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RADIATION PROTECTION
2
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
Natural and Manmade sources
Radiation protection, also known as radiological
protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy
Agency (IAEA) as
• "The protection of people from harmful effects of
exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for
achieving this".
• Exposure can be from a source of radiation external to
the human body or due to internal irradiation caused by
the ingestion of radioactive contamination.
X-ray tube
Primary beam
Scattered radiation
Patient
Protection
• Why?
• From What?
• Whom to protect?
• How to protect?
MEASUREMENTS!!!
RADIATION UNITS
• ROENTGEN– unit of
radiation exposure that
will liberate a charge of
2.58x10-4coulombs/kg
of air.
• Independent of the
area or field size
Absorbed dose
• Deposition of energy in pt by radiation exposure
• Independent of composition of irradiated
material and energy of beam
• RAD: unit of absorbed dose
• GRAY: SI unit of absorbed dose
• Gray defined as the quantity of radiation that
results in an energy deposition of 1 joule per
kilogram.
• I GRAY = 100 RAD
• 1RAD = 1 cGY
Dose equivalent
• It is a measure of biological effectiveness of radiation
• REM: unit of absorbed dose equivalent
• SIEVERT : SI unit
• 1 sievert = 100 rems
• Dose equivalent=Absorbed dose x QF.
• REM = RADS X QUALITY FACTOR
Quality factor
• It is the parameter used to describe the quality of beam.
• Gives the amount of energy deposited per unit length travel.
Expressed in KeV per micron.
Type of radiation Q factor
X rays 1
Gamma rays 1
Beta particle 1
Electrons 1
Thermal neutrons 5
Other neutrons 20
Protons 20
Alpha particle 20
EFFECTIVE DOSE EQUIVALENT
• Purpose – to relate exposure to risk
• It is calculated by multiplying the dose equivalent
received by each individual organ or tissue (DT) by an
appropriate tissue weighting factor (WT) and
summing for all the tissues involved.
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
SOURCES OF RADIATION
• Natural radiation:
1. External: Cosmic and gamma radiation
2. Internal: radionuclides with in the body
ingested or inhaled
• Medical procedures:
1. Diagnostic
2. Therapeutic
• Nuclear weapons/industry/accidents
Electromagnetic Waves
Low HighENERGY
Radio
waves
Microwaves
Radar
Infrared
Visible
light
Ultra-violet
X-ray
Gamma-ray
Non-ionizing radiation
Ionizing radiation
Primary Types of Ionizing Radiation
• Alpha particles
• Beta particles
• Gamma rays (or
photons)
• X-Rays (or photons)
• Neutrons
Ionizing Radiation
alpha particle
beta particle
Radioactive Atom
X-ray
gamma ray
Direct Ionization Caused By:
• Protons
• Alpha Particles
• Beta Particles
• Positron Particles
Indirect Ionization Caused By:
• Neutrons
• Gamma Rays
• X-Rays
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
Radiation health effects
CELL DEATH BOTH
TYPE
OF
EFFECTS
CELL TRANSFORMATION
Radiation health effects
DETERMINISTIC
Somatic
Clinically attributable
in the exposed
individual
CELL DEATH
STOCHASTIC
somatic & hereditary
epidemiologically
attributable in large
populations
ANTENATAL
somatic and
hereditary expressed
in the foetus, in the live
born or descendants
BOTH
TYPE
OF
EFFECTS
CELL TRANSFORMATION
• Deterministic
(Threshold/non-stochastic)
• Existence of a dose threshold
value (below this dose, the effect
is not observable)
• Severity of the effect increases
with dose
• A large number of cells are
involved
Radiation injury from an industrial source
Deterministic effects
• Permanent sterility
• males
• females
3.5-6 Gy
2.5-6 Gy
• Temporary sterility
• males
• females
0.15 Gy
0.6 Gy
Threshold Doses for Deterministic Effects
• Cataracts of the lens of the eye 2-10 Gy
Stochastic Effects
• Stochastic(Non-Threshold)
– No threshold
– Probability of the effect increases with dose
– Generally occurs with a single cell
– e.g. Cancer, genetic effects
CHAIN OF EVENTS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO IONIZING
RADIATION
CELL DEATH
DETERMINISTIC EFFECTS
CELLULAR TRANSFORMATION
MAY BE SOME REPAIR
STOCHASTIC EFFECTS
exposure
ionisation
free radicals
(chemical changes)
molecular changes
(DNA,RNA, ENZYMES)
SUBCELLULAR DAMAGE
(MEMBRANES, NUCLEI, CHROMOSOMES)
CELLULAR LEVEL
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
Radiosensitivity [RS]
• RS = Probability of a cell,
tissue or organ of suffering an
effect per unit of dose.
RS laws (Law of Bergonie & Tribondeau)
Radiosensitivity of living tissues varies with maturation &
metabolism;
1. Stem cells are radiosensitive. More mature cells are more resistant
2. Younger tissues are more radiosensitive
3. Tissues with high metabolic activity are highly radiosensitive
4. High proliferation and growth rate, high radiosensitivty
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
Optimization of protection
Protection should be optimized in relation to
The magnitude of doses,
Number of people exposed
For all social and economic strata of patients.
