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NATURAL DYEING OF COTTON FABRIC
USING TURMERIC (Curcuma longa) AND
ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH
A Project Work Presented
By
Md. Naimul Hasan
Md. Anisur Rahman
B.M. Tanimul Isalm
S.K. Asgar Hossain
Abdulluah Al Bitar
Ananna Rahman
Khandakar Hasanuzzaman
Md Naim Hasan Towhid
MD. Shariful Huda
To
The Department of Textile Engineering
in partial fulfillment for a degree of
Bachelor of Science in Textile Engineering
Shyamoli Textile Engineering College
(Affiliated by University of Dhaka)
April, 2017
NATURAL DYEING OF COTTON FABRIC
USING TURMERIC (Curcuma longa) AND
ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH
A Thesis
By
Md. Naimul Hasan
Registration :4576, Roll:698
Md. Anisur Rahman
Registration :4577 , Roll:699
B.M. Tanimul Isalm
Registration : 4578 , Roll:700
S.K. Asgar Hossain
Registration :4580 , Roll: 701
Abdullah Al Bitar
Registration :4581 , Roll:702
Ananna Rahman
Registration :4587 , Roll:703
Khandakar Hasanuzzaman
Registration :4589 , Roll: 704
Md Naim Hasan Towhid
Registration :4592 , Roll:707
MD. Shariful Huda
Registration : 4602 , Roll: 711
Supervisor: Avik Kumar Dhar
Lecturer (STEC)
Submitted To
The Department of Textile Engineering
in partial fulfillment for a degree of
Bachelor of Science in Textile Engineering
Shyamoli Textile Engineering College
(Affiliated by University of Dhaka)
April, 2017
INDEX
Chapters Sub. Chapters Topics Page No.
Acknowledgement 1
Abstract 2
Chapter-1 INTRODUCTION 3-6
1.1.1 Natural Dye 3
1.1.2 Anti-Microbial Finish 3
1.2 Background of Study 4
1.3 Problem Statement 5
1.4 Objective 6
1.5 Scope of Study 6
1.6 Significant of Study 6
Chapter-2 Literature Review 7-32
2.1 Overview 7
2.2 Dyes 8
2.2.1 Requisites of A True Dye 9
2.2.2 Classification of Dyes 10
2.3 Color in Textiles 12
2.4 Natural Dyes 12
2.4.1 History of Natural Dyes 12
2.4.2 Types of Natural Dyes 14
2.4.3 Natural dyes obtained from plants 14
2.4..4 Natural dyes obtained from minerals 17
2.4.5 Natural dyes obtained from animals 17
2.5 Evaluation of Synthetic Dyes 17
2.6 Reincarnation of Natural Dyes 20
2.6.1 Dangers for Dye workers 20
2.6.2 Environmental Pollution from dye
factories
20
2.6.3 Alternative to Synthetic Dyes 22
2.7 Characteristics of Natural Dyes 22
2.8 Advantages of Natural Dyes 23
2.9 Limitation of Natural Dyes 24
2.10 Antimicrobial Finish 25
2.11 What are microbes 26
2.12 Effects of microbes on textile and
Human beings
26
2.13 Antimicrobial components 27
2.14 History of Antimicrobial Finish 28
2.15 Use of Antimicrobial Finish 29
2.16 Benefit of Antimicrobial Finish 30
2.17 Requirements of Antimicrobial Finish 31
2.18 Durability of Antimicrobial Finish 31
2.19 Problems of Antimicrobial Finish 32
Chapter-3 Materials And Methods 33-42
3.1 Materials 33
3.1.1 Selection of Fabric 33
3.1.2 Dye-stuff 34
List of Figure
Figure No. Figure Name Page No.
1 Structure of completely deacetylated chitosan 28
2 Chemical structure of turmeric (keto form) 34
3 Turmeric (Curcuma longa) 34
4 Structure of completely deacetylated chitosan 35
5 Turmeric (Curcuma longa) 36
6 Natural Dyeing 37
7 Dyeing Curve 38
8 Washing Fastness Tester 44
9 Crock-meter 44
10 Spectrophotometer 45
11 Color measuring Curve 46
12 Light Fastness tester 47
13 Sample 48
14 BPB solution 51
15 BPB color test scale 53
16 Sample 54
17 BPB color test scale 55
3.1.3 Antimicrobial Agent 35
3.1.4 Chemical Specification 35
3.2 Apparatus 36
3.3 Preparation of Dye 36
3.4 Natural Dyeing 37
3.5 Dyeing Process 38
3.6 Extraction of Antimicrobial Agent 38
3.7 Antimicrobial Finish Process 40
3.7.1 Recipe 40
3.7.2 Pretreatment 41
Chapter-4 Test Result And Discussions 43-54
4.1 Testing 43
4.1.1 Color Fastness Properties of Natural Dye 43
4.1.1.1 Wash Fastness 43
4.1.1.2 Rubbing Fastness 44
4.1.1.3 Color Measurements 45
4.1.1.4 Color Fastness to light 46
4.1.1.5 Results & Discussions of Dyeing 47
4.1.1.6 Visual Appearance of Sample 48
4.1.2 Verification tests of Antimicrobial Finish 49
4.1.2.1 Verification Test for the Application of
Finish
49
4.1.2.2 Test for Dark Substrate 49
4.1.2.3 Test for Light Substrate 51
4.2 Result and Discussion of Anti-Microbial
Finish
54
Chapter-5 Conclusion 56
5.1 Conclusion 56
5.2 Limitation 56
5.3 Future Development 56
References 57-61
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
At first, grateful acknowledgement are made to the Almighty who is the most
gracious and merciful. This project and work was carried out at Shyamoli Textile
Engineering College. Affiliated by Dhaka University. It is a nice feeling the
opportunity to express gratitude for them who have relentlessly encouraged and helped
throughout the project. Obviously the special credit goes to the first person, the
supervisor Avik Kumar Dhar, lecturer, department of Wet processing, Shyamoli Textile
Engineering College. He has an energetic and enthusiastic mind which is really
inspiring. His scientific excitement, integral view on research and his positive attitude
towards his mission for providing knowledge has made a deep impression. It gives
always a pleasant experience while working with him for his endless support and
guidance throughout the project and thesis period.
The authors would like to heartedly acknowledge with a deep sense of gratitude to
Prof. Dr. Eng. Md. Mufazzal Hossain, Shyamoli Textile Engineering College (STEC) for
the constant support to get the job done successfully. He took possible measures to
provides all types of facilities during this project. Every moment he gave appreciation
with special eagerness and cordial support.
The supportive attitude of administration has the project and thesis possible. So a
special thanks goes to this excellent administration.
