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  1. 1. Latest innovations in dying technology. Prepared by Sarwat Halima Haider
  2. 2. Introduction • Dyeing is the process of adding color to textile products like fibers, yarns, and fabrics. • The temperature and time controlling are two key factors in dyeing.
  3. 3. Major types of dyes in textile finishing 1. Acid 2. Azoic 3. Basic 4.Direct 5. Disperse 6. Mordant 7. Reactive 8. Solvent 9. Sulphur 10. Vat
  4. 4. 3. Classification based on the source of materials • A very common classification of the dyestuff is based on the source from which it is made. • Natural Dyes • Synthetic Dyes
  5. 5. Other important dyes A number of other classes of dyes have also been established, that includes the following: • Fluorescent Dyes - A very innovative dye. Used for application in sports good etc. • Fuel Dyes - Used in fuels. • Leather Dyes - Used for leather. • Leuco Dyes - Has a wide variety of applications including electronic industries and papers.
  6. 6. Other important dyes • Inkjet Dyes - Writing industry including the inkjet printers. • Oxidation Dyes - Used mainly for hair. • Optical Brighteners - Used primarily for textile fibres and paper. • Smoke Dyes - Used in military activities. • Sublimation Dyes - For application in textile printing.
  7. 7. 4. Dyeing process • The dyeing process is one of the key factors in the successful trading of textile products. • Dyeing methods have not changed much with time. • Basically water is used to clean, dye and apply supporting chemicals to the fabrics, and also to rinse the treated fibers or fabrics
  8. 8. Dyeing process • In addition to the design and beautiful color, the consumer usually looks for some basic product characteristics, such as good fixation with respect to light, perspiration and washing, both initially and after prolonged use.
  9. 9. Dyeing process • The dyeing process involves three steps • Preparation is the step in which unwanted impurities are removed from the fabrics before dyeing. • Dyeing is the application of color to the textile substrates, mainly using synthetic organic dyes • Finishing involves treatments with chemical compounds aimed at improving the quality of the fabric.
  10. 10. Developments in textile processing machinery • All textile manufacturers worldwide are trying to develop their machines to improve not only quality, productivity and energy consumption, but attempts are made to make processing eco- friendly. • Globalization is the buzz world today. One of the consequences of globalization is competitiveness. That means consistent production of products at competitive prices!
  11. 11. Latest innovations in dying technology • Recent recession in textile industry has further increased the demand for processing machinery with high productivity and low input cost. 1. E-control concept 2. Batch dyeing: Recent development 3. Jet Air 5000 Vibratronic Dryer/Tumbler Vibratronic
  12. 12. 1. E-control concept: • It is a concept of simple, rapid, innovative and economical continuous dyeing process with minimum chemical usage.
  13. 13. E-control concept • Machinery benefits: • No infrared drier. • No batching. • Extended machinery life due to avoidance of harsh chemicals such as salt or silicate. • Energy efficient by optimum humidity control.
  14. 14. E-control concept • Nip dyeing In this case, the fabric is guided from top to bottom through a horizontal roller nip. Passing through a trough which is alternatively possible.
  15. 15. Contidos SF dosing station • The Contidos SF dosing station guarantees accurate reproduction at a premium quality as well as consistent process management. • The system efficiently controls the entire dyeing process through automatic monitoring and online dosing.
  16. 16. Batch dyeing: Recent development 1. Safe fabric transport and crease formation ensured by aerodynamic drive. 3. Active fabric running control: This facilitates exact monitoring of fabric speed, protective fabric handling. 4. Short processing times with excellent rinsing through spraying with fresh water.
  17. 17. Padder mangle • The padder mangle is designed to apply with various types of rubber hardness, depending on the type of fabric in order to achieve the highest performance through the best dehydration and uniform chemical padding.
  18. 18. Eco-Flow Exhaust System • The Eco-Flow Exhaust System has solved the energy problem that causes high-energy consumption, to loss of 60% to70%, in case of the general stenter in which an air duct is installed in each chambers.
  19. 19. Jet Air 5000 • JetAir 5000 is designed for both woven and knitted fabrics. • The machine is suitable for all kinds of fibers, both natural and chemical. The capacity range is 5 -100m /min.