All doses should be kept
• As
• Low
• As
• Reasonably
• Achievable
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
Types Of Barriers
Protection is required against
three types of radiation: the
primary radiation; the scattered
radiation; and the leakage
radiation through the source
housing.
A barrier sufficient to attenuate
the useful beam to the required
degree is called the primary
barrier.
The required barrier against stray
radiation (leakage and scatter) is
called the secondary barrier.
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
Primary Barriers
40
41
SHEILDING
42
TECHNOLOGIST . 25 mm LEAD
• LEAD APRON, GLOVES
• THYROID SHIELD, GLASSES
PATIENT –
GONAD SHEILDING . 5 mm LEAD
GONAD SHIELDING
• MUST BE . 5 MM OF LEAD
• MUST BE USED WHEN GONADS WILL LIE WITHIN 5
CM OF THE COLLIMATED AREA
• Male vs. female shielding
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
The Regulatory Bodies
• There are various Regulatory Bodies at the
international and National level, which lay down
norms for radiation protection.
• These are
• the International Commission for Radiation
Protection ( ICRP),
• the National Commission for Radiation Protection
(NCRP ) in America,
• and the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in
India.
• The International Commission of Radiation
Protection (ICRP) was formed in 1928 on the
recommendation of the first International Congress
of Radiology in 1925.
• The commission consists of 12 members and a
chairman and a secretary who are chosen from
across the world based on their expertise.
• The first International Congress also initiated the
birth of the ICRU or the International Commission
on Radiation Units and measurements
• The Indian regulatory board is the AERB, Atomic
Energy Regulatory Board.
The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board was
constituted on November 15, 1983.
President of India.
Section 27 of the Atomic Energy Act,
1962.
• Radiation safety in handling of radiation generating
equipment is governed by section 17 of the Atomic
Energy Act, 1962, and the Radiation Protection
Rules (RPR)
• The “Radiation Surveillance Procedures of Medical
Applications of Radiation,” specify general
requirements for ensuring radiation protection in
installation and handling of X-ray equipment.
Guidance and practical aspects on implementing
the requirements of this Code are provided in
revised documents issued by AERB in the year 2001
Radiation protection
survey and programme
• The responsibility for establishing a radiation
protection programme rests with the hospital
administration / owners of the X-ray facility
• The administration is expected to appoint a
Radiation Safety Committee (RSC), and a Radiation
Safety Officer (RSO).
• Recommended by NCRP that the RSC should
comprise of a radiologist, a medical physicist,, a
senior nurse and an internist.
This survey has 5 phases which are
Investigation:
Inspection:
Measurement:
Evaluation:
Recommendations:
Depicts the organizational flow chart and the administrative
and functional components of radiation protection program.
Personnel Dosimeters
• Desirable characteristics
– Should be lightweight, durable, and reliable
– Should be inexpensive
• Types of personnel dosimeters
– Film badge
– Pocket ionization chambers
– Thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLD)
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar
New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar

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New microsoft office power point presentation b arun kumar

  • 2. 2
  • 6. Radiation protection, also known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as • "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this". • Exposure can be from a source of radiation external to the human body or due to internal irradiation caused by the ingestion of radioactive contamination.
  • 8. Protection • Why? • From What? • Whom to protect? • How to protect?
  • 10. RADIATION UNITS • ROENTGEN– unit of radiation exposure that will liberate a charge of 2.58x10-4coulombs/kg of air. • Independent of the area or field size
  • 11. Absorbed dose • Deposition of energy in pt by radiation exposure • Independent of composition of irradiated material and energy of beam • RAD: unit of absorbed dose • GRAY: SI unit of absorbed dose • Gray defined as the quantity of radiation that results in an energy deposition of 1 joule per kilogram. • I GRAY = 100 RAD • 1RAD = 1 cGY
  • 12. Dose equivalent • It is a measure of biological effectiveness of radiation • REM: unit of absorbed dose equivalent • SIEVERT : SI unit • 1 sievert = 100 rems • Dose equivalent=Absorbed dose x QF. • REM = RADS X QUALITY FACTOR
  • 13. Quality factor • It is the parameter used to describe the quality of beam. • Gives the amount of energy deposited per unit length travel. Expressed in KeV per micron. Type of radiation Q factor X rays 1 Gamma rays 1 Beta particle 1 Electrons 1 Thermal neutrons 5 Other neutrons 20 Protons 20 Alpha particle 20
  • 14. EFFECTIVE DOSE EQUIVALENT • Purpose – to relate exposure to risk • It is calculated by multiplying the dose equivalent received by each individual organ or tissue (DT) by an appropriate tissue weighting factor (WT) and summing for all the tissues involved.