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ABSTRACT
Nowadays, synthetic dyes release vast amount of waste and unfixed colorants poses
serious health hazard and are disturbing the eco-balance of the nature. Environmental
issues in the production and application of synthetic dyes once again revived
consumer interest in natural dyes during the last decades of the twentieth century. But
the problem associated in dyeing with natural dyes are lower extractions of natural
colorants and poor fastness. But using metallic salts as mordant, which traditionally
used to improve fastness and produce shade which is hygienic. Turmeric is used is
this thesis as natural dyes. Turmeric consists of three main components which are
curcumin, demethoxy curcumin and bisdemethoxy curcumin that are responsible for it’s
bright yellow color. It is a substantive dye capable of directly dyeing cotton. As fabric
production rate is very tremendous and the market limited scope which can be
multiplied by value added finishing to textiles like antimicrobial finish. Development
of antimicrobial textile finish is highly indispensible and relevant since garments are
is direct contact with human body. This new line of interest is due to stringent
environmental standards imposed by many countries due to the usage of synthetic
dyes which causes allergic reaction and toxicity. Chitosan is used as antimicrobial
finish in this thesis. This antimicrobial finishes is applied on cotton fabric by Pad-
Dry-Cure method. The purpose of this study is to determine the application of
turmeric dyeing on cotton fabric on the basis of the optimum concentration of dye,
dyeing time, concentration of mordants, mode and time of mordanting and combination
mordant have been worked out for the dyeing of cotton with turmeric extract and it’s
antimicrobial properties of the chitosan applied on cotton for it’s value added products
in different fields.
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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1.1 Natural Dye
Natural dyes have been used since the beginning of organized society, developed so
human could paint their bodies, cloths, houses, weapons and religious icons. The color
were obtained from plants, animals, fruits and earth [1]
. But the natural color may not
have the desired shade or fastness. And it was also scarce and costly. So it was only
used by some selective quantity of the society. Thus synthetic dye was introduced.
Synthetic dyes was first brought into practice by the end of the 19th
century.
Thousands of synthetic dyes are available till now, covering every possible shades and
having excellent fastness. These are created from various chemicals and materials in
which not all of them are eco-friendly or healthy for human health.
Even though synthetic dyes are available and cheap for commercial use, it is
extremely harmful environment and health as it leaves a tremendous amount of waste
and allergic in contact with human body. And now a days the environmental issue is
rising all over the world. This is the main reason of transferring to natural dyes from
synthetic dyes.
The main purpose of using natural dye is to make the process eco-friendly and
hygienic.
1.1.2 Antimicrobial Finish
In present times only the product itself do not meet the satisfaction of consumer. It
may need to come with many additional properties. In case of garments there are
many types of finishing process which gives many additional properties such as flame
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retardancy, antimicrobial finishes, water proof etc. Antimicrobial finish is discussed in
this study. The inherent properties of the textile fibers provide room for the growth of
microorganisms. Besides, the structure of the substrates and the chemical process may
induce the growth of microbes. Humid and warm environment still aggravate the
problem. Infestation by microbes cause cross infection by pathogens and development
odor where the fabric is worn next to skin. In addition, the staining and loss of the
performance properties of textile substrates are the results of microbial attack.
Basically, with a view to protect the wearer and the textile substrate itself
antimicrobial finish is applied to textile materials [2]
.
The main purpose of antimicrobial finish is to penetrate and destroy the bacteria like
Salmonella, Listeria, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus Aureus, Streptococcus and also
many other environmental bacteria. This component also protect the fabric against
Mould, Fungi and Yeasts [3]
.
1.2 Background of Study
In this study, turmeric is used as natural dye. Turmeric also known as Curcuma longa
is used because it contains demothoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin which will
produce yellow color[4]
. Turmeric was the only yellow dye that did not require a
mordant to fix it on wool, cotton or silk; But it’s sensitivity to light, soap and alkali
reduced its value considerably. Turmeric dyes were extracted from the ground root of
the turmeric or Indian Saffon plant. This bright orange powder was a rich but fugitive
dye, considered the finest yellow by many professional dyers and used frequently
throughout the 18th
and 19th
centuries [5]
.
There are several advantages of using turmeric as a dye. It contains properties such as
antioxidant and contains of antiflammatory properties [6]
. Curcumin posses not only
chemo preventive but also anti-cancer activities[6]
. Curcumin has been considered by
the National Cancer Institute (NCI) as the third generation of cancer chemo
preventive agent in America and phase II clinical trials have been carried out in
Germany.
Here chitosan is used as antimicrobial agent. It mainly comes from crab and shrimp
shells. It is formed by the deacetylation of chitin ( Poly-N-acetyl glucose amine ), an
TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH
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abundant byproduct of the crab and shrimp processing industries. Chitosan is also
known as an antimicrobial polysaccharide [7]
. The ability of chitosan is to immobilize
microorganisms derives from its polycationic character. Its protonised amino groups
block the protein sequences of microorganisms, thus inhibiting further proliferation.
Chitosan binds to the negatively charged bacterial surface disrupting the cell
membrane and altering its permeability. This allows materials to leak out of the
bacterial cells resulting cell death. Chitosan is named as most effective antimicrobial
agent. Because of its water solubility and it is easy to apply.
1.3 Problem Statement
Recent environmental awareness has again revived interest in natural dyes mainly
among environmentally conscious people imposed by many countries in response to
toxic and allergic reactions associated with synthetic dyes. Natural dyed textiles are
eco-friendly, making them a top priority for use in the textile industry with a growing
need to find suitable and less toxic [8] [9] [10]
. In the late 1994, Germany stuck a severe
blow to dyestuff industries and subsequently other European countries also executed
ban on import of textiles and garments, colored with a series of azo-dyes made from
aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic, allergenic and poisonous. Even after this
ban, the textile processing units are one of the most polluting industries. The dyestuff
industrial wastes in the form of atmospheric gases wastewaters have been found to be
polluting the neighboring areas [11]
.
However, sources of natural dyes are limited and there light fastness properties are not
so well as well as color tones are also limited. But this research is to determine the
proper application method of natural dye (Turmeric) on cotton as well as to maintain
their standard properties for textile buyers.
Microorganism growth is another factor that has resulted in development of
antimicrobial finish. Microbial infestation poses danger to both living and non-living
matters. Microorganisms cause with textile raw materials and processing chemicals, wet
processes in the mills, roll or bulk goods in storage, finished goods in storage and
transport, and goods as the consumer uses them. Obnoxious smell form the inner
garments such as socks, spread of diseases, staining and degradation of textiles are
some of the detrimental effects of bad microbes. The consumers are now increasingly
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aware of the hygienic life style and there is a necessity and expectation for a wide
range of textile products finished with antimicrobial properties [12]
.
1.4 Objective
The aim of this study is application of natural dye (Turmeric) on cotton fabric and
finishing with antimicrobial finish. The objective is to maintain the textile and
aesthetic properties as well as to keep it hygienic.
1.5 Scope of Study
The scopes have been identified for this study in this study in order to achieve the
objective to this research
 Natural Dye
 Turmeric
 Dyeing process with turmeric dye
 Mordant
 Finishing process
 Antimicrobial Finish
 Chitosan
1.6 Significant of study
There are several significance in this research. Firstly the fastness properties ( wash,
light, color ) should be maintained. Besides that , is to decrease the lost of dyes and to
avoid from fading. In addition is to increase the usage of natural dyes because they
are advantageous to humans. Lastly is to assure the aesthetic properties as well as
antimicrobial properties.
