SlideShare a Scribd company logo
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE
CCD colour capture
Aditya Chauhan
Master of Technology
Packaging Technology
2
Content
• Introduction
• Image sensor
• Charge Coupled Devices
• Composition and working of CCDs
• Colored image using CCDs
• Methods of producing colored image with CCD
• Advantages and Disadvantages of CCD Sensors
3
Introduction
• In the past we used to place a piece of film behind lens.
• But now we have purely electronic imager to do all the work
4
Image Sensor
• It is the image sensor that decides
the image resolution. So, it is like
the heart of the camera.
• In the early days, the film used to
do this job. Now, it got replaced by
CCD and CMOS sensors.
• They are responsible for acquiring
each of the pixels in an image. An
image sensor is quantified based
on its size and number of
megapixels.
5
CCD (Charge Coupled Devices)
• Converts analogue signal of light image into digital
signals
• These digital signals are then transfers to camera’s
memory system and stored as a electronic data
• CCDs are about ten times more light-sensitive than film
6
Formation of CCD
• CCD is made from light sensitive silicon slab.
• Channel stops are the insulating section to make each pixel in
the slab
• Surface is covered with a thin layer of insulating silicon dioxide.
• Perpendicular to channel stops, thin aluminum strips are placed.
• This will divided silicon into a geometrically regular array of
thousands or millions of light-sensitive regions (pixels) that
capture and store image information in the form of localized
electrical charge.
7
Working of CCDs
• Sensor is exposed to light rays
• Photons will hit sensor and charge is build up proportional
to the light’s intensity
• Charge will amplify and then it will convert into voltage
signal
• Later these signals will get converted into digital numbers
and stored in memory
Photons
(light)
Electrons Voltage
Digital
numbers
8
Colored Image
• CCDs are not inherently
color sensitive
• For the acquisition of color
images with a CCD camera
requires that red, green, and
blue wavelengths be
isolated by color filters,
acquired separately, and
subsequently combined into
a composite color image.
9
Cont.
• Monochrome Chips have exact same pixel array
• They capture single black and white exposure
10
Ways to produce colored image
Three different ways are commonly employed to produce color
images with CCD camera systems in order to capture the
visual appearance.
• three-chip design
• frame-sequential method
• Bayer's pattern (most common)
11
Three-chip design
• The image is divided with a beam-splitting prism and color
filters into three (RGB) components, which are captured
with separate CCDs, and their outputs recombined into a
color image.
• Light intensity delivered to each CCD is substantially
reduced, the combined color image is much dimmer than a
monochrome single-chip image.
12
Frame-sequential method
• Frame-sequential are equipped with a motorized filter to
sequentially expose red, green, and blue component
images onto a single CCD.
• Same sensor is used for separate red, green, and blue
images, the resolution of the chip is maintained, and image
registration is automatically obtained.
• Acquisition of three frames in succession slows the process
of image acquisition.
13
Bayer’s Matrix
• Easiest way is to use Single filter with red, blue and green
pixel size sections.
14
Cont.
• Each four-pixel sensor units include one red, one blue, and
two green filters. Green is emphasized in the distribution
pattern to better conform to human visual sensitivity.
15
Cont.
• for e.g. if green filter covered a pixel we would need to
estimate red and blue pixel
• To do that adjacent pixels will average out the color
intensity of the pixel in question
• It works because significant details of image are much large
than each pixel
16
Advantages and Disadvantages of CCD Sensors
Advantages of CCD sensors include
• lower noise and higher sensitivity
• fewer defective pixels due to their simple structure
• better image homogeneity.
Disadvantages include
• higher energy consumption
• slower readout
• increased complexity of image sensing systems
• higher cost.
Due to the these disadvantages, CMOS sensors are increasingly replacing CCD
sensors for certain applications, but CCD sensors still find use in medical and
scientific research.
17
Thank You

More Related Content

What's hot

Image Sensing & Acquisition
Image Sensing & AcquisitionImage Sensing & Acquisition
Image Sensing & Acquisition
O.V.S Shashank Ram
 
Working of digital camera
Working of digital cameraWorking of digital camera
Working of digital camera
Himanshu Gupta
 