  20. 20. Main Features • High efficiency squeezing padder • Stretching field • Relaxation dryer • Vibratronic device
  21. 21. Advantages: • Reduce the residual shrinkage of cotton fabric • Improve the bulky effect • Shorten the classic finishing cycles of cotton knits • Energy saving • Uniform and flat cloth selvedges
  22. 22. Synthesis, application & technical evaluation of novel dyes & finishing chemicals.
  23. 23. Novel dyes • Definition • A new method of dyeing and printing textiles is described in which the dye is bound to the fiber by means of a compound of high molecular weight.
  24. 24. Novel dyes • The advantages and disadvantages of existing methods of dyeing and printing textiles are surveyed and possible methods of combining dyes chemically with binders are discussed, with particular reference to the preparation of film–forming copolymers containing inter polymerized dye.
  25. 25. Novel dyes • Novel dyes containing C-likned indoxyl residues, they are prepared by two routes: • (a) by the reaction of C-electrophiles with N- acetylindoxyl • (b) by the reaction of active methylene compounds with 2-chloroindole-3-one.
  26. 26. Electrochemical dyeing : A novel method • A novel electrochemical dyeing process results in product savings, less chemicals with special safety requirements, and unsurpassed environmental compatibility. Besides, the new process also facilitates dye bath monitoring in real time, ensuring high quality of the dyed fabric .
  27. 27. Advantages of electrochemical dyeing process • Economy • Health • Efficient dyeing process • Quality of products
  28. 28. Economy • The entire textile industry gets affected because savings in the chemical costs as chemical wastes are reduced by 80% • Reduction of waste water recycling cost at the same time water savings around 85%, • They are cheap and simply constructed cell and easy maintenance, so economical process.
  29. 29. Health • Several times bath recycling is possible with this dyeing method so it is an environmentally sound Process. • Also the toxic nature sulphates and sulphites are not there so no adverse effect on aquatic life. • Low concentration of chemicals and non-toxic chemicals. Economic technique for recycling of chemicals and water used for washing.
  30. 30. Efficient dyeing process • Fully controlled dyeing parameters, maximum process reliability • Dye reduction rate is very good (10 mg dye/min) and dye pick up may go up to 85 - 90%. • Minimum side reactions, eg, dyestuff destruction due to formation of radicals.
  31. 31. Quality of products • Better overall fastness property compared with the technique already in use, reproducible process condition and dyeing results was observed, so better quality product.
  32. 32. Electrochemical dyeing methods • There are two methods by means of which electrochemical dyeing can be carried out, 1. Direct electrochemical dyeing 2. Indirect electrochemical dyeing.
  33. 33. Electrochemical dyeing methods • Direct electrochemical dyeing: – In case of direct electrochemical dyeing technique, organic dyestuff has been directly reduced by contact between dye and electrode. – In such a system, a dyestuff particle must come into contact with the electrode surface in order to get reduced.
  34. 34. Electrochemical dyeing methods • Indirect electrochemical dyeing – In this system, the dye is not directly reduced at the electrode rather, a reducing agent is added that reduces the dye in the conventional manner, which in turn gets oxidized after dye reduction. – The agent, which undergoes reduction and oxidation cycles, is known as a mediator.
  35. 35. New generation Dyes in the Textile Industry  High Strength Reactive dyes – Economical for Medium / Dark shades  High Fixation –Polyfunctional Reactive dyes  Reactive dyes with improved Light fastness for pale depths (especially Red)  Application of Reactive dyes at Neutral pH  Low Salt Reactive dyes  Fluorescent Reactive dyes for fashion & sportswear  Liquid Reactive dyes for Printing  Reactive Blue, which can withstand water fastness
  36. 36. New generation Dyes in the Textile Industry  Liquid Vat dyes for Pad-Dry-Cure application  Modified Pre-reduced Liquid Vat dyes  High Wash fast Disperse dyes  Alkali stable Disperse dyes  Disperse dyes for dyeing of Micro fibre  Dyes for Ink Jet Printing  Liquid disperse dyes for Printing
  37. 37. Conclusion • The dyeing process is one of the key factors in the successful trading of textile products. • Dyeing methods have not changed much with time. • Basically water is used to clean, dye and apply chemicals to the fabrics, and also to rinse the treated fibers or fabrics.
  38. 38. Conclusion • The changing technology, from hand power, to water power to steam and then to electricity, fundamentally changed the textile industry, its product marketability and its profitability. • Now its time for another change! Plasma technology is poised to change the concept of textile wet processing, as we all know Innovation never ends.
  39. 39. THANK YOU ?