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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Overview
Over the years, dyes have been used to color textile goods. Dyes are applied to
textiles in the form of a solution or paste just as manufacturers add dyes to color
items either to conceal the original color or enhance their colors to make them
attractive to buyers. The art of dyeing is as old as our civilization. Dyed textile
remnants found during archaeological excavations at different places all over the world
provide evidence to the practice of dyeing in ancient civilizations. Natural dyes were
used only for coloring of textiles from ancient times till the nineteenth century [1]
. As
specialist testifies, natural dyes offer a fairly limited range of colors. Natural dyes are
expensive as well as their extraction was often inefficient and time consuming. Natural
dyeing process is a length process and there fastness properties not so good. Supply
of natural dyes is not sufficient according to the demand. The desire for different
shades, cost efficient as well as time efficient process led to the discovery of synthetic
dyes and the manufacturer of dyestuff and chemical agents that produce long lasting
colors in materials. Color for the textiles industry is mostly obtained from dyes and
pigments. In 1856 William Henry Perkin took the first attempt of using synthetic
dye[2]
.Cheaper to produce, brighter, more color-fast and easy to apply to fabric, these
new dyes changed the playing field. Scientists raced to formulate gorgeous new colors
and before long, dyed fabric was available to all and natural dyes had become
obsolete for most applications[3]
.But synthetic dyes release vast amount of waste and
unfixed colorants poses serious health hazard and are disturbing the eco-balance of
the nature. During the mid 1980s, more interest have been shown in the use of natural
dyes as it is believed that these primitive dyes are less toxic, less allergic and more
eco-friendly than the synthetic ones[4]
. But the problems associated in dying with
natural dyes are lower extraction of natural colorants and poor fastness. To overcome
these problems various metallic salts are being used as mordant, which are
traditionally used to improve fastness and produce different shade with the same dye
[5]
.
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Recent market survey has quite convincingly shown that the apparel consumers all
over the world are demanding functionality in the textile product[6]
. Some of the best
examples of functionality are product attributes such as wrinkle resistance, soil release,
water repellency, flame retardancy, fade resistance and resistance to microbial invasion
[6]
. Among these, the antimicrobial property of fabric is being considered to be an
important and inevitable parameter for garments which are in direct contact with
human body. Clothing can act as carriers for both the pathogenic and odor generating
bacteria and moulds by offering an ideal environment for microbial attachment and
growth by providing oxygen, water and warmth, as well as nutrients from spillages and
body exudates. Textiles are liable to promote cross infection and promote disease; in
fact hygiene problems with hospital textiles directly interfere with the recovery of
patients [7]
.
The review of literature covers dyes, dyes in textile, natural plant dyes (types of
natural dyes), synthetic dyes, characteristics of natural dyes, Antimicrobial finishing,
Microbes, Effect of microbes, History and mechanism of Antimicrobial Finish,
Application sector and durability of Antimicrobial finishing and summary of
discussion.
2.2 Dyes
A dye is an organic compound composed of a chromophore (the colored portion of
the dye molecule) and an auxochrome (which slightly alters the color). The
auxochrome makes the dye soluble and is a site for bonding the fiber. Dyes are
molecules that can be dissolved in water or some other carrier so that they will
penetrate into the fiber. Also referred to as dyestuffs, dyes are the most common way
to add color to textile goods. When textile goods are placed into the dye bath (dye
solution), the item absorbs the molecule of the dye and assumes the color of the dye.
Any excess dye that remains on the outside of the fiber can bleed or become
sensitive to surface abrasion. Because dyed textiles vary in their ability to hold color
[8]
chemical additives or mordants such as salt and acid are sometimes used to
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regulate absorption of the dye into the fiber. This suggests using the proper dye for
particular fibers, which also demands knowledge of affinity of the fiber or substrate
for particular dyes, whether it is mineral, vegetable, animal or synthetic. A true dye is
when the color of a substance is deposited on another substance in an insoluble form
from a solution containing the colorant [9]
.
2.2.1 Requisites of A True Dye
All colored substances are not dyes. However, the requisites of a true dye are as
follows :
 It must have a suitable color.
 It must be able to attach itself to material from solution or to be capable of
fixing on it. For example, azobenzene is not a dye. Further, a dye may not be
able to dye all types of substrates. For example, picric acid is able to dye silk
or wool a permanent yellow but not cotton. Thus, a dye either forms a
chemical union with the substrate being dyed or it may get associated with it
in intimate physical union.
 It must be soluble in water or must form a stable and good dispersion in
water. However, it is to be remembered that the pick up of the dye from the
medium should be good.
 The substrate should be dyed must have natural affinity to an appropriate dye
and must be able to absorb it from solution or aqueous dispersion, if
necessary, in the presence of concentration, temperature and pH.
 When a dye is fixed to a substrate, it must be fast to washing, dry cleaning,
perspiration, light, heat and other agencies. It must be resistance to the action of
water, acids or alkalis, particularly the latter due to the alkaline nature of
washing soda and washing soap.
 The shade and fastness of a given dye may vary depending on the substrate
due to the different interactions of the molecular orbital of the dye with the
substrate, and the ease with which the dye may dissipate its absorbed energy to
its environment without itself decomposing [10]
.
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2.2.2 Classification of Dyes
There are several ways for classification of dyes. It should be noted that each class of
dye has a very unique chemistry, structure and particular way of bonding. While some
dyes can react chemically with the substrates forming strong bonds in the process,
others can be held by physical forces. Some of the prominent ways of classification is
given hereunder
 Classification based on the source of the material
 Chemical classification of the dyes based on the nature of their respective
chromophores
 Dyes according to the nuclear structure
 Industrial classification of dyes [11]
Classification based on the source of materials
 Natural Dyes
 Synthetic Dyes
Chemical classification of the Dyes
 Acridine dyes,
 Anthraquinone dyes,
 Arylmethane dyes
 Triarylmethane dyes
 Azo dyes
 Cyanine dyes
 Diazonium dyes
 Nitro dyes
 Nitroso dyes
 Phthalocyanine dyes
 Quinone-imine dyes
 Azin dyes, Eurhodin dyes, Safranin dyes
 Xanthene dyes
 Indophenol dyes
 Oxazin dyes
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 Oxazone dyes
 Thiazin dyes
 Thiazole dyes
 Fluorene dyes
 Rhodamine dyes
Dyes according to the nuclear structure
 Cationic Dye
 Anionic Dye
Industrial Classification of the Dyes
 Protein Textile Dyes
 Cellulose Textile Dyes
 Synthetic Dyes
Other Important Dyes
 Leather dyes
 Oxidation dyes
 Optical Brightener
 Solvent Dyes
 Fluorescent Dyes
 Fuel Dyes
 Smoke Dyes
 Sublimation Dyes
 Leuco Dyes
 Inkjet Dyes
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2.3 Color in textiles
Dyes, also referred to as are the most common way to add color to textile goods.
Color is one of the most significant factors in the appeal and marketability of textile
products[12]
. Coloring materials have been used for many thousands of years by man.
Leather, cloth, food, pottery and housing have all been modified in this way. The two
old ways were to cover with a pigment (painting), or to color the whole mass
(dyeing). Pigments for painting were usually made from ground up colored rocks and
minerals, and the dyes were obtained from animals and plants[11]
. But now a days
consumers focus is not only on aesthetic but also on functional properties. Color is
often the primary consideration in the selection and purchase of clothing and other
household textiles and to a large extent, the most exciting thing about textiles [13]
.
For the normally sighted color is everywhere in the interior of a dwelling, natural and
stained wood, wall-papers, upholstery fabrics, pottery, paintings, plants and flowers [14]
.
The view that most objects made by human beings are decorated in some way and
that the decoration of the textile fibers may be achieved by varying the construction
of the fabric and adding color through dyeing [15]
.
2.4 Natural Dyes
Today, many of the traditional dye sources are rarely, if ever, used (onion skins, for
instance). However, some of our most common dyes are still derived from natural
sources. These are termed natural dyes.
2.4.1 History of Natural Dyes
The ability of natural dyes to color textiles has been known since ancient times. The
earliest written record of the use of natural dyes was found in China dated 2600 BC.
Chemical tests of red fabrics found in the tomb of King Tutankhamen in Egypt show
the presence of alizarin, a pigment extracted from madder. In more modern times,
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Alexander the Great mentions having found purple robes dating to 541BC in the
royal treasury when he conquered Susa, the Persian capital. Kermes (from the Kermes
insect) is identified in the bible book of Exodus, where references are made to scarlet
colored linen. By the 4th
century AD, dyes such as woad, madder, weld, Brazilwood,
and indigo and a dark reddish-purple were known. Brazil was named for the wood
found there.
Purple was made from a mollusk and clothing made from it was so expensive only
the royal family could afford it. It was extracted from a small gastropod mollusk
found in all seas or from a crustacean called a Trumpet Shell or Purple Fish, found
near Tyre on the Mediterranean coast. Their body secreted a deep purple fluid which
was harvested by cracking the shell and digging out a vein located near the shellfish
head with a small pointed utensil. The mucus-like contents of the veins were then
mixed together and spread on silk or linen. Estimates are that it took 8,500 shellfish
to produce one gram of the dye, hence the fact this dye was worth more than its
weight in gold. This expensive dye was also mentioned in the bible, in Acts, where
Lydia is a seller of purple.
By the 15th
century, dyes from insects, such as cochineal and Kermes, were becoming
more common. By the 17th
century, dyeing cloth "in the wood" was introduced in
England: logwood, fustic, etc. In the 18th
century a method of bleaching linen with kelp
was introduced in Scotland, a Swedish chemist discovered chlorine destroys vegetable
colors and the French began to recommend chlorine water for commercial bleaching.
Indigo began to be grown in England, and Cudbear, a natural dye prepared from a
variety of lichens, is patented. Another natural dye, Quercitron, from the inner bark of
the North American oak, is patented in 1775 [16]
.
By the 1800's, Prussian Blue and Sulphuric acid are available commercially. Prussian
blue was formed from prussite of potash and iron salt, making it one of the earliest
known chemical dyes. In 1856, William Henry Perkin, while experimenting with coal
tar in hopes of finding an artificial quinine as a cure for malaria, discovered the first
synthetic dye stuff which he called "Mauve". The color quickly became a favorite of
the royal family, and a new industry was begun [17]
.
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2.4.2 Types of Natural Dyes
Natural dyes can be sorted into three categories: natural dyes obtained from plants
(indigo), those obtained from animals (cochineal), and those obtained from minerals
(ocher). Although some fabrics such as silk and wool can be colored simply by being
dipped in the dye, others such as cotton, require a mordant.
A mordant is an element which aids the chemical reaction that takes place between
the dye and the fiber so that the dye is absorbed. Containers used for dying must be
non-reactive (enamel, stainless steel.) Brass, copper or iron pots will do their own
mordanting. Not all dyes need mordants to help them adhere to fabric. If they need
no mordants, such as lichens and walnut hulls, they are called substantive dyes. If they
do need a mordant, they are called adjective dyes.
Common mordants are: ALUM, usually used with cream of tartar, which helps
evenness and brightens slightly; IRON (or copperas) which saddens or darken colors,
bringing out green shades; TIN, usually used with cream of tartar, which blooms or
brightens colors, especially reds, oranges and yellows; BLUE VITRIOL which saddens
colors and brings out greens and TANNIC ACID used for tans and browns.
2.4.3 Natural dyes obtained from plants
One example of a natural dye obtained from plants is madder, which is obtained from
the roots of the madder plant. The plants are dug up, the roots washed and dried and
ground into powder. During the 19th
century, the most widely available fabrics were
those which had been dyed with madder. The 'turkey red’ that was so popular at that
time, was based on madder. This red was considered brilliant and exotic. The madder
plant continued to be used for dyeing until the mid-1800s when a synthetic substitute
was developed.
Another example of a natural dye obtained from plants is woad. Until the Middle
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Ages, Europeans used woad to create a blue fabric dye. The woad was a shrub that
grew abundantly in parts of Europe. The coloring was in the leaves, which were dried
and ground, mixed with water and made into a paste. This dye was supplanted by
indigo, an ancient shrub well known to the Egyptians and Indians. Like woad, its color
lay in its leaflets and branches. The leaves were fermented, the sediment purified, and
the remaining substance was pressed into cakes.
Indigo prevailed as the preferred blue dye for a number of reasons. It is a substantive
dye, needing no mordant, yet the color achieved is extremely fast to washing and to
light. The manufacture of natural indigo lasted well into the early 1900s.
In 1905 Adolf von Baeyer (the scientist who also formulated aspirin) was awarded the
Nobel Prize for discovering the molecular structure of indigo, and developing a process
to produce it synthetically. The natural dye was quickly replaced by the new synthetic,
ending an ancient and honored botanical history. The plants given in Table 1 are a
selection of plants that have stood the test of time, and are used widely and
traditionally by natural dyers.
Common
Name
Latin Name Parts Used General Color
Guide
Suggested
Mordant
Alder Alnus spp Bark Yellow/ brown/
black
Alum, iron.
Copper sulphate
Alkanet Anchusa
tinctoria
Root Grey Alum, cream of
tartar
Apple Malus spp Bark Yellow Alum
Blackberry Rubus spp Berries, young
shoots
Pink, Purple Alum, tin
Betel nut Areca catechu Nut Deep pink
Blackwillow Salix negra Bark Red, brown Iron
Bloodroot Sanguinaria
canadensis
Roots Red Alum, tin
Buckthorn Rhammus
cathartica
Twigs, berries,
Bark
Yellow, brown Alum, cream of
tartar, tin, iron
Cherry (wild) Prunus spp Bark Pink, yellow,
brown
Alum
Dahlia Dahlia spp Petals Yellow bronze Alum
Dog’s mercury Mercurialis
perennis
Whole plant Yellow Alum
Dyer’s broom Genista
tinctoria
Flowering tops Yellow Alum
Elder Sambucus
negra
Leaves, berreis,
Bark
Yellow, grey Iron, alum
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Eucalyptus Eucalyptus Leaves Deep gold, grey
Fustic Chloropho-ria
tinctoria
Wood shavings Yellow
Groundnut Arachis
hypogea
Kernel skins Purple, brown,
pink
Copper sulphate,
alum
Henna Lawsonia
inermis
Leaves Gold
Hypogymnia
lichen
Hypogymnia
psychodes
Whole lichen Gold, brown
Indigo Indigofera Leaves Blue Not required
Ivy Hedera helix Berries Yellow, green Alum, tin
Madder Rubia tinctora Whole plant Orange, red Alum, tin
Maple Acer spp Bark Tan Copper sulphate
Marigold Calendual spp Whole plant,
Flower heads
Yellow Alum
Nettles Urtica dioica Leaves Beige, yellowy
greens
Alum, copper
Onion Allium cepa Skins Yellow, orange Alum
Oak Quercus spp Inner bark Gold, brown Alum
Ochrolech-ina
lichen
Ochrolech-ina
parella
Whole lichen Orange, red
(when
fermanted in
urine then
boiled)
Alum
Privet Ligustrum
vulgare
Leaves, berries Yellow, green,
red, purple
Alum, tin
Ragwort Senecio Flowers Deep yellow
Safflower Carthamus
tinctoria
Petals Yellow, red Alum
Sloe -
Blackthorn
Prunus
spinosa
Sloe berries,
bark
Red, pink,
brown
Alum
Tea Camelia
sinensis
Leaves Beige
Turmeric Circuma longa Root Yellow
Wild
mangosteen
Diospyros
peregrina
Fruit Grey, pink
Weld (wild
mignonette)
Reseda luteula Whole plant Olive green Alum, cream of
tartar
Woad Isatis tinctoria Whole plant Blue Lime
Table 1. A list of plants commonly used for preparing dyes.