  • 17. SOURCES OF RADIATION • Natural radiation: 1. External: Cosmic and gamma radiation 2. Internal: radionuclides with in the body ingested or inhaled • Medical procedures: 1. Diagnostic 2. Therapeutic • Nuclear weapons/industry/accidents
  • 19. Primary Types of Ionizing Radiation • Alpha particles • Beta particles • Gamma rays (or photons) • X-Rays (or photons) • Neutrons Ionizing Radiation alpha particle beta particle Radioactive Atom X-ray gamma ray
  • 20. Direct Ionization Caused By: • Protons • Alpha Particles • Beta Particles • Positron Particles
  • 21. Indirect Ionization Caused By: • Neutrons • Gamma Rays • X-Rays
  • 23. Radiation health effects CELL DEATH BOTH TYPE OF EFFECTS CELL TRANSFORMATION
  • 24. Radiation health effects DETERMINISTIC Somatic Clinically attributable in the exposed individual CELL DEATH STOCHASTIC somatic & hereditary epidemiologically attributable in large populations ANTENATAL somatic and hereditary expressed in the foetus, in the live born or descendants BOTH TYPE OF EFFECTS CELL TRANSFORMATION
  • 25. • Deterministic (Threshold/non-stochastic) • Existence of a dose threshold value (below this dose, the effect is not observable) • Severity of the effect increases with dose • A large number of cells are involved Radiation injury from an industrial source Deterministic effects
  • 26. • Permanent sterility • males • females 3.5-6 Gy 2.5-6 Gy • Temporary sterility • males • females 0.15 Gy 0.6 Gy Threshold Doses for Deterministic Effects • Cataracts of the lens of the eye 2-10 Gy
  • 27. Stochastic Effects • Stochastic(Non-Threshold) – No threshold – Probability of the effect increases with dose – Generally occurs with a single cell – e.g. Cancer, genetic effects
  • 28. CHAIN OF EVENTS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADIATION CELL DEATH DETERMINISTIC EFFECTS CELLULAR TRANSFORMATION MAY BE SOME REPAIR STOCHASTIC EFFECTS exposure ionisation free radicals (chemical changes) molecular changes (DNA,RNA, ENZYMES) SUBCELLULAR DAMAGE (MEMBRANES, NUCLEI, CHROMOSOMES) CELLULAR LEVEL
  • 30. Radiosensitivity [RS] • RS = Probability of a cell, tissue or organ of suffering an effect per unit of dose.
  • 31. RS laws (Law of Bergonie & Tribondeau) Radiosensitivity of living tissues varies with maturation & metabolism; 1. Stem cells are radiosensitive. More mature cells are more resistant 2. Younger tissues are more radiosensitive 3. Tissues with high metabolic activity are highly radiosensitive 4. High proliferation and growth rate, high radiosensitivty
  • 33. Optimization of protection Protection should be optimized in relation to The magnitude of doses, Number of people exposed For all social and economic strata of patients.
  • 34. All doses should be kept • As • Low • As • Reasonably • Achievable
  • 37. Types Of Barriers Protection is required against three types of radiation: the primary radiation; the scattered radiation; and the leakage radiation through the source housing. A barrier sufficient to attenuate the useful beam to the required degree is called the primary barrier. The required barrier against stray radiation (leakage and scatter) is called the secondary barrier.
  • 41. 41
  • 42. SHEILDING 42 TECHNOLOGIST . 25 mm LEAD • LEAD APRON, GLOVES • THYROID SHIELD, GLASSES PATIENT – GONAD SHEILDING . 5 mm LEAD
  • 43. GONAD SHIELDING • MUST BE . 5 MM OF LEAD • MUST BE USED WHEN GONADS WILL LIE WITHIN 5 CM OF THE COLLIMATED AREA • Male vs. female shielding
  • 50. • There are various Regulatory Bodies at the international and National level, which lay down norms for radiation protection. • These are • the International Commission for Radiation Protection ( ICRP), • the National Commission for Radiation Protection (NCRP ) in America, • and the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in India.
  • 51. • The International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP) was formed in 1928 on the recommendation of the first International Congress of Radiology in 1925. • The commission consists of 12 members and a chairman and a secretary who are chosen from across the world based on their expertise. • The first International Congress also initiated the birth of the ICRU or the International Commission on Radiation Units and measurements
  • 52. • The Indian regulatory board is the AERB, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board was constituted on November 15, 1983. President of India. Section 27 of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962.
  • 53. • Radiation safety in handling of radiation generating equipment is governed by section 17 of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962, and the Radiation Protection Rules (RPR) • The “Radiation Surveillance Procedures of Medical Applications of Radiation,” specify general requirements for ensuring radiation protection in installation and handling of X-ray equipment. Guidance and practical aspects on implementing the requirements of this Code are provided in revised documents issued by AERB in the year 2001
  • 55. • The responsibility for establishing a radiation protection programme rests with the hospital administration / owners of the X-ray facility • The administration is expected to appoint a Radiation Safety Committee (RSC), and a Radiation Safety Officer (RSO). • Recommended by NCRP that the RSC should comprise of a radiologist, a medical physicist,, a senior nurse and an internist.
  • 56. This survey has 5 phases which are Investigation: Inspection: Measurement: Evaluation: Recommendations:
  • 57. Depicts the organizational flow chart and the administrative and functional components of radiation protection program.
  • 58. Personnel Dosimeters • Desirable characteristics – Should be lightweight, durable, and reliable – Should be inexpensive • Types of personnel dosimeters – Film badge – Pocket ionization chambers – Thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLD)