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STUDY OF NATURAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND
THEIR BEHAVIOUR ON FACE MASKS
REPORT OF
PROJECT WORK-II (TE-811)
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
TEXTILE ENGINEERING
JUNE, 2021
SUBMITTED BY
ADITYA CHAUHAN (17BT010705)
GAURAV SHARMA (1602632016)
PROJECT GUIDE
ER. PRIYA JASWAL
ER. PREETI GAUTAM
DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE ENGINEERING,
JWAHARLAL NEHRU GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING
COLLGE, SUNDERNAGAR (H.P.) 175018
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Project making is an integral part of the HIMACHAL PRADESH TECHNICAL
UNIVERSITY engineering curriculum. We place on record and warmly acknowledge the
continuous encouragement, invaluable supervision, timely suggestions and inspired guidance
offered by our guide Er. PRIYA JASWAL & Er. PREETI GAUTAM, Department of Textile
Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Govt. Engineering College, Sundernagar, in bringing this report
to a successful completion.
We are grateful to Er. PRAVEEN KUMAR, Head of the Department of Textile Engineering,
for permitting us to make use of the facilities available in the department to carry out the project
successfully. Last but not the least we express our sincere thanks to all of our friends who have
patiently extended all sorts of help for accomplishing this undertaking.
Without the help and guidance of these people we would not have been able to make this
project. Also, we have taken help for other resources as well, which also include internet.
CERTIFICATE
We hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the B. Tech Projected entitled
“STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND BEHAVIOUR ON FACE MASKS “, in
partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the B. Tech in Textile Engineering and
submitted to the Department of Textile Engineering of Jawaharlal Nehru Govt. Engineering
College, Sundernagar, H.P., is an authentic record of our team work carried out during a period
from Jan, 2021 to Jun, 2021 under the supervision of Er. Priya Jaswal & Er. Preeti Gautam
Assistant Professor, Department of Textile Engineering.
The matter presented in this project has not been submitted by us for the award of any other
degree elsewhere.
Candidate’s Name Candidate’s Signature
Aditya Chauhan (17BT010705)
Gaurav Sharma (1602632016)
This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidates is correct to the best of our
knowledge.
Date:
Project Guide’s Signature
Er. Priya Jaswal
Er. Preeti Gautam
Department of Textile Engineering
Jawaharlal Nehru Govt. Engineering College,
Sundernagar
Signature of Head/OIC Signature of External Examiner
Er, Praveen Kumar
Department of Textile Engineering
Jawaharlal Nehru Govt. Engineering College
Page 4 of 38
ABSTRACT
The increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in recent decades has posed a serious threat to
public health. Routes of transmission differ, but the respiratory droplet or airborne route has
the greatest potential to disrupt social intercourse, wearing face masks can reduce disease
transmission. However, excessive use of single-use polymer-based face masks will pose a
significant challenge to the environment. On the contrary, face masks with inherent
antimicrobial properties can help in real-time deactivation of microorganisms enabling
multiple-use and reduces secondary infections. Therefore, research on environment-friendly
antimicrobial agents (AMA) based on natural products is gaining worldwide interest.
In this study, several research papers have been reviewed consisting of antimicrobial
compounds, which are extracted from medicinal plants and found to be effective against
bacteria when applied on face mask or have potential of being applied. Study, also includes
different method of these AMA application and testing procedures.
Keywords--- face mask, natural antimicrobial agents, bacteria, Filtration, eucalyptus
leaves, mangosteen, Punica granatum Peel, Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese herb)
Page 5 of 38
Page 6 of 38
CONTENT
1 Introduction………………………………………………….…………….….8
2 Literature Review…………………….………………………….…………....10
2.1 What is face mask…………………………………………………………………........11
2.1.1. Types of mask……………………………...…………………………………….......12
2.2. Role of face mask in preventing the spread of infections diseases………...………….13
2.3. Mechanism of filtration.................………………………………………….…………14
2.4. what are microbes or microoganisms…………………………………….……………15
2.5 Antimicrobial treatment…………………………………………………........................16
2.6 Antimicrobial face mask…………………………………………………………….......17
2.7 Types of antimicrobials agents...................……………………………………………...18
2.8. Natural antimicrobials agents……………………………………………………...........20
2.8.1 Mangosteen pericarp......................…………………………………………………….22
2.8.2 Scutellaria baicalensis………………………………………………………………….23
2.8.3 Eucalyptus leaves extract..............…………………………………………………......24
2.8.4 Punica granatum peel extract………………………………………………..................25
2.9 mechanisms of action antimicrobials agents…………………………………………….26
3.Method of incorporation ………………………………………………………………….27
3.1Coating...........................................……………………………………….………............28
3.2 Microencapsulation..........................................………………………………………......29
3.3 Grafting......................……………………………………………………………………29
4.Efficiency test.......................................................................................................................30
5. Conclusion...........................................................................................................................33
6. References...........................................................................................................................35
Page 7 of 38
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 N95 MASK
Figure 2 CLOTH MASK ................................................................................................11
Figure 3 SURGICAL MASK
Figure 4 KNITTED MASK ............................................................................................11
Figure 5 MECHANISM OF FILTERATION.................................................................14
Figure 6 ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS .........................................................................18
Figure 7 MANGOSTEEN ..............................................................................................22
Figure 8 SCUTELLARIA BAICALENSIS....................................................................23
Figure 9 1,8-CINEOLE...................................................................................................24
Figure 10 PUNICA GRANATUM PEEL.........................................................................25
Figure 11 DIP COATING.................................................................................................28
Page 8 of 38
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Page 9 of 38
INTRODUCTION
Fibres, both natural and man-made, have been widely used since the ancient past in the
manufacture of other materials. World fibre consumption has strongly increased over the years,
reaching a total demand of 94.9 million tons in 2015. In detail, 66.8 million tons were man-
made fibres, in addition to natural fibres with a demand of 28.1 million tons
Nowadays, besides the traditional clothing products, textiles find important applications also
in home furnishing, food packaging, as fibre reinforcements for polymers, optical fibres,
thermal and mechanical protection, sport equipment, fibrous materials for a large array of
applications in medicine and hygiene such as medical devices, health care and hygienic
coatings, air filters and water purification systems.
An important example of these functional fabrics, recently attracting the interest of the
research, is antimicrobial fabrics. Due to the morphology of fibres, in particular those of natural
origin, textiles are prone to microorganisms’ growth on their surface, due to the large surface
area and moisture affinity. Bacteria and fungi can be found everywhere, so the contact with
textiles is extremely probable. Depending on moisture, nutrients, temperature and pH, their
growth can be very fast: some bacteria can double every 20 min [1].
The use of antimicrobial compounds in textiles has grown dramatically over the last decades.
The potential application field is wide. It ranges from industrial textiles exposed to weather
such as awnings, screens and tents; upholstery used in large public areas such as hospitals,
hotels and stations; fabrics for transports; protective clothing and personal protective
equipment; bed sheets and blankets; textiles left wet between processing steps; intimate
apparel, underwear, socks and sportswear. Another large field of application is in filtration and
disinfection of air and water for white rooms, hospitals and operating theatres, food and
pharmaceutical industries, water depuration, drinkable water supplying and air-conditioning
systems. But now a days they are trending for implementation on face masks (prevents airborne
transmission of infections between persons by blocking the movement of pathogens
(primarily bacteria and viruses) shed in respiratory droplets and aerosols into and from the
wearer's mouth and nose), Further these antimicrobial compounds can be divided by their
source of origin i.e. into two types synthetic and natural compounds.[2]
This project is particularly focused on the study of natural antimicrobial agents which are
applied on face masks or have potential to be applied in future, to provide mask with
antimicrobial behaviour.
Page 10 of 38
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
Page 11 of 38
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 WHAT IS FACE MASK
Face Mask is porous filter media used for purifying aerosol impurities from air and to reduce
the potential contact of the wearer to airborne hazardous contaminants.
Respiratory masks (RM) are protective devices covering a part of the face. They are designed
to protect both the person who wears them and the immediate environment from breathable
pollutants (respiratory poisons or bacterial/viral pathogenic organisms). Different masks can
be classified as full masks (normed following EN 136) and half and quarter masks (EN 140)
(Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4). While a full mask covers the whole face, a half-mask fits from under the
chin to above the nose, a quarter mask fits from the top of the nose to the top of the chin. The
breathing resistance varies proportionally to the density of the mask material. [3]
FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2
FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4
Page 12 of 38
2.1.1 TYPES OF MASK
CLOTH MASK
This type of mask is the simplest one which can be used during severe periods. During a
pandemic respiratory because of the scarcity or availability of filtering facepiece respirators,
some people may prefer to use cloth products for respiratory safety.
CLOTH MASK WITH FILTER
THE cloth mask with filter is made triple layer mask in which outer and inner layer is made of
simple fabric and middle layer is the filtration layer where mostly synthetic material is used
like polypropylene for reduction in penetration of small particles. cloth face mask is holds at
least 70% protection efficiency.
SURGICAL MASK
This type of mask is thin paper-like masks and are usually white and light blue. Surgical face
masks can filter out about 60% of smaller inhaled particles. They are primarily intended to stop
droplets sprays and splatters and studies have shown that diligently wearing surgical masks in
public spaces can significantly reduce the spread of respiratory infection. Surgical masks are
not designed to be used more than once.
N95 MASK
These types are a type of FFR masks, are non-oil resistant, also known as electrets filters. The
word N95 is obtained from the fact that these types of masks can at least filter 95% of aerosols
around 0.3 μm. N95 face mask is more efficient than other masks. N95s protect the person
wearing the mask because they filter out particles from the air. perhaps any other mask (cotton
and disposable) is not intended to protect others around you from your own respiratory
droplets.[7]
Page 13 of 38
2.2 ROLE OF FACE MASK IN PREVENTING THE SPREAD OF
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
The spread of infectious diseases from person to person and the degree of transmission vary
based on the aetiology and mode of transmission. Usually, the degree of transmission is
estimated by a mathematical number know as reproduction number. It determines the number
of infections caused by a single infected individual. It combines factors such as duration of
infectiousness, the speed of contact to vulnerable individuals per unit time, and the
probability of transmission per contact.
The transmission ways are mainly classified into the following three:
(i) direct transmission – infected droplet/aerosol transmission.
(ii) airborne route – inhaling infected respiratory aerosols.
(iii) contact transmission through secretions on fomites or directly such as through
physical touch resulting in hand-to-mouth, hand-to-eye or hand-to-nose
transmission. [4]
Page 14 of 38
2.3 MECHANISMS OF FILTRATION
A face mask helps prevent airborne, droplet and aerosol transmission where the primary control
mechanism lies in reducing exposure. Face mask help in filtering out particles of different sizes
through various mechanisms:
i. Inertial impaction by which particles with more mass and inertia are diverted from the
streamline around the filter fiber.
ii. Interception by filter fibers of larger particles.
iii. Diffusion which results from the collision with air molecules or fibers resulting in
deviation from streamline on account of the Brownian movement of fine particles.
iv. Electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged particles and filter media, without
any size distinction of particles.
FIGURE 5
(MECHANISM OF FILTERATION THROUGH MASK)
Page 15 of 38
2.4 WHAT ARE MICROBES OR MICROORGANISMS
Microbes are the tiniest creatures not seen by the naked eye. They include a variety of
microorganisms like Bacteria, Fungi, Algae and viruses. Bacteria are uni-cellular organisms,
which grow very rapidly under warmth and moisture. Further, sub divisions in the bacteria
family are Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative (E-Coli), spore bearing or
non-spore bearing type. Some specific types of bacteria are pathogenic and cause cross
infection. Fungi, molds or mildew are complex organisms with slow growth rate.
They stain the fabric and deteriorate the performance properties of the fabrics. Fungi are active
at a pH level of 6.5. Algae are typical microorganisms, which are either fungal or bacterial.
Algae require continuous sources of water and sunlight to grow and develop darker stains on
the fabrics. Algae are active in the PH range of 7.0-8.0. Dust mites are eight legged creatures
and occupy the household textiles such as blankets bed linen, pillows, mattresses and carpets.
The dust mites feed on human skin cells and liberated waste products can cause allergic
reactions and respiratory disorders.[6]
SOURCES OF MICROBES
i. In the air that we breath
ii. In the soil
iii. In our skin and bodies
iv. Everywhere
IDEAL CONDITIONS FOR MICROBIAL GROWTH
i. Food
ii. Warm temperature
iii. Moisture (Humidity, Spills)
iv. Receptive surface (skin, fabric)
v. Neutral pH value
Page 16 of 38
2.5 ANTIMICROBIALS TREATMENT
Antimicrobial’s treatment, destroy or suppress the growth of microorganisms and their
negative effects of odour, staining and deterioration. Antimicrobials do not all work the same.
The vast majority of antimicrobials work by leaching or moving from the surface on which
they are applied. This is the mechanism used by leaching antimicrobials to poison a
microorganism. Such chemicals have been used for decades in agricultural applications with
mixed results. Besides affecting durability and useful life, leaching technologies have the
potential to cause a variety of other problems when used in garments. These include their
negative effects because, they can contact the skin and potentially affect the normal skin
bacteria, cross the skin barrier, and/or have the potential to cause rashes and other skin
irritations.
A more serious problem with leaching technologies has to do with their allowing for the
adaptation of microorganisms. An antimicrobial with a completely different mode of action
than the leaching technologies is a molecularly bonded unconventional technology. The bound
unconventional antimicrobial technology, an organofunctional silane, has a mode of action that
relies on the technology remaining affixed to the substrate killing microorganisms as they
contact the surface to which it is applied. Effective levels of this technology do not leach or
diminish over time. When applied, the technology actually polymerizes with the substrate
making the surface antimicrobial. This type of antimicrobial technology is used in textiles that
are likely to have human contact or where durability is of value.[37]
Necessity of Antimicrobial finishes:
i. To avoid cross infection by pathogenic micro-organisms.
ii. To control the infestation by microbes.
iii. To arrest metabolism in microbes to reduce the formation of odour.
iv. To safeguard the textile products from staining, discolouration and quality
deterioration.[9]
Page 17 of 38
2.6 ANTIMICROBIAL FACE MASKS
The use of a face mask as an RPD (Respiratory protective device) is instrumental in preventing
airborne, droplet, and aerosol transmission, where the primary control mechanism lies in
reducing exposure. However, there are serious concerns about the usage of conventional
disposable face masks. When infected individual coughs or sneezes, the pathogen laden
droplets can splash out and adheres to the immediate contact surfaces, and remain viable for
several days. Many studies have proven the presence of SARS-CoV-2 on various material
surfaces, including inner and outer layers of face masks for a period of 4 and 7 days,
respectively. These contaminated face mask surfaces, in turn, becomes a source of fomite
transmission. Besides, the warm and humid conditions inside the face mask due to breathing
and saliva creates a favourable environment for the intercepted microorganisms to grow and
flourish. The moist conditions will induce a capillary action due to which the intercepted
microorganisms transfer further into the inner layers via suction, thus endangering the health
of the wearer. Eventually, these microorganisms will aggregate as an extracellular polymeric
matrix containing polysaccharides, proteins, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) resulting in the
formation of biofilms. In these situations, an unexpected danger arises due to the re-
aerosolization of the settled particles during intense sneezing or coughing by the wearer.
Microbial survival and re-growth on conventional face masks after usage and improper
storage can also lead to secondary infections in humans. So, face masks are typically discarded
after a single-use to avoid the inoculation and spread of highly infectious pathogens. This type
of single-use and discard culture can lead to its massive shortage and the generation of a large
quantum of hazardous waste, especially during pandemic times. The gap in supply and demand
coupled with unaffordability, disposal challenges, and possible adverse impact on the
environment calls for reusable face masks.
Antimicrobial face masks look attractive over conventional face mask and can address some
of the concerns associated with single-use face masks by providing in situ real-time
antimicrobial protection. Several AMA are developed over the years and are available in
different forms, including films, coatings, beads, and NPs. The surfaces coated AMA are
reported to be effective in deactivating/killing microorganisms and preventing the formation
of biofilms.
Page 18 of 38
2.7 TYPES OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS
A variety of agents are available that may impart significant effect in textile fibres to inhibit
the growth of microorganism. The important types of antimicrobial agents can be classified
into broadly 3 types [fig.6]
FIGURE 6
Organic antimicrobial agents
Organic antimicrobial agents such as quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), N-
Halamines, Polyhexamethylene Biguanide; triclosan; silicon based quaternary agent; iodohors,
phenols and thiophenols, heterocyclics, inorganic salts, nitro compound, urea, amines and
formaldehyde derivatives, have been applied for antimicrobial treatment of textiles. QACs have
been tested for antimicrobial activity of protein base wool, cellulose base cotton, synthetic base
polyamides and polyester, the MIC value 10-100mg/l presented good reproducibility and good
washing durability. These formations kill the microbes by altering cell membrane permeability,
obstructing the synthesis of proteins of microbes, blocking enzyme production necessary for
microbes’ food. The N-halamine compound is used for the development of antimicrobial cotton
Anti-microbialagents
Organic agents Inorganic agents Natural agents
Plant based
Animal based
Page 19 of 38
fabric through pad-drycure process followed by the exposure to chlorine bleach. The
chlorinated sample showed potential antimicrobial ability against gram +ve and Gram –ve
pathogens. It was experimented that on chlorinated after 15 days storage 85% of chlorine could
be recharged that shows N-halamine compounds have good biocidal efficiency for healthcare
textiles. Another organic based antimicrobial agent, Triclosan has been investigated for its
antimicrobial ability for polyester, nylon, regenerated cellulose and acrylic fibres; with MIC
value below than 10ppm versus bacteria against. Triclosan has excellent durability after
use/washing and it prevents microbial growth by obstructing lipid biosynthesis. The most
acceptable organic agent used for healthcare procedures, pharmaceutical and food industry is
Poly-hexamethylene biguinide (PHMB). It’s efficient against both types of bacteria, in addition
to yeasts and fungi. PHMB is slightly toxic and fewer skin infection issues were reported. It
used in variety of products including undergarment and towel fabric to obstruct microbial
growth and exhibited good washing durability. PHMB is bacterio-static at 1-10mg/l but at
elevated values its bactericidal activity and inhibition rate raise collectively. The utmost
antibacterial inhibition action of PHMB obtained between 5-6pH value.
Inorganic Antimicrobial Agents
The inorganic finishing agents such as metal oxides, copper and zinc, titanium, magnesium,
silver and gold were applied for antimicrobial effects on textiles. These agents exhibited good
durability for cellulose, protein, regenerated and synthetic materials with MIC value 0.05-
0.1mg/l versus gram negative bacteria, E. coli. Sliver is wide acceptable inorganic
antimicrobial agent and kills microorganisms by blocking and disengages the intracellular
proteins. However, silver is a slight toxic agent, it releases slowly and can worn-out of the
fabric. Zeolites of chabazite-type with its optimal morphology and lowest silicon to aluminium
ratio (Si/Al)solution that replaced with different combinations of silver, copper, and zinc ions
to prepare single, binary, and ternary metal cation-modified zeolites were experimented and
silver based zeolites exhibited more antimicrobial activity than the others and demonstrated
good/suitable mechanical characters and excellent biocide effect against food borne bacteria
and fungi on green polyethylene developed based on injection-molded composite. Further, the
result confirmed its capability to rule the propagation of dangerous pathogens in environment
of food processing and storage. Thus, these innovative antimicrobial materials are prospects
for hygiene surfaces, kitchen accessories and packaging applications. [32]
Page 20 of 38
Limitations of inorganic and organic agents
In general, antibacterial property of any inorganic finishing agent is established with its
chemical components. The biocide efficiency of inorganic agents slowly drops in use and
during wash. The most of such agents carry limited intensity of microbes’ inhibition, moreover
they are poisonous, initiate skin problem to humans and having problem to decompose in down
streaming. To reduce the risks allied with the application such inorganic agents, there is
enormous need of substitute agents for antimicrobial treatment of textiles. As mentioned early,
a wide range of organic antimicrobial agents are available for textiles treatment but out of these
agents; triclosan, quaternary ammonium compounds, Polyhexamethylene Biguanide have been
used on commercial scale. Polyhexamethylene Biguanide is slightly contaminated with
poisonous concerns and hard to decompose in down streaming. In US Preregistration Eligibility
Decision for PHMB by US Environment Protection Agency” the discharge of effluents
containing PHMB is not allowed without mandatory treatment. [6,8]
2.8 NATURAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT (PLANT AND FRUITS)
Recently, eco-friendliness has become very important for human beings and for those people
who want to live in a world of hygiene and freshness. The major hindrance that comes in their
way is coal-tar products, which are used in various operation of textile wet processing, some
of which are criticised for environmental pollution and health hazards. So it becomes very
important to replace those dyes and chemicals by more environmental friendly pr oducts
obtained from natural resources. At present, natural antimicrobial agent finished articles fall in
small niche markets fed by craft workers and small commercial firms, viz dyeing of fishing
net. But today's small niche market can become a larger market tomorrow as has been shown
for herbal teas and natural cosmetics. There has been little attempt to define and predict the
market for natural products which possess colouristic as well as antimicrobial properties.
[10,29,34]
Page 21 of 38
Herbal antimicrobial agents which are commercially used on textiles:
 Clove
 Aloe vera
 Neem extract
 Tree tree oil
 Azuki beans
 Silk sericin balm Prickly
 chaff flower
 Tulsi
 Cassia senna
 Tridax procumbens
 Onion extract
 Natural dyes (Pomegranate, Turmeric or curcumin, lawsone, henna, juglone, lapachol,
Quercus infectoria, etc.) [11]
In this project particular these herbal antimicrobial agents are covered:
i. Mangosteen
ii. Punica granatum Peel
iii. Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese herb)
iv. Eucalyptus Leaves
Page 22 of 38
2.8.1 MANGOSTEEN PERICARP (GARCINIA MANGOSTANA)
Garcinia mangostana Linn. commonly known as " mangosteen", is a tropical evergreen tree
and is an emerging category of novel functional foods sometimes called "superfruits" presumed
to have a combination of appealing subjective characteristics, such as taste, fragrance and
visual qualities, nutrient richness, antioxidant strength and potential impact for lowering risk
of human diseases. Mangosteen is one of the most famous fruits in Thailand and the pericarps
of G. mangostana have been widely used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhea,
skin infection and chronic wounds in South East Asia for many years. Extract from its pericarp
has been demonstrated the antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of microorganisms.
Previous studies have shown that the extracts from various parts contain varieties of secondary
metabolites such as prenylated and oxygenated xanthones. Xanthones or xanthen-9H-ones is a
secondary metabolite found in some higher plant that involves mangosteen. Xanthones could
be isolated from peel, whole fruit, bark, and leaves of mangosteen. Several studies have shown
that obtained xanthones from mangosteen have remarkable biological activities such as
antioxidant, antitumoral, anti-inflammatory, antiallergy, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral
activities.[12]
It was found that mangosteen extract exhibited moderate to excellent antibacterial effect
against all the pathogens at smaller concentrations like 5 µl, 10 µl and 15µl. This proves its
efficacy as a natural antibacterial agent in curing various diseases. Mangosteen extracts was
spray-coated on commercially available melt-blown PP layers to develop a three-layer
antimicrobial mask with improved hydrophilic character. BFE was conducted and was reported
to be 97.9 ± 0.2% for the face mask containing 5% (w/v) mangosteen extract. This 97.2%
antimicrobial activity of the extract was retained even after 21 days of storage and did not
compromise the mechanical attributes of the filter. [13,14,15]
FIGURE 7
Page 23 of 38
2.8.2 SCUTELLARIA BAICALENSIS (CHINESE HERB)
Baikal skullcap (scientific name Scutellaria baicalensis) is a plant. The root is used to make
medicine. Common substitutions for Baikal skullcap in Chinese medicine include related
plants whose scientific names are Scutellaria viscidula, Scutellaria amonea, and Scutellaria
ikoninikovii.[40]
According to recent study reports the development of a three-layer antibacterial face mask
consisting of a nonwoven PP outer layer, antibacterial filter layer and an inner medical
cotton yarn layer. Microcapsule made from the extract of Scutellaria baicalensis was used
as an antimicrobial agent in face mask. Antibacterial studies revealed that all filter clothes
exhibited >96% reduction against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Further, nonwoven
PP, cotton, and polyester exhibited BFE of 97.31, 95.44, and 91.7%. It is reported that the
antibacterial activity of Scutellaria baicalensis is due to the bioactive components present
like wogonin, baicalein, and baicalin. [16,17,18]
FIGURE 8
Page 24 of 38
2.8.3 EUCALYPTUS LEAVES EXTRACT
Eucalyptus is tall evergreen tree that’s widely used for its medicinal properties. It cultivated
in almost all states and Union territories of India& Eucalyptus tereticornis & Eucalyptus
hybrid are the two most widely planted eucalypts in India
Benefits of Eucalyptus Leaves:
Relieves cold symptoms (anti-viral).
Kills bacteria and fungi (anti-microbial).
Lower risk of certain cancers, heart disease. [19]
Presence of 1,8-cineole (Eucalyptol), Tannins and flavonoids in the extract. According to
the studies Eucalyptus leaves extract holds fairly good antimicrobial efficiency against
bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) when applied to cotton and wool. Washing efficiency for
wool was good but cotton holds poor washing fastness, further improving the laundering
durability, especially for cotton fabric, would be crucial for industrial development.
[20,21,28]
FIGURE 9
Page 25 of 38
2.8.4 PUNICA GRANATUM PEEL EXTRACTS
Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extracts have been shown to possess significant
antioxidant activity in various in vitro models. Dried pomegranate peels were powdered and
extracted with methanol. Presence of polyphenolic group performs the antimicrobial activity.
Antioxidant-rich fractions were extracted from pomegranate (Punica granatum) peels and seeds
using ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. The extracts were screened for their potential as
antioxidants using various in vitro models, such as β-carotene−linoleate and 1,1-diphenyl-2-
picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) model systems. The methanol extract of peels showed 83 and 81%
antioxidant activity at 50 ppm using the β-carotene-linoleate and DPPH model systems,
respectively. Similarly, the methanol extract of seeds showed 22.6 and 23.2% antioxidant
activity at 100 ppm using the β-carotene−linoleate and DPPH model systems, respectively. As
the methanol extract of pomegranate peel showed the highest antioxidant activity among all of
the extracts, it was selected for testing of its effect on lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radical
scavenging activity, and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. The methanol extract
showed 56, 58, and 93.7% inhibition using the thiobarbituric acid method, hydroxyl radical
scavenging activity, and LDL oxidation, respectively, at 100 ppm. This is the first report on
the antioxidant properties of the extracts from pomegranate peel and seeds. [25,26]
FIGURE 10
Page 26 of 38
2.9 MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF NATURAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS:
The action mechanism of natural agents has not been fully understood. Different
natural antimicrobial agents act in different way.
List of possible actions of the natural antimicrobial agents:
i. Presence of Membrane-disrupting compounds
ii. Direct pH reduction of the substrate
iii. Organic acids interfering with membrane
iv. Extract producing structural and functional damage to the bacterial cell
membrane.
Page 27 of 38
CHAPTER 3
METHODS OF INCORPORATION
Page 28 of 38
METHOD FOR INCORPORATION
3.1 COATING
The formulation of a textile coating is complicated, and it can contain a wide range of
chemicals depending on the nature of the polymer, the additives for the specific end use
and the type of coating machinery used for its application.
i. Dip coating
Dip coating refers to the immersing of a substrate into a tank containing coating material,
removing the piece from the tank, and allowing it to drain. The coated piece can then be
dried by force-drying or baking. It is a popular way of creating thin film coated materials
along with the spin coating procedure.
FIGURE 11
ii. Spray Coating
Spray of particles or droplets to deposit a material onto a substrate is carried out
to get treated fabric. there is a problem associated with this method that resultant
washing fastness is poor.
Page 29 of 38
3.2 MICROENCAPSULATION
Microencapsulation is a process by which individual particles of an active agent can be
stored within a shell, surrounded or coated with a continuous film of polymeric material to
produce particles in the micrometre to millimetre range, for protection and/or later release.
3.3 GRAFTING
Surface grafting of textiles is relatively recent technology that offers a variety of ways in
which to alter the surface of textile substrates and, thus, impart new or improved functional
properties. Through grafting extract is applied onto the fabric. [32,33]
Page 30 of 38
CHAPTER 4
EFFICIENCY TESTS
Page 31 of 38
EFFICIENCY TESTS
METHODS FOR TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES
The following are different test methods used for determining the effectiveness of
antimicrobial treatments on textile products:
AATCC 30 (2004): Antifungal activity, assessment on textile materials: mildew
and rot resistance of textile materials:
The general purpose of this method is to determine the susceptibility of textile
materials to mildew and rot and to evaluate the efficacy of fungicides on textile
materials. Four tests were used:
Test I: Soil burial: This procedure is generally considered to be the most severe test
for textile products. Only those specimens that will come in direct contact with soil,
such as sandbags, tarpaulins, tents need to be tested by this procedure. The length of
exposure to the soil bed and percent retained breaking strength when compared to the
unexposed textile were then reported.
Test II: Agar plate, Chaetomium globosum: This procedure is used for evaluating
rot resistance of cellulose-containing textile materials that will not come in contact
with soil. It may also be used for determining uniformity of fungicide treatment. The
change in breaking strength as compared to the sample before exposure or the control
and the extent of fungal growth on the discs, using a microscope (50X) were
determined by visual assessment.[39]
Test III: Agar plate, Aspergillus niger: Certain fungi, including Aspergillus niger,
can grow on textile products without causing measurable breaking strength loss
within a laboratory experimental time frame. Nonetheless, their growth may produce
undesirable and unsightly effects. This procedure is used to evaluate textile
specimens where growth of these fungi is important. At the end of the incubation
period, the percentage of surface area of the discs covered with the growth
of Aspergillus niger, using a microscope (50X) was then estimated.
Page 32 of 38
Test IV: Humidity jar, mixed spore suspension: This test method is designed to
determine the fungistatic effectiveness of treatments intended to control mildew and
non-pathogenic fungal growth on articles or surfaces composed of textile materials
intended for outdoor and above ground use and which are usually waterproofed. A
record of the percent of surface area covered with fungal growth for each strip is
made at weekly intervals or until heavy growth occurs on each sample replicate, using
a microscope (50X).
AATCC 100 (2004): Assessment of antibacterial finishes on textile materials:
Assessment of antibacterial finishes on textile materials is determined by the degree
of antibacterial activity intended in the use of such materials. If only bacteriostatic
activity (inhibition of multiplication) is intended, a qualitative procedure which
clearly demonstrates antibacterial activity as contrasted with lack of such activity by
an untreated specimen may be acceptable. However, if bactericidal activity is
intended or implied, quantitative evaluation is necessary and it can provide a clearer
picture for possible uses of such treated textile materials.
AATCC 147 (2004): Antibacterial activity assessment of textile materials
(Parallel streak method):
The parallel streak method has filled the need for a relatively quick and easily
executed qualitative method to determine antibacterial activity of diffusable
antimicrobial agents on treated textile materials. AATCC Method 100, is a
quantitative procedure which is adequately sensitive but is cumbersome and time
consuming for routine quality control and screening tests. Therefore, when the intent
is to demonstrate bacteriostatic activity by the diffusion of the antibacterial agent
through agar, Method 147 fulfils this need. In the parallel streak method, the agar
surface is inoculated making it easier to distinguish between the test organism and
contaminant organisms which may be present on the unsterilized specimen. The
parallel streak method has proven effective over a number of years of use in providing
evidence of antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and Gram-negative
bacteria. The incubated plates for interruption of growth along the streaks of
inoculum beneath the specimen and for a clear zone of inhibition beyond its edge was
then measured. [22,23,24]
Page 33 of 38
CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION
Page 34 of 38
CONCLUSION
Due to increase awareness of health, hygienic lifestyles and negative impacts of chemically
treated masks, natural antibacterial agents are in demand. Having a mask with antimicrobial
activity which do not affect environment and can be used multiple times will be beneficial.
Natural herbs (eucalyptus leaves, mangosteen, Punica granatum Peel, Scutellaria baicalensis
(Chinese herb) which are studied are showing good resistance to microbes (E. coli and S.
aureus), Comparing with synthetic agents, natural agents are lagging in efficiency but still with
some agents more than 98% efficiency can be achieved.
Page 35 of 38
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[4] M. M. Farley, 2009 H1n1 Influenza: A Twenty-First Century Pandemic With Roots In The
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[7]C.E. Rodriguez-Martinez, M.P. Sossa-Briceño, J.A. Cortés-Luna Decontamination And
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[13] Divya Raichu Jacob, Nora Vigasini And Priya Iyer ; Antibacterial Activity Of Mangosteen
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[14] P. Ekabutr, P. Chuysinuan, S. Suksamrarn, W. Sukhumsirichart, P. Hongmanee And P.
Supaphol Development Of Antituberculosis Melt-Blown Polypropylene Filters Coated With
Mangosteen Extracts For Medical Face Mask Application; Journal: Polymer Bulletin 4/2019
[15] Anastasia Wheni Indrianingsih ; Antibacterial Activity Of Garcinia Mangostana Peel-
Dyed Cotton Fabrics Using Synthetic And Natural Mordants , June 2021, (Sustainable
Chemistry And Pharmacy)
[16] M. Kubo, Y. Kimura, T. Odani, T. Tani And K. Namba, Studies On Scutellariae
Radix, Planta Med., 1981, 43, 194–201.
[17] C. Duan, S. Matsumura, N. Kariya, M. Nishimura And T. Shimono, In Vitro Antibacterial
Activities Of Scutellaria Baicalensis Georgi Against Cariogenic Bacterial, Pediatr. Dent. J.,
2007, 17, 58–64
[18] Y.-F. Wang, F. Kang, S.-J. You, C.-H. Tsai And G.-L. Lin; Preparation And Characteristic
Of Antibacterial Facemasks With Chinese Herbal; (Aerosol And Air Quality Research, 17:
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[19] Amakura, Y., Uminoa, Y., Tsujia, S., Itob, H., Hatanob, T., Yoshidab, T., & Tonogaia, Y.
(2002). Constituents And Their Antioxidative Effects In Eucalyptus Leaf Extract Used As A
Natural Food Additive. Food Chemistry, 77, 47–56.
[20] B. Ben Fadhel , A. Aissi , N. Ladhari , M. Deghrigue , R. Chemli & J.-P. Joly (2012)
Antibacterial Effects Of Two Tunisian Eucalyptus Leaf Extracts On Wool And Cotton Fabrics,
The Journal Of The Textile Institute, 103:11, 1197-1204
[21] The Effectiveness Of Tea Tree Oil And Eucalyptus Oil Aromaterapy For Toddlers With
Common Cold By Maftuchah, Priskila Iris Christine, M Jamaluddin
[22] AATCC 30, 2004. Antifungal Activity, Assessment On Textile Materials: Mildew And
Rot Resistance Of Textile Materials. Research Triangle Part, Nc. Usa, 81.