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2.4.4 Natural dyes obtained from minerals
Ocher is a dye obtained from an impure earthy ore of iron or a ferruginous clay,
usually red (hematite) or yellow (limonite). In addition to being the principal ore of
iron, hematite is a constituent of a number of abrasives and pigments.
2.4.5 Natural dyes obtained from animals
A good example is cochineal, which is a brilliant red dye produced from insects
living on cactus plants. The properties of the cochineal bug was discovered by pre-
Columbian Indians who would dry the females in the sun, and then ground the dried
bodies to produce a rich, rich red powder. When mixed with water, the powder
produced a deep, vibrant red coloring. Cochineal is still harvested today on the Canary
Islands. In fact, most cherries today are given their bright red appearance through the
artificial color "carmine", which comes from the cochineal insect [16]
.
2.5 Evolution of Synthetic Dyes
Before 1856 all the dyes used to colour clothing, paint and print came from natural
sources such as insects, molluscs, barks, flowers, roots, leaves and berries. The range of
colours that could be produced was limited. Dyeing was a well-established craft whose
origins can be traced back to antiquity. The earliest written records refer to dyes used
in China, Rome, Persia, India and Egypt. Methods used were painstaking and sometimes
prohibitively expensive. Royal or Tyrian purple, for example, a colour derived from
molluscs and originating in the Mediterranean, was exclusively worn by wealthy
royalty. Another animal-based dye was cochineal, a crimson dye derived from beetles
living on cactus plants, discovered by pre-Columbian Indians. Vegetable dyes tended to
be cheaper and more plentiful. The most common were madder and indigo, the ancient
red and blue dyes used for cloth and cosmetics, while other important plant dyes
included carthamus, woad, saffron, brazilwood and turmeric. In 1856 a chemist called
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William Perkin discovered how to mass produce colour in a factory and the synthetic
dye industry was born.
In 1856 a young chemistry student, William Perkin, was trying to discover how to
synthesis quinine, a cure for malaria. His attempt, using a coal tar product called
aniline, failed. What he produced instead was a solution with an intense purple colour
– the first ever synthetic dye .Perkin realized that aniline purple, better known as
mauveine, had great economic potential. He abandoned his studies and pursued his
accidental discovery with youthful energy and opportunistic genius. He patented
mauveine and with the financial backing of his father built a factory on the banks of
the Grand Union Canal in Greenford, West London. He produced the dye in industrial
quantities for sale to the textile industry. Mauveine was a huge success. In the 1860s
the streets of London and Paris, the fashion capitals of Europe, were ablaze with
Perkin's colour. At the Royal Exhibition of 1862 Queen Victoria gave it her seal of
approval when she appeared in a silk gown dyed with mauveine.
William Perkin's success with mauveine prompted other chemists to experiment with
aniline. They created a rainbow of coloured dyes including aniline red, aniline blue
and aniline violet. Perkin himself produced two important new colours, 'Britannia
Violet' and 'Perkin's Green' (it is said that the water in the Grand Union Canal turned a
different colour depending on what dyes were being made that week).Manufacturers
soon found that colour novelty was a key factor in attracting consumers. As the
chemical companies sought new colours and forged ever stronger links with research
laboratories, scientists and engineers, science became irrevocably bound up with
industry. It was in this context that the industrial research laboratory emerged. As the
range of aniline dyes grew, synthetics gradually took over from natural dyes.
Pioneering science and the winning of patents became more important in international
competition than a vast natural resource base.
The colour in the vivid, natural red dye known as madder comes from a substance
called alizarin found in the roots of madder plants. Inspired by the invention of
mauveine, chemists started to look for a way to synthesise alizarin. In 1869 William
Perkin succeeded in producing alizarin at exactly the same time as his competitors,
the German company BASF. BASF's alizarin patent was filed at the London Patent
Office just one day before Perkin's application arrived. Perkin and BASF came to an
agreement that divided the international market for this important dye: Perkin would
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sell alizarin to Britain, BASF to the rest of the world. Perkin did well out of alizarin
sales for a few years but could not compete with Germany, which soon dominated
world trade. The heyday of synthetic dye manufacturing in Perkin's Greenford factory
was over and in 1874 he sold his dye works which eventually became part of ICI.
Following the commercial success of alizarin, the chemical industry's next big
challenge was the synthesis of indigo. Its formula became something of a Holy Grail
and remained elusive until the end of the nineteenth century. Natural indigo, derived
from the plant Indigofera tinctoria, had been used to dye cloth blue for thousands of
years. Its main source was India which, at the time its synthetic counterpart was
invented, had over 3000 indigo factories. Indigo was first artificially synthesised in
1880 by the German chemist Adolf von Baeyer. He succeeded in producing only test-
tube-sized quantities. The German chemical company BASF funded research into the
production of indigo on an industrial scale. In 1897 BASF finally succeeded in
launching 'Indigo Pure'. By then they had invested more than the capital value of the
company. But within two decades their synthetic indigo dominated the world market.
The industry in India went into severe decline as a result and by the mid-twentieth
century had all but died out.
The birthplace of the synthetic dye industry was Britain where William Perkin
discovered mauveine in 1856. However, it did not remain at the forefront for long –
despite Britain's head start, Germany was in the lead by the end of the nineteenth
century. One reason for Germany's success was its state-subsidised technical schools.
Here, scientific talent, upon which industrial innovation depended was nurtured. Gifted
students went on to attend universities, some of which were at the vanguard of
developments in chemistry. The large German chemical companies, including BASF,
Bayer and Hoechst, prospered by collaborating with universities on joint research
projects. Intensely competitive, they used systematic investigative approaches and
became increasingly adept at the synthesis of new chemicals. Suchcompanies soon
dominated the synthetic dye market and by 1914 were responsible for producing 75
percent of the world's dye supply [18]
.
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2.6 Reincarnation of Natural Dyes
Synthetic dyes are brightly colored, changed new world was not without a down side
however. The chemicals used to produce dyes today are often highly toxic,
carcinogenic, or even explosive. The chemical Anililine, the basisfor a popular group
of dyes known as Azo dyes which are considered deadly poisons and dangerous to
work with, also being highly flammable. In addition, other harmful chemicals used in
the dying process include
1) dioxin – a carcinogen and possible hormone disrupter;
2) Toxic heavy metals such as chrome, copper, and zinc – known carcinogens; and
3) Formaldehyde, a suspected carcinogen.