Psuedo color
Psuedo colorPsuedo color
Psuedo color
Mariashoukat1206
 
CHARGE COUPLED DEVICES
CHARGE COUPLED DEVICESCHARGE COUPLED DEVICES
CHARGE COUPLED DEVICES
UdayKumar937
 
CCD
CCDCCD
Optical switching
Optical switchingOptical switching
Optical switching
NITHEESH KUMAR CHITUMALLA
 
Chapter 3b
Chapter 3bChapter 3b
Chapter 3b
Gabriel O'Brien
 
LiDAR
LiDARLiDAR
Report On Image Sensors
Report On Image SensorsReport On Image Sensors
Report On Image Sensors
pranavhaldar
 
CCD (Charge Coupled Device)
CCD (Charge Coupled Device)CCD (Charge Coupled Device)
CCD (Charge Coupled Device)
Sagar Reddy
 
CCD and CMOS Image Sensor
CCD and CMOS Image SensorCCD and CMOS Image Sensor
CCD and CMOS Image Sensor
Linh Hoang-Tuan
 
Fundamentals steps in Digital Image processing
Fundamentals steps in Digital Image processingFundamentals steps in Digital Image processing
Fundamentals steps in Digital Image processing
KarthicaMarasamy
 
What is spatial Resolution
What is spatial ResolutionWhat is spatial Resolution
What is spatial Resolution
Sayed Abulhasan Quadri
 
Introduction to DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING - DAY 1
Introduction to DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING - DAY 1Introduction to DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING - DAY 1
Introduction to DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING - DAY 1
vijayanand Kandaswamy
 
Synthetic aperture radar
Synthetic aperture radarSynthetic aperture radar
Synthetic aperture radar
Mahesh pawar
 
Jpeg standards
Jpeg   standardsJpeg   standards
Jpeg standards
NikhilBanerjee7
 
Modulation of LED
Modulation of LEDModulation of LED
Modulation of LED
Priyanka Anni
 
image compression ppt
image compression pptimage compression ppt
image compression ppt
Shivangi Saxena
 
Unit 3- OPTICAL SOURCES AND DETECTORS
Unit 3- OPTICAL SOURCES AND DETECTORS Unit 3- OPTICAL SOURCES AND DETECTORS
Unit 3- OPTICAL SOURCES AND DETECTORS
tamil arasan
 
Digital image processing
Digital image processingDigital image processing
Digital image processing
tushar05
 

What's hot (20)

Image Sensing & Acquisition
Image Sensing & AcquisitionImage Sensing & Acquisition
Image Sensing & Acquisition
 
Working of digital camera
Working of digital cameraWorking of digital camera
Working of digital camera
 
Psuedo color
Psuedo colorPsuedo color
Psuedo color
 
CHARGE COUPLED DEVICES
CHARGE COUPLED DEVICESCHARGE COUPLED DEVICES
CHARGE COUPLED DEVICES
 
CCD
CCDCCD
CCD
 
Optical switching
Optical switchingOptical switching
Optical switching
 
Chapter 3b
Chapter 3bChapter 3b
Chapter 3b
 
LiDAR
LiDARLiDAR
LiDAR
 
Report On Image Sensors
Report On Image SensorsReport On Image Sensors
Report On Image Sensors
 
CCD (Charge Coupled Device)
CCD (Charge Coupled Device)CCD (Charge Coupled Device)
CCD (Charge Coupled Device)
 
CCD and CMOS Image Sensor
CCD and CMOS Image SensorCCD and CMOS Image Sensor
CCD and CMOS Image Sensor
 
Fundamentals steps in Digital Image processing
Fundamentals steps in Digital Image processingFundamentals steps in Digital Image processing
Fundamentals steps in Digital Image processing
 
What is spatial Resolution
What is spatial ResolutionWhat is spatial Resolution
What is spatial Resolution
 
Introduction to DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING - DAY 1
Introduction to DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING - DAY 1Introduction to DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING - DAY 1
Introduction to DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING - DAY 1
 
Synthetic aperture radar
Synthetic aperture radarSynthetic aperture radar
Synthetic aperture radar
 
Jpeg standards
Jpeg   standardsJpeg   standards
Jpeg standards
 
Modulation of LED
Modulation of LEDModulation of LED
Modulation of LED
 
image compression ppt
image compression pptimage compression ppt
image compression ppt
 
