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OpticsOptics
Mirrors and LensesMirrors and Lenses
ReflectionReflection
• We describe the path of light as straight-line raysWe describe the path of light as straight-line rays
• Reflection off a flat surface follows a simple rule:Reflection off a flat surface follows a simple rule:
– angle in (incidence) equals angle out (reflection)
– angles measured from surface “normal” (perpendicular)
surface normal
same
angleincident ray exit ray
reflected ray
Reflection VocabularyReflection Vocabulary
• Real Image –Real Image –
–Image is made from “real” light rays
that converge at a real focal point so
the image is REAL
–Can be projected onto a screen
because light actually passes
through the point where the image
appears
–Always inverted
Reflection VocabularyReflection Vocabulary
• Virtual Image–Virtual Image–
–“Not Real” because it cannot be
projected
–Image only seems to be there!
Virtual Images in Plane Mirrors
If light energy doesn't flow from the
image, the image is "virtual".
Rays seem to come from behind
the mirror, but, of course, they
don't. It is virtually as if the rays
were coming from behind the
mirror.
"Virtually": the same as if
As far as the eye-brain system is
concerned, the effect is the same
as would occur if the mirror were
absent and the chess piece were
actually located at the spot labeled
"virtual image".
Hall MirrorHall Mirror
• Useful to think in terms ofUseful to think in terms of imagesimages
“image” you
“real” you
mirror only
needs to be half as
high as you are tall. Your
image will be twice as far from you
as the mirror.
LEFT- RIGHT REVERSALLEFT- RIGHT REVERSAL
Curved mirrorsCurved mirrors
• What if the mirror isn’t flat?What if the mirror isn’t flat?
– light still follows the same rules, with local surface normal
• Parabolic mirrors have exact focusParabolic mirrors have exact focus
– used in telescopes, backyard satellite dishes, etc.
– also forms virtual image
Concave MirrorsConcave Mirrors
•Curves inward
•May be real or virtual image
82a425d700
For a real object between f and the mirror, aFor a real object between f and the mirror, a
virtual image is formed behind the mirror. Thevirtual image is formed behind the mirror. The
image is upright and larger than the object.image is upright and larger than the object.
For a real object between C and f, a real image
is formed outside of C. The image is inverted
and larger than the object.
For a real object at C, the real image is
formed at C. The image is inverted and the
same size as the object.
For a real object close to the mirror but outside
of the center of curvature, the real image is
formed between C and f. The image is inverted
and smaller than the object.
For a real object at f, no image is formed. The
reflected rays are parallel and never converge.
What size image is formed if the
real object is placed at the focal
point f?
ConvexConvex MirrorsMirrors
•Curves outward
•Reduces images
•Virtual images
–Use: Rear view mirrors, store
security…
CAUTION! Objects are closer than they
appear!
RefractionRefraction
• Light also goesLight also goes throughthrough some thingssome things
– glass, water, eyeball, air
• The presence of material slows light’s progressThe presence of material slows light’s progress
– interactions with electrical properties of atoms
• The “light slowing factor” is called theThe “light slowing factor” is called the index of refractionindex of refraction
– glass has n = 1.52, meaning that light travels about 1.5 times
slower in glass than in vacuum
– water has n = 1.33
– air has n = 1.00028
– vacuum is n = 1.00000 (speed of light at full capacity)
n2 = 1.5
n1 = 1.0
A
B
Refraction at a plane surfaceRefraction at a plane surface
• Light bends at interface between refractive indicesLight bends at interface between refractive indices
– bends more the larger the difference in refractive index
Convex LensesConvex Lenses
Thicker in the center thanThicker in the center than
edges.edges.
– Lens that converges
(brings together) light
rays.
– Forms real images
and virtual images
depending on position
of the object
The Magnifier
Concave LensesConcave Lenses
• Lenses that areLenses that are
thicker at the edgesthicker at the edges
and thinner in theand thinner in the
center.center.
– Diverges light rays
– All images are
erect and reduced.
The De-Magnifier
How You SeeHow You See
• Near Sighted – Eyeball isNear Sighted – Eyeball is
too long and image focusestoo long and image focuses
in front of the retinain front of the retina
• Near Sightedness –
Concave lenses expand
focal length
• Far Sighted – Eyeball is tooFar Sighted – Eyeball is too
short so image is focusedshort so image is focused
behind the retina.behind the retina.
• Far Sightedness – Convex
lense shortens the focal
length.