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[23] AATCC-100-2004, 2005. Antibacterial Finishes On Textile Materials: Assessment Of.
American Association Of Textile Chemists And Colourists. Aatcc Technical Manual, 80: 149-
151.
[24] AATCC 147, 2004. Antibacterial Activity Assessment Of Textile Materials: Parallel
Streak Method. Research Triangle Part, Nc. Usa, 263.
[25] Rosida Abdullah; Antibacterial And Wash Durability Activity Of Cotton Fabric Treated
With Punicagranatum And Citrus Limon Peel Extracts Against Skin Pathogens; June 2018,
Malaysian Applied Biology
[26] Kotamballi N. Chidambara Murthy, Guddadarangavvahally K.Jayaprakasha; Studies On
Antioxidant Activity Of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum) Peel Extract Using In Vivo Models;
Food Chem. 2002, 50, 17, 4791–4795
[27] S Rajendran And S C Anand; Development Of Versatile Antimicrobial Finish For Textile
Materials For Health Care And Hygiene Applications, Bolton Institute, Uk, Woodhead
Publishing Series In Textiles 2001, Pages 107-116
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Extracts And Flavonoids From Eucalyptus Maculate; 2004
[29] Yasotha P, Pachiyappan K. M, Aafrin Banu M. U And Bhanindhraa B; Natural
Antimicrobial Agents For Textile Materials; World Journal Of Pharmaceutical Research July
2019
[30] Maftuchah, Priskila Iris Christine, M Jamaluddin; The Effectiveness Of Tea Tree Oil And
Eucalyptus Oil Aromaterapy For Toddlers With Common Cold; Journal Kebidanan Feb.,2020
[31] Gayathri Pullangott, Uthradevi Kannan, Gayathri S, Degala Venkata Kiran
And Shihabudheen M. Maliyekkal; A Comprehensive Review On Antimicrobial Face Masks:
An Emerging Weapon In Fighting Pandemics; The Royal Society Of Chemistry 2021, 11,
6544-6576
[32] Monica Periolatto, Franco Ferrero, Claudia Vineis, Alessio Varesano And Giuseppe
Gozzelino; Novel Antimicrobial Agents And Processes For Textile Applications; The Journal
Of The Textile Institute, Published: May 31st 2017
[33] R. L. And B.L. Triplett; A New Durable Antimicrobial Finish For Textiles, Aatcc Book
Of Papers. 1978. Pg. 259-261.
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[34] Yasotha P, Pachiyappan K. M, Aafrin Banu M. U And Bhanindhraa B; Natural
Antimicrobial Agents For Textile Materials; World Journal Of Pharmaceutical Research July
2019
[35] M Joshia , S Wazed Ali & R Purwar Indian; Ecofriendly Antimicrobial Finishing Of
Textiles Using Bioactive Agents Based On Natural Products; Journal Of Fiber And Textile
Research, Sept 2009
[36] Ionela Daciana Ciocan, Ion I. Băra; Plant Products As Antimicrobial Agents; February
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[37] Y.Li, P.Leung, L.Yao, Q.W.Song, E.Newton; Antimicrobial Effect Of Surgical Masks
Coated With Nanoparticles; Journal Of Hospital Infection Volume 62, Issue 1, January 2006,
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[38] Varaprasad Bobbarala; Antimicrobial Agents; Intech Publishers September 2012
[39] Lance R Peterson, C J Shanholtzer; Tests for bactericidal effects of antimicrobial agents:
Technical performance and clinical relevance; November 1992 Clinical Microbiology
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[40] G. Thilagavathi, Rajendrakumar Kumar, Radhai Rajendran; Development Of Ecofriendly
Antimicrobial Textile Finishes Using Herbs; December 2005 Indian Journal Of Fibre And
Textile Research 30(4):431-436

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Natural antimicrobial agents and behaviour on face masks

  • 1. STUDY OF NATURAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND THEIR BEHAVIOUR ON FACE MASKS REPORT OF PROJECT WORK-II (TE-811) BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY TEXTILE ENGINEERING JUNE, 2021 SUBMITTED BY ADITYA CHAUHAN (17BT010705) GAURAV SHARMA (1602632016) PROJECT GUIDE ER. PRIYA JASWAL ER. PREETI GAUTAM DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE ENGINEERING, JWAHARLAL NEHRU GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLGE, SUNDERNAGAR (H.P.) 175018
  • 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Project making is an integral part of the HIMACHAL PRADESH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY engineering curriculum. We place on record and warmly acknowledge the continuous encouragement, invaluable supervision, timely suggestions and inspired guidance offered by our guide Er. PRIYA JASWAL & Er. PREETI GAUTAM, Department of Textile Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Govt. Engineering College, Sundernagar, in bringing this report to a successful completion. We are grateful to Er. PRAVEEN KUMAR, Head of the Department of Textile Engineering, for permitting us to make use of the facilities available in the department to carry out the project successfully. Last but not the least we express our sincere thanks to all of our friends who have patiently extended all sorts of help for accomplishing this undertaking. Without the help and guidance of these people we would not have been able to make this project. Also, we have taken help for other resources as well, which also include internet.
  • 3. CERTIFICATE We hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the B. Tech Projected entitled “STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND BEHAVIOUR ON FACE MASKS “, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the B. Tech in Textile Engineering and submitted to the Department of Textile Engineering of Jawaharlal Nehru Govt. Engineering College, Sundernagar, H.P., is an authentic record of our team work carried out during a period from Jan, 2021 to Jun, 2021 under the supervision of Er. Priya Jaswal & Er. Preeti Gautam Assistant Professor, Department of Textile Engineering. The matter presented in this project has not been submitted by us for the award of any other degree elsewhere. Candidate’s Name Candidate’s Signature Aditya Chauhan (17BT010705) Gaurav Sharma (1602632016) This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidates is correct to the best of our knowledge. Date: Project Guide’s Signature Er. Priya Jaswal Er. Preeti Gautam Department of Textile Engineering Jawaharlal Nehru Govt. Engineering College, Sundernagar Signature of Head/OIC Signature of External Examiner Er, Praveen Kumar Department of Textile Engineering Jawaharlal Nehru Govt. Engineering College
  • 4. Page 4 of 38 ABSTRACT The increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in recent decades has posed a serious threat to public health. Routes of transmission differ, but the respiratory droplet or airborne route has the greatest potential to disrupt social intercourse, wearing face masks can reduce disease transmission. However, excessive use of single-use polymer-based face masks will pose a significant challenge to the environment. On the contrary, face masks with inherent antimicrobial properties can help in real-time deactivation of microorganisms enabling multiple-use and reduces secondary infections. Therefore, research on environment-friendly antimicrobial agents (AMA) based on natural products is gaining worldwide interest. In this study, several research papers have been reviewed consisting of antimicrobial compounds, which are extracted from medicinal plants and found to be effective against bacteria when applied on face mask or have potential of being applied. Study, also includes different method of these AMA application and testing procedures. Keywords--- face mask, natural antimicrobial agents, bacteria, Filtration, eucalyptus leaves, mangosteen, Punica granatum Peel, Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese herb)
  • 6. Page 6 of 38 CONTENT 1 Introduction………………………………………………….…………….….8 2 Literature Review…………………….………………………….…………....10 2.1 What is face mask…………………………………………………………………........11 2.1.1. Types of mask……………………………...…………………………………….......12 2.2. Role of face mask in preventing the spread of infections diseases………...………….13 2.3. Mechanism of filtration.................………………………………………….…………14 2.4. what are microbes or microoganisms…………………………………….……………15 2.5 Antimicrobial treatment…………………………………………………........................16 2.6 Antimicrobial face mask…………………………………………………………….......17 2.7 Types of antimicrobials agents...................……………………………………………...18 2.8. Natural antimicrobials agents……………………………………………………...........20 2.8.1 Mangosteen pericarp......................…………………………………………………….22 2.8.2 Scutellaria baicalensis………………………………………………………………….23 2.8.3 Eucalyptus leaves extract..............…………………………………………………......24 2.8.4 Punica granatum peel extract………………………………………………..................25 2.9 mechanisms of action antimicrobials agents…………………………………………….26 3.Method of incorporation ………………………………………………………………….27 3.1Coating...........................................……………………………………….………............28 3.2 Microencapsulation..........................................………………………………………......29 3.3 Grafting......................……………………………………………………………………29 4.Efficiency test.......................................................................................................................30 5. Conclusion...........................................................................................................................33 6. References...........................................................................................................................35
  • 7. Page 7 of 38 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 N95 MASK Figure 2 CLOTH MASK ................................................................................................11 Figure 3 SURGICAL MASK Figure 4 KNITTED MASK ............................................................................................11 Figure 5 MECHANISM OF FILTERATION.................................................................14 Figure 6 ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS .........................................................................18 Figure 7 MANGOSTEEN ..............................................................................................22 Figure 8 SCUTELLARIA BAICALENSIS....................................................................23 Figure 9 1,8-CINEOLE...................................................................................................24 Figure 10 PUNICA GRANATUM PEEL.........................................................................25 Figure 11 DIP COATING.................................................................................................28
  • 8. Page 8 of 38 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 9. Page 9 of 38 INTRODUCTION Fibres, both natural and man-made, have been widely used since the ancient past in the manufacture of other materials. World fibre consumption has strongly increased over the years, reaching a total demand of 94.9 million tons in 2015. In detail, 66.8 million tons were man- made fibres, in addition to natural fibres with a demand of 28.1 million tons Nowadays, besides the traditional clothing products, textiles find important applications also in home furnishing, food packaging, as fibre reinforcements for polymers, optical fibres, thermal and mechanical protection, sport equipment, fibrous materials for a large array of applications in medicine and hygiene such as medical devices, health care and hygienic coatings, air filters and water purification systems. An important example of these functional fabrics, recently attracting the interest of the research, is antimicrobial fabrics. Due to the morphology of fibres, in particular those of natural origin, textiles are prone to microorganisms’ growth on their surface, due to the large surface area and moisture affinity. Bacteria and fungi can be found everywhere, so the contact with textiles is extremely probable. Depending on moisture, nutrients, temperature and pH, their growth can be very fast: some bacteria can double every 20 min [1]. The use of antimicrobial compounds in textiles has grown dramatically over the last decades. The potential application field is wide. It ranges from industrial textiles exposed to weather such as awnings, screens and tents; upholstery used in large public areas such as hospitals, hotels and stations; fabrics for transports; protective clothing and personal protective equipment; bed sheets and blankets; textiles left wet between processing steps; intimate apparel, underwear, socks and sportswear. Another large field of application is in filtration and disinfection of air and water for white rooms, hospitals and operating theatres, food and pharmaceutical industries, water depuration, drinkable water supplying and air-conditioning systems. But now a days they are trending for implementation on face masks (prevents airborne transmission of infections between persons by blocking the movement of pathogens (primarily bacteria and viruses) shed in respiratory droplets and aerosols into and from the wearer's mouth and nose), Further these antimicrobial compounds can be divided by their source of origin i.e. into two types synthetic and natural compounds.[2] This project is particularly focused on the study of natural antimicrobial agents which are applied on face masks or have potential to be applied in future, to provide mask with antimicrobial behaviour.