Unit 3- OPTICAL SOURCES AND DETECTORS
Unit 3- OPTICAL SOURCES AND DETECTORS Unit 3- OPTICAL SOURCES AND DETECTORS
Unit 3- OPTICAL SOURCES AND DETECTORS
 
Digital image processing
Digital image processingDigital image processing
Digital image processing
 

Similar to Charge Coupled Devices

Camera pdf
Camera pdfCamera pdf
Camera pdf
Avinash Chandra
 
imaging sensor final.ppsx
imaging sensor final.ppsximaging sensor final.ppsx
imaging sensor final.ppsx
Akhilesh349979
 
Vision Basics
Vision BasicsVision Basics
Vision Basics
DrHemaCR
 
Image Sensing and Acquisition.pptx
Image Sensing and Acquisition.pptxImage Sensing and Acquisition.pptx
Image Sensing and Acquisition.pptx
RUBIN (A) JEBIN
 
Digital image and file formats
Digital image and file formatsDigital image and file formats
Digital image and file formats
Ram Chandran
 
Presentation1 comp nn AA.ppsx
Presentation1 comp nn AA.ppsxPresentation1 comp nn AA.ppsx
Presentation1 comp nn AA.ppsx
Akhilesh349979
 
CCD and CMOS sensor technology
CCD and CMOS sensor technologyCCD and CMOS sensor technology
CCD and CMOS sensor technology
Axis Communications
 
Cmos image sensors
Cmos image sensorsCmos image sensors
Cmos image sensors
Md. Abdur Rahman
 
Design and Analysis CMOS Image Sensor
Design and Analysis CMOS Image SensorDesign and Analysis CMOS Image Sensor
Design and Analysis CMOS Image Sensor
inventionjournals
 
file004736.ppt
file004736.pptfile004736.ppt
file004736.ppt
Abinash Behera
 
Model 1 multimedia graphics and animation introduction (1)
Model 1 multimedia graphics and animation introduction (1)Model 1 multimedia graphics and animation introduction (1)
Model 1 multimedia graphics and animation introduction (1)
Rahul Borate
 
DIGITAL IMAGING
DIGITAL IMAGINGDIGITAL IMAGING
DIGITAL IMAGING
SharmaRajan4
 
CR and DR.ppt
CR and DR.pptCR and DR.ppt
CR and DR.ppt
MohamadAliSagandinga
 
Digital imaging with charge coupled devices
Digital imaging with charge coupled devicesDigital imaging with charge coupled devices
Digital imaging with charge coupled devices
Steven Shaw
 
Cameras Reformat Pat M
Cameras Reformat Pat MCameras Reformat Pat M
Cameras Reformat Pat M
Patrick MacFarlane
 
Digital camera
Digital cameraDigital camera
Digital camera
Rudra Prasad Maiti
 
CR & DR
CR & DRCR & DR
ITFT-Video display devices
ITFT-Video display devicesITFT-Video display devices
ITFT-Video display devices
Shifali Sharma
 
digital imaging ppt.ppt
digital imaging ppt.pptdigital imaging ppt.ppt
digital imaging ppt.ppt
vishalmehrotra10
 
Train.pptx
Train.pptxTrain.pptx
Train.pptx
Dr.yosry Azzam
 

Similar to Charge Coupled Devices (20)

Camera pdf
Camera pdfCamera pdf
Camera pdf
 
imaging sensor final.ppsx
imaging sensor final.ppsximaging sensor final.ppsx
imaging sensor final.ppsx
 
Vision Basics
Vision BasicsVision Basics
Vision Basics
 
Image Sensing and Acquisition.pptx
Image Sensing and Acquisition.pptxImage Sensing and Acquisition.pptx
Image Sensing and Acquisition.pptx
 
Digital image and file formats
Digital image and file formatsDigital image and file formats
Digital image and file formats
 
Presentation1 comp nn AA.ppsx
Presentation1 comp nn AA.ppsxPresentation1 comp nn AA.ppsx
Presentation1 comp nn AA.ppsx
 
CCD and CMOS sensor technology
CCD and CMOS sensor technologyCCD and CMOS sensor technology
CCD and CMOS sensor technology
 
Cmos image sensors
Cmos image sensorsCmos image sensors
Cmos image sensors
 
Design and Analysis CMOS Image Sensor
Design and Analysis CMOS Image SensorDesign and Analysis CMOS Image Sensor
Design and Analysis CMOS Image Sensor
 
file004736.ppt
file004736.pptfile004736.ppt
file004736.ppt
 
Model 1 multimedia graphics and animation introduction (1)
Model 1 multimedia graphics and animation introduction (1)Model 1 multimedia graphics and animation introduction (1)
Model 1 multimedia graphics and animation introduction (1)
 
DIGITAL IMAGING
DIGITAL IMAGINGDIGITAL IMAGING
DIGITAL IMAGING
 
CR and DR.ppt
CR and DR.pptCR and DR.ppt
CR and DR.ppt
 
Digital imaging with charge coupled devices
Digital imaging with charge coupled devicesDigital imaging with charge coupled devices
Digital imaging with charge coupled devices
 
Cameras Reformat Pat M
Cameras Reformat Pat MCameras Reformat Pat M
Cameras Reformat Pat M
 
Digital camera
Digital cameraDigital camera
Digital camera
 
CR & DR
CR & DRCR & DR
CR & DR
 
ITFT-Video display devices
ITFT-Video display devicesITFT-Video display devices
ITFT-Video display devices
 
digital imaging ppt.ppt
digital imaging ppt.pptdigital imaging ppt.ppt
digital imaging ppt.ppt
 
Train.pptx
Train.pptxTrain.pptx
Train.pptx
 

More from ADITYA CHAUHAN

Sustainable Refill Packaging
Sustainable Refill PackagingSustainable Refill Packaging
Sustainable Refill Packaging
ADITYA CHAUHAN
 
Packaging of Cleaning Products
Packaging of Cleaning ProductsPackaging of Cleaning Products
Packaging of Cleaning Products
ADITYA CHAUHAN
 
Water filter
Water filterWater filter
Water filter
ADITYA CHAUHAN
 
compact spinning (Ring Spinning)
compact spinning (Ring Spinning)compact spinning (Ring Spinning)
compact spinning (Ring Spinning)
ADITYA CHAUHAN
 
Natural antimicrobial agents and behaviour on face masks
Natural antimicrobial agents and behaviour on face masksNatural antimicrobial agents and behaviour on face masks
Natural antimicrobial agents and behaviour on face masks
ADITYA CHAUHAN
 
DEVELOPMENT OF UV PROTECTIVE CELLULOSE BASED CLOTHING using GRAPHENE OXIDE
DEVELOPMENT OF UV PROTECTIVE CELLULOSE BASED CLOTHING using GRAPHENE OXIDE DEVELOPMENT OF UV PROTECTIVE CELLULOSE BASED CLOTHING using GRAPHENE OXIDE
DEVELOPMENT OF UV PROTECTIVE CELLULOSE BASED CLOTHING using GRAPHENE OXIDE
ADITYA CHAUHAN
 
Moisture in textile
Moisture in textileMoisture in textile
Moisture in textile
ADITYA CHAUHAN
 
Cigarette paper
Cigarette paperCigarette paper
Cigarette paper
ADITYA CHAUHAN
 

More from ADITYA CHAUHAN (8)

Sustainable Refill Packaging
Sustainable Refill PackagingSustainable Refill Packaging
Sustainable Refill Packaging
 
Packaging of Cleaning Products
Packaging of Cleaning ProductsPackaging of Cleaning Products
Packaging of Cleaning Products
 
Water filter
Water filterWater filter
Water filter
 
compact spinning (Ring Spinning)
compact spinning (Ring Spinning)compact spinning (Ring Spinning)
compact spinning (Ring Spinning)
 
Natural antimicrobial agents and behaviour on face masks
Natural antimicrobial agents and behaviour on face masksNatural antimicrobial agents and behaviour on face masks
Natural antimicrobial agents and behaviour on face masks
 