Dye chemicals have caused or fueled many dye factory fires through history, including
a massive Rhode Island dye factory fire in 2003 in which vast quantities of dye
chemicals spilled into the Blackstone River.
2.6.1 Dangers for Dye Workers
In the end of the nineteen century, little regard was paid to the safety and of dye
worker labor conditions. However, it soon became apparent that there were deadly
risks to workers who manufactured dye and who dyed garments.
In the dye industry in 2008, much, but not all has changed, and not even where you
might expect it to. In Japan, dye workers are at higher risk of tumors. And in the
United States, deaths amongst factory workers from several cancers, cerebrovascular
disease, lung disease are significantly higher – 40 times higher, for some diseases – than
in the general population.
2.6.2 Environmental Pollution from Dye Factories
Almost every industrial dye process involves a solution of a dye in water, in which
the fabrics are dipped or washed. After dying a batch of fabric, it’s cheaper to dump
the used water – dye effluent – than to clean and re – use the water in the factory. So
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dye factories across the world are dumping millions of tons of dye effluent into
rivers.
In China, rivers near factories that producing dyed textiles for Gap, Target and Wal–
Mart’s are turning dark red from untreated dye effluent which was being dumped
directly into the river, close to 22,000 tons.
In Mexico, fields and rivers near jeans factories are turning dark blue from untreated,
unregulated dye effluent. Factories dying denims for Levi and Gap dump waste-water
contaminated with synthetic indigo straight into the environment. Local residents and
farmers report health problems and wonder if the food they are obliged to grow in
nearby fields is safe to eat [19]
.
The CNN report October 2007 which Shana wrote about on Green Cotton, revealed
that new testing procedures (chemical burden testing) reveal that young babies and
children actually do have increased levels of chemicals in their bloodstream and skin.
Because clothing comes into prolonged contact with one’s skin, toxic chemicals are
often absorbed into the skin, especially when one’s body is warm and skin pores have
opened to allow perspiration. We also know that some individuals have what is
known as chemical sensitivity, including when exposed to garments of many types.
Symptoms in adults for chemical sensitivity range from skin rashes, headaches, trouble
concentrating, nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, dizziness, difficulty breathing,
irregular heart beat, and/or seizures. Symptoms in children include red cheeks and
ears, dark circles under the eyes, hyperactivity, and behavior or learning problems [20]
.
Dyes are so problematic because the families of chemical compounds that make good
dyes are also toxic to humans. Each new synthetic dye developed is a brand new
compound, and because it’s new, no-one knows it’s risks to humans and the
environment.
Many dyes like Amaranth have entered the market, then have subsequently been
discovered to be carcinogenic and withdrawn. The European Union in particular has
been pro-active in banning dangerous dyes and dyes formulated from toxic chemicals.
But it’s backwards to create a dye, see if it’s hazardous, then ban it if so. Especially
since so many dyes are known to be dangerous and carcinogenic.
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2.6.3 Alternative to Synthetic Dyes
In this new millenniums, maintenance of a safe environmental balance will become a
necessary requirement. Most of the synthetic dyes are not only based on toxic raw
materials and intermediates but their use in textile wet processing also produce
effluent which causes environmental pollution. Natural dyes are free from such
problems [21] [22] [23]
. Moreover, if steps are taken to commercialize the cultivation of
plants from which most natural dyes are generated, it will definitely assist in
preserving the eco-balance [24] [25] [26] [27]
. These natural dyes are not only replaceable but
also bio-degradable compared to limited and irreplaceable petrochemical resources of
synthetic dyes. These have also been much interest recently in the pharmacological
effects and possible health benefits of the use of natural dyes [28-31]
.
Recently extensive research work is being carried out around the world on application
of natural dyes to textile substrates as textile colorants [32-38]
. Because the earlier
sources of natural colorants as well as the traditional processes of coloration have
almost been lost due to the absence of documentation and years of neglecting. It
therefore becomes prime necessary for the textile scientists to search new sources and
to standardize the application methods of natural dyes to textile substrates to prove
their effectiveness and market potential. In this research an attempt has been made to
the application of natural dye (Turmeric) on cotton fabric. This topic will be briefly
discussed in this thesis.
2.7 Characteristics of Natural Dyes
Natural dyes have been defined as using to color food substrate, leather and natural
fibers since pre-historic times. Since the advantage of synthetic dyes are found out
such as availability, cheapness, excellent color fastness and large color range, the use
of natural dyes became poor in 1850s. However, the applications of natural dyes have
recently increased with the increase in environmental awareness. The use of non-toxic,
non-allergic and eco-friendly natural dyes in textile industry has become a significant
issue in order to avoid the hazardous effects of synthetic dyes. In spite of excellent
performance of synthetic dyes, the use of natural dyes has been investigated in recent
years by many researchers due to non-toxic and non-allergic properties. On the hand,
since the production of synthetic dyes
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Depends on petrochemical sources, a variety of synthetic dyes consists of toxic and
carcinogenic amines [39]
.
Toxicity can be defined as the ability of a substance to cause damage to a living
tissue and nervous system and to result in a variety of illness when absorbed by
living skin. In literature, LD50 refers to the lethal dose for 50% of the test animals. In
natural, a variety of natural dyes are found as non-toxic, non-allergic and non-
carcinogenic [39]
.
In general, textile materials are known as being available to microbial attacks in order
to absorb a substantial amount of moisture for microbial growth and to provide large
surface are. In particular, natural fibers based on protein and cellulose provide oxygen,
nutrients, temperature and moisture for microbial growth. Because of these properties of
textile materials, researchers seek to develop antimicrobial and anti-bacterial agents for
textile materials.
2.8 Advantages of Natural Dyes
Natural dyes are considered to be eco-friendly as these are obtained from renewable
resources as compared to synthetic dyes which are derived from non-renewable
petroleum resources. These are biodegradable and the residual vegetal matter left after
extraction of dyes can be easily composed and used as fertilizer. The produce soft
colors soothing to the eye which are in harmony with nature.
In addition to these environmental benefits, natural dyes also offer functional benefits
to the wearer and users of such textiles. Many of the natural dyes absorbs in the
ultraviolet region and therefore fabrics dyed with dyes should offer good protection
from ultraviolet light. Improvement in UV protection characteristics of natural cellulosic
fibers after treatment with natural dyes has been reported by various researchers[40-42]
.
Griffony et al. [43]
. Observed that treatment with tannins during mordanting itself
improved the UV protection of fabrics. Saxena et al. [44]
also observed that extracts of
tannin-rich pomegranate rind showed strong absorption in UV region and cotton
fabrics treated with these extracts showed excellent UV protection which was durable
to washing. As cotton and other cellulosics are frequently treated with tannins in the
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mordanting step during dyeing with natural dyes, it is likely that such dyed fabrics
would also show good UV protection. Many of the natural dye materials possess
antimicrobial properties. Therefore, textiles dyed with such materials are also likely to
show antimicrobial properties and the same has been reported by many researchers [45-
47]
. Ibrahim et al. [48]
have reported improvements in both UV protection and
antibacterial activity for polyamide 6 fabrics after treatment with natural dyes. Fabrics
dyed with some natural dyes have been reported by the wearers to be free of odor
perhaps due to the antibacterial or bacteriostatic properties of natural dye materials.