  • 10. Page 10 of 38 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
  • 11. Page 11 of 38 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 WHAT IS FACE MASK Face Mask is porous filter media used for purifying aerosol impurities from air and to reduce the potential contact of the wearer to airborne hazardous contaminants. Respiratory masks (RM) are protective devices covering a part of the face. They are designed to protect both the person who wears them and the immediate environment from breathable pollutants (respiratory poisons or bacterial/viral pathogenic organisms). Different masks can be classified as full masks (normed following EN 136) and half and quarter masks (EN 140) (Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4). While a full mask covers the whole face, a half-mask fits from under the chin to above the nose, a quarter mask fits from the top of the nose to the top of the chin. The breathing resistance varies proportionally to the density of the mask material. [3] FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4
  • 12. Page 12 of 38 2.1.1 TYPES OF MASK CLOTH MASK This type of mask is the simplest one which can be used during severe periods. During a pandemic respiratory because of the scarcity or availability of filtering facepiece respirators, some people may prefer to use cloth products for respiratory safety. CLOTH MASK WITH FILTER THE cloth mask with filter is made triple layer mask in which outer and inner layer is made of simple fabric and middle layer is the filtration layer where mostly synthetic material is used like polypropylene for reduction in penetration of small particles. cloth face mask is holds at least 70% protection efficiency. SURGICAL MASK This type of mask is thin paper-like masks and are usually white and light blue. Surgical face masks can filter out about 60% of smaller inhaled particles. They are primarily intended to stop droplets sprays and splatters and studies have shown that diligently wearing surgical masks in public spaces can significantly reduce the spread of respiratory infection. Surgical masks are not designed to be used more than once. N95 MASK These types are a type of FFR masks, are non-oil resistant, also known as electrets filters. The word N95 is obtained from the fact that these types of masks can at least filter 95% of aerosols around 0.3 μm. N95 face mask is more efficient than other masks. N95s protect the person wearing the mask because they filter out particles from the air. perhaps any other mask (cotton and disposable) is not intended to protect others around you from your own respiratory droplets.[7]
  • 13. Page 13 of 38 2.2 ROLE OF FACE MASK IN PREVENTING THE SPREAD OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES The spread of infectious diseases from person to person and the degree of transmission vary based on the aetiology and mode of transmission. Usually, the degree of transmission is estimated by a mathematical number know as reproduction number. It determines the number of infections caused by a single infected individual. It combines factors such as duration of infectiousness, the speed of contact to vulnerable individuals per unit time, and the probability of transmission per contact. The transmission ways are mainly classified into the following three: (i) direct transmission – infected droplet/aerosol transmission. (ii) airborne route – inhaling infected respiratory aerosols. (iii) contact transmission through secretions on fomites or directly such as through physical touch resulting in hand-to-mouth, hand-to-eye or hand-to-nose transmission. [4]
  • 14. Page 14 of 38 2.3 MECHANISMS OF FILTRATION A face mask helps prevent airborne, droplet and aerosol transmission where the primary control mechanism lies in reducing exposure. Face mask help in filtering out particles of different sizes through various mechanisms: i. Inertial impaction by which particles with more mass and inertia are diverted from the streamline around the filter fiber. ii. Interception by filter fibers of larger particles. iii. Diffusion which results from the collision with air molecules or fibers resulting in deviation from streamline on account of the Brownian movement of fine particles. iv. Electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged particles and filter media, without any size distinction of particles. FIGURE 5 (MECHANISM OF FILTERATION THROUGH MASK)
  • 15. Page 15 of 38 2.4 WHAT ARE MICROBES OR MICROORGANISMS Microbes are the tiniest creatures not seen by the naked eye. They include a variety of microorganisms like Bacteria, Fungi, Algae and viruses. Bacteria are uni-cellular organisms, which grow very rapidly under warmth and moisture. Further, sub divisions in the bacteria family are Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative (E-Coli), spore bearing or non-spore bearing type. Some specific types of bacteria are pathogenic and cause cross infection. Fungi, molds or mildew are complex organisms with slow growth rate. They stain the fabric and deteriorate the performance properties of the fabrics. Fungi are active at a pH level of 6.5. Algae are typical microorganisms, which are either fungal or bacterial. Algae require continuous sources of water and sunlight to grow and develop darker stains on the fabrics. Algae are active in the PH range of 7.0-8.0. Dust mites are eight legged creatures and occupy the household textiles such as blankets bed linen, pillows, mattresses and carpets. The dust mites feed on human skin cells and liberated waste products can cause allergic reactions and respiratory disorders.[6] SOURCES OF MICROBES i. In the air that we breath ii. In the soil iii. In our skin and bodies iv. Everywhere IDEAL CONDITIONS FOR MICROBIAL GROWTH i. Food ii. Warm temperature iii. Moisture (Humidity, Spills) iv. Receptive surface (skin, fabric) v. Neutral pH value
  • 16. Page 16 of 38 2.5 ANTIMICROBIALS TREATMENT Antimicrobial’s treatment, destroy or suppress the growth of microorganisms and their negative effects of odour, staining and deterioration. Antimicrobials do not all work the same. The vast majority of antimicrobials work by leaching or moving from the surface on which they are applied. This is the mechanism used by leaching antimicrobials to poison a microorganism. Such chemicals have been used for decades in agricultural applications with mixed results. Besides affecting durability and useful life, leaching technologies have the potential to cause a variety of other problems when used in garments. These include their negative effects because, they can contact the skin and potentially affect the normal skin bacteria, cross the skin barrier, and/or have the potential to cause rashes and other skin irritations. A more serious problem with leaching technologies has to do with their allowing for the adaptation of microorganisms. An antimicrobial with a completely different mode of action than the leaching technologies is a molecularly bonded unconventional technology. The bound unconventional antimicrobial technology, an organofunctional silane, has a mode of action that relies on the technology remaining affixed to the substrate killing microorganisms as they contact the surface to which it is applied. Effective levels of this technology do not leach or diminish over time. When applied, the technology actually polymerizes with the substrate making the surface antimicrobial. This type of antimicrobial technology is used in textiles that are likely to have human contact or where durability is of value.[37] Necessity of Antimicrobial finishes: i. To avoid cross infection by pathogenic micro-organisms. ii. To control the infestation by microbes. iii. To arrest metabolism in microbes to reduce the formation of odour. iv. To safeguard the textile products from staining, discolouration and quality deterioration.[9]
  • 17. Page 17 of 38 2.6 ANTIMICROBIAL FACE MASKS The use of a face mask as an RPD (Respiratory protective device) is instrumental in preventing airborne, droplet, and aerosol transmission, where the primary control mechanism lies in reducing exposure. However, there are serious concerns about the usage of conventional disposable face masks. When infected individual coughs or sneezes, the pathogen laden droplets can splash out and adheres to the immediate contact surfaces, and remain viable for several days. Many studies have proven the presence of SARS-CoV-2 on various material surfaces, including inner and outer layers of face masks for a period of 4 and 7 days, respectively. These contaminated face mask surfaces, in turn, becomes a source of fomite transmission. Besides, the warm and humid conditions inside the face mask due to breathing and saliva creates a favourable environment for the intercepted microorganisms to grow and flourish. The moist conditions will induce a capillary action due to which the intercepted microorganisms transfer further into the inner layers via suction, thus endangering the health of the wearer. Eventually, these microorganisms will aggregate as an extracellular polymeric matrix containing polysaccharides, proteins, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) resulting in the formation of biofilms. In these situations, an unexpected danger arises due to the re- aerosolization of the settled particles during intense sneezing or coughing by the wearer. Microbial survival and re-growth on conventional face masks after usage and improper storage can also lead to secondary infections in humans. So, face masks are typically discarded after a single-use to avoid the inoculation and spread of highly infectious pathogens. This type of single-use and discard culture can lead to its massive shortage and the generation of a large quantum of hazardous waste, especially during pandemic times. The gap in supply and demand coupled with unaffordability, disposal challenges, and possible adverse impact on the environment calls for reusable face masks. Antimicrobial face masks look attractive over conventional face mask and can address some of the concerns associated with single-use face masks by providing in situ real-time antimicrobial protection. Several AMA are developed over the years and are available in different forms, including films, coatings, beads, and NPs. The surfaces coated AMA are reported to be effective in deactivating/killing microorganisms and preventing the formation of biofilms.