DEVELOPMENT OF UV PROTECTIVE CELLULOSE BASED CLOTHING using GRAPHENE OXIDE
DEVELOPMENT OF UV PROTECTIVE CELLULOSE BASED CLOTHING using GRAPHENE OXIDE DEVELOPMENT OF UV PROTECTIVE CELLULOSE BASED CLOTHING using GRAPHENE OXIDE
DEVELOPMENT OF UV PROTECTIVE CELLULOSE BASED CLOTHING using GRAPHENE OXIDE
 
Moisture in textile
Moisture in textileMoisture in textile
Moisture in textile
 
Cigarette paper
Cigarette paperCigarette paper
Cigarette paper
 

Recently uploaded

Tools & Techniques for Commissioning and Maintaining PV Systems W-Animations ...
Tools & Techniques for Commissioning and Maintaining PV Systems W-Animations ...Tools & Techniques for Commissioning and Maintaining PV Systems W-Animations ...
Tools & Techniques for Commissioning and Maintaining PV Systems W-Animations ...
Transcat
 
Accident detection system project report.pdf
Accident detection system project report.pdfAccident detection system project report.pdf
Accident detection system project report.pdf
Kamal Acharya
 
Object Oriented Analysis and Design - OOAD
Object Oriented Analysis and Design - OOADObject Oriented Analysis and Design - OOAD
Object Oriented Analysis and Design - OOAD
PreethaV16
 
SELENIUM CONF -PALLAVI SHARMA - 2024.pdf
SELENIUM CONF -PALLAVI SHARMA - 2024.pdfSELENIUM CONF -PALLAVI SHARMA - 2024.pdf
SELENIUM CONF -PALLAVI SHARMA - 2024.pdf
Pallavi Sharma
 
Applications of artificial Intelligence in Mechanical Engineering.pdf
Applications of artificial Intelligence in Mechanical Engineering.pdfApplications of artificial Intelligence in Mechanical Engineering.pdf
Applications of artificial Intelligence in Mechanical Engineering.pdf
Atif Razi
 
Open Channel Flow: fluid flow with a free surface
Open Channel Flow: fluid flow with a free surfaceOpen Channel Flow: fluid flow with a free surface
Open Channel Flow: fluid flow with a free surface
Indrajeet sahu
 
Properties of Fluids, Fluid Statics, Pressure Measurement
Properties of Fluids, Fluid Statics, Pressure MeasurementProperties of Fluids, Fluid Statics, Pressure Measurement
Properties of Fluids, Fluid Statics, Pressure Measurement
Indrajeet sahu
 
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence.
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence.Introduction to Artificial Intelligence.
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence.
supriyaDicholkar1
 
Sri Guru Hargobind Ji - Bandi Chor Guru.pdf
Sri Guru Hargobind Ji - Bandi Chor Guru.pdfSri Guru Hargobind Ji - Bandi Chor Guru.pdf
Sri Guru Hargobind Ji - Bandi Chor Guru.pdf
Balvir Singh
 
DELTA V MES EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES ENGINEER
DELTA V MES EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES ENGINEERDELTA V MES EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES ENGINEER
DELTA V MES EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES ENGINEER
EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES
 
FULL STACK PROGRAMMING - Both Front End and Back End
FULL STACK PROGRAMMING - Both Front End and Back EndFULL STACK PROGRAMMING - Both Front End and Back End
FULL STACK PROGRAMMING - Both Front End and Back End
PreethaV16
 
AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...
AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...
AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...
Paris Salesforce Developer Group
 
一比一原版(爱大毕业证书)爱荷华大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(爱大毕业证书)爱荷华大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(爱大毕业证书)爱荷华大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(爱大毕业证书)爱荷华大学毕业证如何办理
nedcocy
 
3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advances (AIAD 2024)
3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advances (AIAD 2024)3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advances (AIAD 2024)
3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advances (AIAD 2024)
GiselleginaGloria
 
INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASIC
INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASICINTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASIC
INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASIC
GOKULKANNANMMECLECTC
 
AN INTRODUCTION OF AI & SEARCHING TECHIQUES
AN INTRODUCTION OF AI & SEARCHING TECHIQUESAN INTRODUCTION OF AI & SEARCHING TECHIQUES
AN INTRODUCTION OF AI & SEARCHING TECHIQUES
drshikhapandey2022
 