Users of natural dyed fabrics have also found such fabrics to be mosquito repellent
and/or moth repellent as perhaps the plant material from which these dyes were
derived might also have contained natural repellent substances. In addition, recently,
cellulosic textiles treated with natural plant extract have been found to exhibit flame-
retardant properties [49]
.
Many natural dyes such as myrobolon fruits, turmeric, manjishth root, Arjuna (
Terminalia arjuna ) bark, and safflower florets, among others possess curative properties
and have been used in various traditional medicinal systems. Textiles dyed with these
materials may also possess healing properties by absorption of medicinal compounds
through the skin. Textiles produced in Kerela, India by dyeing with herbs as per the
traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine and known as “Ayurvastra ” have become
very popular as health and well-being textiles and also as medicinal or curative
textiles and are being exported to various countries. Various companies are now
marketing naturally dyed textiles as health and well-being textiles.
2.9 Limitation of Natural Dyes
Natural dyes are considered to be eco-friendly alternative for dyeing of textile
materials, especially natural fiber textiles. However, there are many limitations in the
usage of natural dyes some of which are listed below.
 The extraction process takes too much time, resulting in soil waste.
 Although textile dyeing with natural dyes is considered as environmental-
friendly, there are many limitations too. One of the limitations of natural dyes
is that dyeing process takes a longer period of time than synthetic dyes.
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Furthermore, in order to improve fastness properties, mordanting process can be
treated.
 Purification of natural dyes for dyeing machine is not sufficient and costly.
 Sources of natural dyes are limited.
 After the dyeing process, a variety of dyes and mordant agents can emerge in
the washing bath. Natural dyes are, however, biologically degradable.
 Color tones of natural dyes are limited.
 Natural dyes are more expensive than synthetic dyes.
 Being one of the most important problems of natural dyes, repeatability is
limited.
 Though requiring expensive and complex natural dyes, Bright colors can be
obtained in standard conditions.
 Some of the natural dyes are sensitive to pH
changes, resulting in color changes
occasionally.
 In natural dyeing, light fastness, washing fastness and rubbing fastness are poor.
In order to improve fastness properties of natural dyes, mordanting process is
treated to textile materials before the dyeing [50]
.
 Synthetic fibers are not dyed with natural dyes.
 Some mordants used in natural dyeing are not ecological.
 Some natural dyes have allergic effects to human [51]
.
 Unlike synthetic dyes that are created in a laboratory, natural dyes are obtained
from plants and are dependent on growing seasons.
2.10 Antimicrobial Finishing
Microbial growth on textile leads to odor development, mildew growth derived
discoloration up to the loss of functional properties ( elasticity and tenacity ) [50]
.For
that reason already in the seventeenth century ship cloth was conserved by tanning
with iron salt solutions (Brown color) . The use of hygienically effective substance
today is related to body tight worn garment and sports textiles, mattresses and socks.
Especially cellulosic fibers are in the first place cotton are targeted fibers for
antimicrobial functionalization since they retain water and nutrients and are therefore
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more prone to microbial attack than synthetic fibers; as effective substances, e.g. Mg-
hydroxyperoxyacetate and Mg-dihydroperoxide are used [52]
. In a regenerative
functionalization are applied to cotton and are activated or regenerated during washing
(chlorine bleach). Halogenated hydantions are normally used as swimming pool disn-
fectants[53]
.
2.11 What are Microbs
A microorganism or microbe is a microscopic living organism, which may be single-
celled or multicellular [54]
. Microorganisms i.e. bacteria, fungi, mildew, mold and yeasts
are found everywhere in nature, even in hostile environment. The human is usually
crowded with innumerable microorganisms. A suitable temperature, moisture, dust and
receptive surface provide perfect conditions for their growth [55]
.In favorable conditions
certain bacteria can grow from a single germ to millions in a very short period of
time. They can double every 20-30 seconds in a warm and mosit microclimate that
has plenty of food for them e.g. perspiration and other body secretions, skin particles,
fats and left overs from worn-out threads [56]
.
2.12 Effects of Microbes on Textile and Human Beings
Although microbes can be useful in many ways, for example in brewing, baking and
biotechnology, they can also be harmful to both textile and humans. Different
substances added to textiles, such as size, hand modifiers, antistats, thickeners, lubricants
and dirt as well as grease, sweat and dead skin from the human body provide a great
source of nourishment for microorganisms. Following are some of the possible effects
microorganisms on textiles :
 Bad odor
 Discoloration
 A slick slimy handle
 Loss of functional properties like elasticity and tensile strength
 Decrease in the life of the textiles, especially cotton and wool [57]
.
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The effect on human health is much more vast than the effect on textile. Most of
the microbes involve diseases. Some of them do cause the prevention of some
diseases. Bacteria associated with the human body outnumber body cells by ten to
one. In most causes the bacteria that cause sickness are that bacteria that normally
inhibit the body. They are picked up from the atmosphere. Some of the effect that are
caused by microbes on human being is pointed out below :
 Various types of infections diseases such as plague, tuberculosis, anthrax, malaria
etc.
 Food poisoning and water caused diseases
 Damage of building materials
 Bad odor[58]
2.13 Antimicrobial Component
Normal home-washing of textiles, which is generally under mild conditions, does not
completely remove the microbes. In order to eliminate microbes, very severe laundering
conditions, e.g. a temperature 95°c and strong detergent followed by bleach, are
essential. Any surviving microbes can quickly multiply again at each further wearing.
This can be avoided by the application of antimicrobial [59]
.
In this research chitosan is used as antimicrobial agent. This have been investigated as
an antimicrobial material against a wide range of target organism like algae, bacteria,
yeasts and fungi in experiments involving invivo and in vitro interactions with
chitosan in different forms ( solution, film and composites ). Chitosan is considered to
be a bactericidal ( kills the live bacteria or some fraction) or bacteriostatic ( hinders the
growth of bacteria but does not imply whether or not bacteria are killed ), often with
no distinction between activities. The exact mechanism is not fully understood and
several other factors may contribute to the antimicrobial action.
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Fig 1: Structure of completely deacetylated chitosan
In the process it is basically the interaction chitosan and negatively charged microbial
cell membranes. The interaction is meditated by electrostatic forces between protonated
NH3
+
groups and the negative residues, presumably by competing with Ca2+
for
electronegative sites on the membrane surface.
Since such mechanism is based on electrostatic interaction, it suggests that the greater
the number of customized amines, the higher will be the antimicrobial activity.
Chitosan has the most number of positive amines than any other natural microbial
agents [60]
.
2.14 History of Antimicrobial Finish
During world war II, when cotton fabric was extensively used for tentage, tarpaulins
and truck covers, these fabrics need to be protected from rotting caused by microbial
attack. This was particularly a problem in the south pacific campaigns, where much of
the fighting took place under jungle like conditions. During the early 1940’s, the US
army quartermaster Crops and collected and complied data on fungi, yeast and algae
isolated from textiles in topical and subtropical areas throughout the world.