  • 18. Page 18 of 38 2.7 TYPES OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS A variety of agents are available that may impart significant effect in textile fibres to inhibit the growth of microorganism. The important types of antimicrobial agents can be classified into broadly 3 types [fig.6] FIGURE 6 Organic antimicrobial agents Organic antimicrobial agents such as quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), N- Halamines, Polyhexamethylene Biguanide; triclosan; silicon based quaternary agent; iodohors, phenols and thiophenols, heterocyclics, inorganic salts, nitro compound, urea, amines and formaldehyde derivatives, have been applied for antimicrobial treatment of textiles. QACs have been tested for antimicrobial activity of protein base wool, cellulose base cotton, synthetic base polyamides and polyester, the MIC value 10-100mg/l presented good reproducibility and good washing durability. These formations kill the microbes by altering cell membrane permeability, obstructing the synthesis of proteins of microbes, blocking enzyme production necessary for microbes’ food. The N-halamine compound is used for the development of antimicrobial cotton Anti-microbialagents Organic agents Inorganic agents Natural agents Plant based Animal based
  • 19. Page 19 of 38 fabric through pad-drycure process followed by the exposure to chlorine bleach. The chlorinated sample showed potential antimicrobial ability against gram +ve and Gram –ve pathogens. It was experimented that on chlorinated after 15 days storage 85% of chlorine could be recharged that shows N-halamine compounds have good biocidal efficiency for healthcare textiles. Another organic based antimicrobial agent, Triclosan has been investigated for its antimicrobial ability for polyester, nylon, regenerated cellulose and acrylic fibres; with MIC value below than 10ppm versus bacteria against. Triclosan has excellent durability after use/washing and it prevents microbial growth by obstructing lipid biosynthesis. The most acceptable organic agent used for healthcare procedures, pharmaceutical and food industry is Poly-hexamethylene biguinide (PHMB). It’s efficient against both types of bacteria, in addition to yeasts and fungi. PHMB is slightly toxic and fewer skin infection issues were reported. It used in variety of products including undergarment and towel fabric to obstruct microbial growth and exhibited good washing durability. PHMB is bacterio-static at 1-10mg/l but at elevated values its bactericidal activity and inhibition rate raise collectively. The utmost antibacterial inhibition action of PHMB obtained between 5-6pH value. Inorganic Antimicrobial Agents The inorganic finishing agents such as metal oxides, copper and zinc, titanium, magnesium, silver and gold were applied for antimicrobial effects on textiles. These agents exhibited good durability for cellulose, protein, regenerated and synthetic materials with MIC value 0.05- 0.1mg/l versus gram negative bacteria, E. coli. Sliver is wide acceptable inorganic antimicrobial agent and kills microorganisms by blocking and disengages the intracellular proteins. However, silver is a slight toxic agent, it releases slowly and can worn-out of the fabric. Zeolites of chabazite-type with its optimal morphology and lowest silicon to aluminium ratio (Si/Al)solution that replaced with different combinations of silver, copper, and zinc ions to prepare single, binary, and ternary metal cation-modified zeolites were experimented and silver based zeolites exhibited more antimicrobial activity than the others and demonstrated good/suitable mechanical characters and excellent biocide effect against food borne bacteria and fungi on green polyethylene developed based on injection-molded composite. Further, the result confirmed its capability to rule the propagation of dangerous pathogens in environment of food processing and storage. Thus, these innovative antimicrobial materials are prospects for hygiene surfaces, kitchen accessories and packaging applications. [32]
  • 20. Page 20 of 38 Limitations of inorganic and organic agents In general, antibacterial property of any inorganic finishing agent is established with its chemical components. The biocide efficiency of inorganic agents slowly drops in use and during wash. The most of such agents carry limited intensity of microbes’ inhibition, moreover they are poisonous, initiate skin problem to humans and having problem to decompose in down streaming. To reduce the risks allied with the application such inorganic agents, there is enormous need of substitute agents for antimicrobial treatment of textiles. As mentioned early, a wide range of organic antimicrobial agents are available for textiles treatment but out of these agents; triclosan, quaternary ammonium compounds, Polyhexamethylene Biguanide have been used on commercial scale. Polyhexamethylene Biguanide is slightly contaminated with poisonous concerns and hard to decompose in down streaming. In US Preregistration Eligibility Decision for PHMB by US Environment Protection Agency” the discharge of effluents containing PHMB is not allowed without mandatory treatment. [6,8] 2.8 NATURAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT (PLANT AND FRUITS) Recently, eco-friendliness has become very important for human beings and for those people who want to live in a world of hygiene and freshness. The major hindrance that comes in their way is coal-tar products, which are used in various operation of textile wet processing, some of which are criticised for environmental pollution and health hazards. So it becomes very important to replace those dyes and chemicals by more environmental friendly pr oducts obtained from natural resources. At present, natural antimicrobial agent finished articles fall in small niche markets fed by craft workers and small commercial firms, viz dyeing of fishing net. But today's small niche market can become a larger market tomorrow as has been shown for herbal teas and natural cosmetics. There has been little attempt to define and predict the market for natural products which possess colouristic as well as antimicrobial properties. [10,29,34]
  • 21. Page 21 of 38 Herbal antimicrobial agents which are commercially used on textiles:  Clove  Aloe vera  Neem extract  Tree tree oil  Azuki beans  Silk sericin balm Prickly  chaff flower  Tulsi  Cassia senna  Tridax procumbens  Onion extract  Natural dyes (Pomegranate, Turmeric or curcumin, lawsone, henna, juglone, lapachol, Quercus infectoria, etc.) [11] In this project particular these herbal antimicrobial agents are covered: i. Mangosteen ii. Punica granatum Peel iii. Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese herb) iv. Eucalyptus Leaves
  • 22. Page 22 of 38 2.8.1 MANGOSTEEN PERICARP (GARCINIA MANGOSTANA) Garcinia mangostana Linn. commonly known as " mangosteen", is a tropical evergreen tree and is an emerging category of novel functional foods sometimes called "superfruits" presumed to have a combination of appealing subjective characteristics, such as taste, fragrance and visual qualities, nutrient richness, antioxidant strength and potential impact for lowering risk of human diseases. Mangosteen is one of the most famous fruits in Thailand and the pericarps of G. mangostana have been widely used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, skin infection and chronic wounds in South East Asia for many years. Extract from its pericarp has been demonstrated the antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of microorganisms. Previous studies have shown that the extracts from various parts contain varieties of secondary metabolites such as prenylated and oxygenated xanthones. Xanthones or xanthen-9H-ones is a secondary metabolite found in some higher plant that involves mangosteen. Xanthones could be isolated from peel, whole fruit, bark, and leaves of mangosteen. Several studies have shown that obtained xanthones from mangosteen have remarkable biological activities such as antioxidant, antitumoral, anti-inflammatory, antiallergy, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities.[12] It was found that mangosteen extract exhibited moderate to excellent antibacterial effect against all the pathogens at smaller concentrations like 5 µl, 10 µl and 15µl. This proves its efficacy as a natural antibacterial agent in curing various diseases. Mangosteen extracts was spray-coated on commercially available melt-blown PP layers to develop a three-layer antimicrobial mask with improved hydrophilic character. BFE was conducted and was reported to be 97.9 ± 0.2% for the face mask containing 5% (w/v) mangosteen extract. This 97.2% antimicrobial activity of the extract was retained even after 21 days of storage and did not compromise the mechanical attributes of the filter. [13,14,15] FIGURE 7
  • 23. Page 23 of 38 2.8.2 SCUTELLARIA BAICALENSIS (CHINESE HERB) Baikal skullcap (scientific name Scutellaria baicalensis) is a plant. The root is used to make medicine. Common substitutions for Baikal skullcap in Chinese medicine include related plants whose scientific names are Scutellaria viscidula, Scutellaria amonea, and Scutellaria ikoninikovii.[40] According to recent study reports the development of a three-layer antibacterial face mask consisting of a nonwoven PP outer layer, antibacterial filter layer and an inner medical cotton yarn layer. Microcapsule made from the extract of Scutellaria baicalensis was used as an antimicrobial agent in face mask. Antibacterial studies revealed that all filter clothes exhibited >96% reduction against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Further, nonwoven PP, cotton, and polyester exhibited BFE of 97.31, 95.44, and 91.7%. It is reported that the antibacterial activity of Scutellaria baicalensis is due to the bioactive components present like wogonin, baicalein, and baicalin. [16,17,18] FIGURE 8