Cameras, in briefCameras, in brief
In a pinhole camera, the hole is so small that light hitting any particular point
on the film plane must have come from a particular direction outside the camera
In a camera with a lens, the same applies: that a point on the film plane
more-or-less corresponds to a direction outside the camera. Lenses have
the important advantage of collecting more light than the pinhole admits
pinhole
image at
film plane
object
image at
film plane
object
lens

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optics mirrors_and_lenses (1)

  • 2. ReflectionReflection • We describe the path of light as straight-line raysWe describe the path of light as straight-line rays • Reflection off a flat surface follows a simple rule:Reflection off a flat surface follows a simple rule: – angle in (incidence) equals angle out (reflection) – angles measured from surface “normal” (perpendicular) surface normal same angleincident ray exit ray reflected ray
  • 3. Reflection VocabularyReflection Vocabulary • Real Image –Real Image – –Image is made from “real” light rays that converge at a real focal point so the image is REAL –Can be projected onto a screen because light actually passes through the point where the image appears –Always inverted
  • 4. Reflection VocabularyReflection Vocabulary • Virtual Image–Virtual Image– –“Not Real” because it cannot be projected –Image only seems to be there!
  • 5. Virtual Images in Plane Mirrors If light energy doesn't flow from the image, the image is "virtual". Rays seem to come from behind the mirror, but, of course, they don't. It is virtually as if the rays were coming from behind the mirror. "Virtually": the same as if As far as the eye-brain system is concerned, the effect is the same as would occur if the mirror were absent and the chess piece were actually located at the spot labeled "virtual image".
  • 6. Hall MirrorHall Mirror • Useful to think in terms ofUseful to think in terms of imagesimages “image” you “real” you mirror only needs to be half as high as you are tall. Your image will be twice as far from you as the mirror.
  • 7. LEFT- RIGHT REVERSALLEFT- RIGHT REVERSAL
  • 8. Curved mirrorsCurved mirrors • What if the mirror isn’t flat?What if the mirror isn’t flat? – light still follows the same rules, with local surface normal • Parabolic mirrors have exact focusParabolic mirrors have exact focus – used in telescopes, backyard satellite dishes, etc. – also forms virtual image
  • 9. Concave MirrorsConcave Mirrors •Curves inward •May be real or virtual image 82a425d700
  • 10. For a real object between f and the mirror, aFor a real object between f and the mirror, a virtual image is formed behind the mirror. Thevirtual image is formed behind the mirror. The image is upright and larger than the object.image is upright and larger than the object.
  • 11. For a real object between C and f, a real image is formed outside of C. The image is inverted and larger than the object.
  • 12. For a real object at C, the real image is formed at C. The image is inverted and the same size as the object.
  • 13. For a real object close to the mirror but outside of the center of curvature, the real image is formed between C and f. The image is inverted and smaller than the object.
  • 14. For a real object at f, no image is formed. The reflected rays are parallel and never converge. What size image is formed if the real object is placed at the focal point f?
  • 15. ConvexConvex MirrorsMirrors •Curves outward •Reduces images •Virtual images –Use: Rear view mirrors, store security… CAUTION! Objects are closer than they appear!
  • 16. RefractionRefraction • Light also goesLight also goes throughthrough some thingssome things – glass, water, eyeball, air • The presence of material slows light’s progressThe presence of material slows light’s progress – interactions with electrical properties of atoms • The “light slowing factor” is called theThe “light slowing factor” is called the index of refractionindex of refraction – glass has n = 1.52, meaning that light travels about 1.5 times slower in glass than in vacuum – water has n = 1.33 – air has n = 1.00028 – vacuum is n = 1.00000 (speed of light at full capacity)
  • 17. n2 = 1.5 n1 = 1.0 A B Refraction at a plane surfaceRefraction at a plane surface • Light bends at interface between refractive indicesLight bends at interface between refractive indices – bends more the larger the difference in refractive index
  • 18. Convex LensesConvex Lenses Thicker in the center thanThicker in the center than edges.edges. – Lens that converges (brings together) light rays. – Forms real images and virtual images depending on position of the object The Magnifier
  • 19. Concave LensesConcave Lenses • Lenses that areLenses that are thicker at the edgesthicker at the edges and thinner in theand thinner in the center.center. – Diverges light rays – All images are erect and reduced. The De-Magnifier
  • 20. How You SeeHow You See • Near Sighted – Eyeball isNear Sighted – Eyeball is too long and image focusestoo long and image focuses in front of the retinain front of the retina • Near Sightedness – Concave lenses expand focal length • Far Sighted – Eyeball is tooFar Sighted – Eyeball is too short so image is focusedshort so image is focused behind the retina.behind the retina. • Far Sightedness – Convex lense shortens the focal length.
  • 21. Cameras, in briefCameras, in brief In a pinhole camera, the hole is so small that light hitting any particular point on the film plane must have come from a particular direction outside the camera In a camera with a lens, the same applies: that a point on the film plane more-or-less corresponds to a direction outside the camera. Lenses have the important advantage of collecting more light than the pinhole admits pinhole image at film plane object image at film plane object lens