UNIT 4 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS-DIGITAL ICS
UNIT 4 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS-DIGITAL ICSUNIT 4 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS-DIGITAL ICS
UNIT 4 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS-DIGITAL ICS
vmspraneeth
 
Asymmetrical Repulsion Magnet Motor Ratio 6-7.pdf
Asymmetrical Repulsion Magnet Motor Ratio 6-7.pdfAsymmetrical Repulsion Magnet Motor Ratio 6-7.pdf
Asymmetrical Repulsion Magnet Motor Ratio 6-7.pdf
felixwold
 
FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.pdf
FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.pdfFUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.pdf
FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.pdf
EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES
 
一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理
uqyfuc
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Tools & Techniques for Commissioning and Maintaining PV Systems W-Animations ...
Tools & Techniques for Commissioning and Maintaining PV Systems W-Animations ...Tools & Techniques for Commissioning and Maintaining PV Systems W-Animations ...
Tools & Techniques for Commissioning and Maintaining PV Systems W-Animations ...
 
Accident detection system project report.pdf
Accident detection system project report.pdfAccident detection system project report.pdf
Accident detection system project report.pdf
 
Object Oriented Analysis and Design - OOAD
Object Oriented Analysis and Design - OOADObject Oriented Analysis and Design - OOAD
Object Oriented Analysis and Design - OOAD
 
SELENIUM CONF -PALLAVI SHARMA - 2024.pdf
SELENIUM CONF -PALLAVI SHARMA - 2024.pdfSELENIUM CONF -PALLAVI SHARMA - 2024.pdf
SELENIUM CONF -PALLAVI SHARMA - 2024.pdf
 
Applications of artificial Intelligence in Mechanical Engineering.pdf
Applications of artificial Intelligence in Mechanical Engineering.pdfApplications of artificial Intelligence in Mechanical Engineering.pdf
Applications of artificial Intelligence in Mechanical Engineering.pdf
 
Open Channel Flow: fluid flow with a free surface
Open Channel Flow: fluid flow with a free surfaceOpen Channel Flow: fluid flow with a free surface
Open Channel Flow: fluid flow with a free surface
 
Properties of Fluids, Fluid Statics, Pressure Measurement
Properties of Fluids, Fluid Statics, Pressure MeasurementProperties of Fluids, Fluid Statics, Pressure Measurement
Properties of Fluids, Fluid Statics, Pressure Measurement
 
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence.
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence.Introduction to Artificial Intelligence.
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence.
 
Sri Guru Hargobind Ji - Bandi Chor Guru.pdf
Sri Guru Hargobind Ji - Bandi Chor Guru.pdfSri Guru Hargobind Ji - Bandi Chor Guru.pdf
Sri Guru Hargobind Ji - Bandi Chor Guru.pdf
 
DELTA V MES EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES ENGINEER
DELTA V MES EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES ENGINEERDELTA V MES EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES ENGINEER
DELTA V MES EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES ENGINEER
 
FULL STACK PROGRAMMING - Both Front End and Back End
FULL STACK PROGRAMMING - Both Front End and Back EndFULL STACK PROGRAMMING - Both Front End and Back End
FULL STACK PROGRAMMING - Both Front End and Back End
 
AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...
AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...
AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...
 
一比一原版(爱大毕业证书)爱荷华大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(爱大毕业证书)爱荷华大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(爱大毕业证书)爱荷华大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(爱大毕业证书)爱荷华大学毕业证如何办理
 
3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advances (AIAD 2024)
3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advances (AIAD 2024)3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advances (AIAD 2024)
3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advances (AIAD 2024)
 
INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASIC
INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASICINTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASIC
INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASIC
 
AN INTRODUCTION OF AI & SEARCHING TECHIQUES
AN INTRODUCTION OF AI & SEARCHING TECHIQUESAN INTRODUCTION OF AI & SEARCHING TECHIQUES
AN INTRODUCTION OF AI & SEARCHING TECHIQUES
 
UNIT 4 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS-DIGITAL ICS
UNIT 4 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS-DIGITAL ICSUNIT 4 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS-DIGITAL ICS
UNIT 4 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS-DIGITAL ICS
 