  • 24. Page 24 of 38 2.8.3 EUCALYPTUS LEAVES EXTRACT Eucalyptus is tall evergreen tree that’s widely used for its medicinal properties. It cultivated in almost all states and Union territories of India& Eucalyptus tereticornis & Eucalyptus hybrid are the two most widely planted eucalypts in India Benefits of Eucalyptus Leaves: Relieves cold symptoms (anti-viral). Kills bacteria and fungi (anti-microbial). Lower risk of certain cancers, heart disease. [19] Presence of 1,8-cineole (Eucalyptol), Tannins and flavonoids in the extract. According to the studies Eucalyptus leaves extract holds fairly good antimicrobial efficiency against bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) when applied to cotton and wool. Washing efficiency for wool was good but cotton holds poor washing fastness, further improving the laundering durability, especially for cotton fabric, would be crucial for industrial development. [20,21,28] FIGURE 9
  • 25. Page 25 of 38 2.8.4 PUNICA GRANATUM PEEL EXTRACTS Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extracts have been shown to possess significant antioxidant activity in various in vitro models. Dried pomegranate peels were powdered and extracted with methanol. Presence of polyphenolic group performs the antimicrobial activity. Antioxidant-rich fractions were extracted from pomegranate (Punica granatum) peels and seeds using ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. The extracts were screened for their potential as antioxidants using various in vitro models, such as β-carotene−linoleate and 1,1-diphenyl-2- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) model systems. The methanol extract of peels showed 83 and 81% antioxidant activity at 50 ppm using the β-carotene-linoleate and DPPH model systems, respectively. Similarly, the methanol extract of seeds showed 22.6 and 23.2% antioxidant activity at 100 ppm using the β-carotene−linoleate and DPPH model systems, respectively. As the methanol extract of pomegranate peel showed the highest antioxidant activity among all of the extracts, it was selected for testing of its effect on lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. The methanol extract showed 56, 58, and 93.7% inhibition using the thiobarbituric acid method, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and LDL oxidation, respectively, at 100 ppm. This is the first report on the antioxidant properties of the extracts from pomegranate peel and seeds. [25,26] FIGURE 10
  • 26. Page 26 of 38 2.9 MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF NATURAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS: The action mechanism of natural agents has not been fully understood. Different natural antimicrobial agents act in different way. List of possible actions of the natural antimicrobial agents: i. Presence of Membrane-disrupting compounds ii. Direct pH reduction of the substrate iii. Organic acids interfering with membrane iv. Extract producing structural and functional damage to the bacterial cell membrane.
  • 27. Page 27 of 38 CHAPTER 3 METHODS OF INCORPORATION
  • 28. Page 28 of 38 METHOD FOR INCORPORATION 3.1 COATING The formulation of a textile coating is complicated, and it can contain a wide range of chemicals depending on the nature of the polymer, the additives for the specific end use and the type of coating machinery used for its application. i. Dip coating Dip coating refers to the immersing of a substrate into a tank containing coating material, removing the piece from the tank, and allowing it to drain. The coated piece can then be dried by force-drying or baking. It is a popular way of creating thin film coated materials along with the spin coating procedure. FIGURE 11 ii. Spray Coating Spray of particles or droplets to deposit a material onto a substrate is carried out to get treated fabric. there is a problem associated with this method that resultant washing fastness is poor.
  • 29. Page 29 of 38 3.2 MICROENCAPSULATION Microencapsulation is a process by which individual particles of an active agent can be stored within a shell, surrounded or coated with a continuous film of polymeric material to produce particles in the micrometre to millimetre range, for protection and/or later release. 3.3 GRAFTING Surface grafting of textiles is relatively recent technology that offers a variety of ways in which to alter the surface of textile substrates and, thus, impart new or improved functional properties. Through grafting extract is applied onto the fabric. [32,33]
  • 30. Page 30 of 38 CHAPTER 4 EFFICIENCY TESTS
  • 31. Page 31 of 38 EFFICIENCY TESTS METHODS FOR TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES The following are different test methods used for determining the effectiveness of antimicrobial treatments on textile products: AATCC 30 (2004): Antifungal activity, assessment on textile materials: mildew and rot resistance of textile materials: The general purpose of this method is to determine the susceptibility of textile materials to mildew and rot and to evaluate the efficacy of fungicides on textile materials. Four tests were used: Test I: Soil burial: This procedure is generally considered to be the most severe test for textile products. Only those specimens that will come in direct contact with soil, such as sandbags, tarpaulins, tents need to be tested by this procedure. The length of exposure to the soil bed and percent retained breaking strength when compared to the unexposed textile were then reported. Test II: Agar plate, Chaetomium globosum: This procedure is used for evaluating rot resistance of cellulose-containing textile materials that will not come in contact with soil. It may also be used for determining uniformity of fungicide treatment. The change in breaking strength as compared to the sample before exposure or the control and the extent of fungal growth on the discs, using a microscope (50X) were determined by visual assessment.[39] Test III: Agar plate, Aspergillus niger: Certain fungi, including Aspergillus niger, can grow on textile products without causing measurable breaking strength loss within a laboratory experimental time frame. Nonetheless, their growth may produce undesirable and unsightly effects. This procedure is used to evaluate textile specimens where growth of these fungi is important. At the end of the incubation period, the percentage of surface area of the discs covered with the growth of Aspergillus niger, using a microscope (50X) was then estimated.
  • 32. Page 32 of 38 Test IV: Humidity jar, mixed spore suspension: This test method is designed to determine the fungistatic effectiveness of treatments intended to control mildew and non-pathogenic fungal growth on articles or surfaces composed of textile materials intended for outdoor and above ground use and which are usually waterproofed. A record of the percent of surface area covered with fungal growth for each strip is made at weekly intervals or until heavy growth occurs on each sample replicate, using a microscope (50X). AATCC 100 (2004): Assessment of antibacterial finishes on textile materials: Assessment of antibacterial finishes on textile materials is determined by the degree of antibacterial activity intended in the use of such materials. If only bacteriostatic activity (inhibition of multiplication) is intended, a qualitative procedure which clearly demonstrates antibacterial activity as contrasted with lack of such activity by an untreated specimen may be acceptable. However, if bactericidal activity is intended or implied, quantitative evaluation is necessary and it can provide a clearer picture for possible uses of such treated textile materials. AATCC 147 (2004): Antibacterial activity assessment of textile materials (Parallel streak method): The parallel streak method has filled the need for a relatively quick and easily executed qualitative method to determine antibacterial activity of diffusable antimicrobial agents on treated textile materials. AATCC Method 100, is a quantitative procedure which is adequately sensitive but is cumbersome and time consuming for routine quality control and screening tests. Therefore, when the intent is to demonstrate bacteriostatic activity by the diffusion of the antibacterial agent through agar, Method 147 fulfils this need. In the parallel streak method, the agar surface is inoculated making it easier to distinguish between the test organism and contaminant organisms which may be present on the unsterilized specimen. The parallel streak method has proven effective over a number of years of use in providing evidence of antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The incubated plates for interruption of growth along the streaks of inoculum beneath the specimen and for a clear zone of inhibition beyond its edge was then measured. [22,23,24]
  • 33. Page 33 of 38 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION
  • 34. Page 34 of 38 CONCLUSION Due to increase awareness of health, hygienic lifestyles and negative impacts of chemically treated masks, natural antibacterial agents are in demand. Having a mask with antimicrobial activity which do not affect environment and can be used multiple times will be beneficial. Natural herbs (eucalyptus leaves, mangosteen, Punica granatum Peel, Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese herb) which are studied are showing good resistance to microbes (E. coli and S. aureus), Comparing with synthetic agents, natural agents are lagging in efficiency but still with some agents more than 98% efficiency can be achieved.
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