and conditions under which people work on their job.
  10. Combining departmental responsibilities, removal of vertical layers and widening spans of control so as to make organization flatter and less bureaucratic. Job design is concerned with the way the task are combined to form complete jobs. Jobs should be designed so that they are made challenging, interesting and motivating. Modify org culture by creating new rituals, redesigning socialisation processes or changing the reward system.
  11. While OD is implemented there are numerous other influences operatig internally and externally to the firm which influences its effectiveness. Assuming there is a change in org, it is difficult to detect which of the influences was primary cause. Knowledge of situation prior to intervention is important. It is impossible to state that a traing programme helped a particular manager unless we have a specific measures of persons behaviour prior to the training. Many OD programmes have been commercial ventures. The external consultants called for the evaluation of the techniques can report specific successes of the programme which in turn serves to generate more clients. Paid consultants might be dis honest or misinterpret their findings.
  12. Blue-collar employees are physically built or maintained e.g manual labor White collar managerial work or admin or professional work.