Asymmetrical Repulsion Magnet Motor Ratio 6-7.pdf
Asymmetrical Repulsion Magnet Motor Ratio 6-7.pdfAsymmetrical Repulsion Magnet Motor Ratio 6-7.pdf
Asymmetrical Repulsion Magnet Motor Ratio 6-7.pdf
 
FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.pdf
FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.pdfFUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.pdf
FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.pdf
 
一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理
 

Charge Coupled Devices

  • 1. INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE CCD colour capture Aditya Chauhan Master of Technology Packaging Technology
  • 2. 2 Content • Introduction • Image sensor • Charge Coupled Devices • Composition and working of CCDs • Colored image using CCDs • Methods of producing colored image with CCD • Advantages and Disadvantages of CCD Sensors
  • 3. 3 Introduction • In the past we used to place a piece of film behind lens. • But now we have purely electronic imager to do all the work
  • 4. 4 Image Sensor • It is the image sensor that decides the image resolution. So, it is like the heart of the camera. • In the early days, the film used to do this job. Now, it got replaced by CCD and CMOS sensors. • They are responsible for acquiring each of the pixels in an image. An image sensor is quantified based on its size and number of megapixels.
  • 5. 5 CCD (Charge Coupled Devices) • Converts analogue signal of light image into digital signals • These digital signals are then transfers to camera’s memory system and stored as a electronic data • CCDs are about ten times more light-sensitive than film
  • 6. 6 Formation of CCD • CCD is made from light sensitive silicon slab. • Channel stops are the insulating section to make each pixel in the slab • Surface is covered with a thin layer of insulating silicon dioxide. • Perpendicular to channel stops, thin aluminum strips are placed. • This will divided silicon into a geometrically regular array of thousands or millions of light-sensitive regions (pixels) that capture and store image information in the form of localized electrical charge.
  • 7. 7 Working of CCDs • Sensor is exposed to light rays • Photons will hit sensor and charge is build up proportional to the light’s intensity • Charge will amplify and then it will convert into voltage signal • Later these signals will get converted into digital numbers and stored in memory Photons (light) Electrons Voltage Digital numbers
  • 8. 8 Colored Image • CCDs are not inherently color sensitive • For the acquisition of color images with a CCD camera requires that red, green, and blue wavelengths be isolated by color filters, acquired separately, and subsequently combined into a composite color image.
  • 9. 9 Cont. • Monochrome Chips have exact same pixel array • They capture single black and white exposure
  • 10. 10 Ways to produce colored image Three different ways are commonly employed to produce color images with CCD camera systems in order to capture the visual appearance. • three-chip design • frame-sequential method • Bayer's pattern (most common)
  • 11. 11 Three-chip design • The image is divided with a beam-splitting prism and color filters into three (RGB) components, which are captured with separate CCDs, and their outputs recombined into a color image. • Light intensity delivered to each CCD is substantially reduced, the combined color image is much dimmer than a monochrome single-chip image.
  • 12. 12 Frame-sequential method • Frame-sequential are equipped with a motorized filter to sequentially expose red, green, and blue component images onto a single CCD. • Same sensor is used for separate red, green, and blue images, the resolution of the chip is maintained, and image registration is automatically obtained. • Acquisition of three frames in succession slows the process of image acquisition.
  • 13. 13 Bayer’s Matrix • Easiest way is to use Single filter with red, blue and green pixel size sections.
  • 14. 14 Cont. • Each four-pixel sensor units include one red, one blue, and two green filters. Green is emphasized in the distribution pattern to better conform to human visual sensitivity.
  • 15. 15 Cont. • for e.g. if green filter covered a pixel we would need to estimate red and blue pixel • To do that adjacent pixels will average out the color intensity of the pixel in question • It works because significant details of image are much large than each pixel
  • 16. 16 Advantages and Disadvantages of CCD Sensors Advantages of CCD sensors include • lower noise and higher sensitivity • fewer defective pixels due to their simple structure • better image homogeneity. Disadvantages include • higher energy consumption • slower readout • increased complexity of image sensing systems • higher cost. Due to the these disadvantages, CMOS sensors are increasingly replacing CCD sensors for certain applications, but CCD sensors still find use in medical and scientific research.