Cotton duck, webbing and other military fabrics were treated with mixtures of
chlorinated waxes, copper and antimony salts that stiffened the fabrics and gave them
a distinct odor. At the time potential polluting effects of the application of these
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materials and toxicity related issue were not a major consideration. After world war
II, and as late as the mid-to-late 1950’s fungicides used to cotton fabrics were
compounds such as 8-hydroxyginoline salts, copper napthenate, copper ammonium
fluoride and chlorinated phenols. As the government and industrial firms became more
aware of the environment and workplace hazards these compounds caused. Alternative
products were sought.
A considerable amount of work was done by the Southern Regional Research
Laboratory of the Us Department of Agriculture, the Institute of Textile Technology
(ITT) and some of the ITT’s member mills to chemically modify cotton to improve
its resistance to rotting and improve other properties by acetylation and
Cyanoethylation of cotton. These treatments had limited industry acceptance because of
relatively high cost and loss of fabric strength in processing. In addition, the growing
use of man-made fibers such as nylon, acrylics and polyester, which have inherent
resistance to microbial decomposition, came into wider use to replace cotton in many
industrial fabrics [61]
.
2.15 Use of Antimicrobial Finish
Antimicrobial agents can be applied to colored and white textiles. Their application is
possible on all common types of fibers. But the treatment of pure polyester requires
pre-treatment in order to access the best application conditions. The names of some of
the materials to which they can be applied are given below :
 Sportswear
 Working Clothes
 Lining Fabrics
 Terry Fabrics
 Socks
 Tights
 Pullovers
 Woolen Blankets
 Acrylic Blankets
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Other than the textile industry, anti microbial finish is also applied in other various
activities. They are mentioned below :
 Air Filters
 Aquarium Filter
 Buffer pads
 Draperies
 Bed sheets
 Bed spreads
 Carpets
 Upholstery
 Sleeping bags
 Towel
 Fire hose fabric [62]
.
2.16 Benefit of Antimicrobial Textiles
A wide range textile product is now a available for the benefit of the consumer.
Initially, the primary objective of the finish was to protect textiles from being affected
by microbes particularly fungi. Uniforms, tents, defence textile and technical textiles,
such as, geo-textiles have therefore all been finished using antimicrobial agents. Later,
the home textiles, such as, curtains coverings and bath mats came with antimicrobial
finish. The application of the finish is now extended to textile used for outdoor,
healthcare sector, sports and leisure.
Novel technologies in antimicrobial finishing are successfully employed in nonwoven
sector especially in medical textiles. Textile fibers with built-in antimicrobial properties
will also serve the purpose alone or in blends with other fibers. Bioactive fiber is a
modified from of the finish, which include chemotherapeutics in their structure, i.e.
synthetic drugs of bacterial and fungicidal qualities. These fibers are not only used in
medicine and health prophylaxis application but also for manufacturing textile products
of daily use and technical textiles.
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The field of application of the bioactive fibers includes sanitary materials, dressing
materials, surgical threads, materials for filtration of gases and liquids, air conditioning
and ventilation, constructional materials, special materials for food industry,
pharmaceutical industry, footwear industry, clothing industry, automatic industry, etc[63]
.
2.17 Requirements of Antimicrobial Finish :
Textile material in particular, the garments are more susceptible to wear and tear. It is
important to take into account the impact of stress strain, thermal and mechanical
effects on the finished substrates. The following requirements need to be satisfied to
obtain maximum benefits out of the finish.
 Durability to washing, dry cleaning and hot pressing.
 Selective activity to undesirable microorganisms.
 Should not produce harmful effects to the manufacturer, user and the
environment.
 Should comply with the statutory requirements of regulating agencies.
 Compatibility with the chemical processes.
 Easy method of application.
 No deterioration of fabric quality
 Resistant to body fluids.
 Resistant to disinfections/ sterilization [63]
.
2.18 Durability of Antimicrobial Textiles
Temporary antimicrobial properties in textiles are easy to achieve in finishing but
readily lost in laundering. Temporary antimicrobial textiles are useful only for disposal
materials. Durable antimicrobial function is quite challenging to achieve and can last
more than 50 machine washes [64]
.
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2.19 Problems of Antimicrobial Finishes
Some common problems related with application of antimicrobial finishes are given as
follows :
 Stiff hand and fabric strength loss : This may be caused by the choice of
binders and resins with controlled-release finishes.
 Color change : This may occur due to inappropriate choice of antimicrobial
finishes.
 Selectivity : Some antimicrobial finishes are efficient against Gram-positive
bacteria or Gram-negative bacteria, while others against fungi. A formulation
that is mixture of several substance will be more effective for good all-round
protection against microbes.
 Toxicological and environment problem : Include skin irritation, sensitizing,
allergy of dermatitis on prolonged contact with skin, biodegradability and
bioaccumulation.
 Handling : The higher the biocide activity, the higher the need for safe handling
and prevention from toxicity.
 Development of resistant microbes : An area of concern regarding the use of
antimicrobial finishes is that is their long term use may lead to the
development of resistant microbes which might have deadly consequences for
humans [65]
.
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CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Materials
Following materials are required for this research :
 Fabric
 Dye-stuff
 Antimicrobial agent
 Chemicals
3.1.1 Selection of Fabric
100% bleached cotton (woven) fabric is used in this research. Cotton fabric is free
from toxins & irritants.
Fabric Specification
Type : 100% woven cotton fabric
Warp Count : 20s
Weft Count : 20s
EPI : 54
PPI : 40
GSM : 123
Weave Design : Plain
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3.1.2 Dye – stuff
In this research Turmeric is used as dye – stuff. Turmeric is the most popular natural
dye in textile dyeing. Turmeric is a rich source of phenolic compounds called
curcuminoids. The active colouring ingredient in turmeric rhizome is Curcumin, which
is also known as Natural Yellow. Its general formula is given in Figure.
Fig. 2. Chemical structure of turmeric (keto form)
Turmeric is considered a fugitive dye. Fugitive dyes fade over time but can always
be re-dyed. It is also very pH sensitive so you should always wash it in PH neutral
soap. At home and work I only wash my fibers with pH neutral soap. Most natural
dyes need a mordant to bond with fiber (metallic salt like alum) but turmeric can dye
fibers without one.
Fig. 3: Turmeric (Curcuma longa)
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3.1.3 Antimicrobial agent
In this research chitosan is used as antimicrobial agent. This have been investigated as
an antimicrobial material against a wide range of target organism like algae, bacteria,
yeasts and fungi in experiments involving invivo and in vitro interactions with
chitosan in different forms ( solution, film and composites ). Chitosan is considered to
be a bactericidal ( kills the live bacteria or some fraction) or bacteriostatic ( hinders the
growth of bacteria but does not imply whether or not bacteria are killed ), often with
no distinction between activities.
Fig 4 :Structure of completely deacetylated chitosan
3.1.4 Chemical specification
Process Chemical Country
Dyeing Alum [KAl(SO4)2.12H2O] China
Washing Acetic Acid [CH3COOH] Bangladesh
Finishing
Knittex CHN
Pyrovatex CP
Invadine PBN
Turpex
Acetic Acid
Phosphoric Acid
Indonesia
Germany
China
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Taiwan
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3.2 Apparatus
Beakers
Stirrer
pH Meter
Electric Balance
Scissor
Thermometer
Dye Bath
Washing Machine
Drying Machine
Curing Machine
3.3 Preparation of Dye
The dye is extracted from the fresh or dried rhizomes of turmeric. It is a substantive
dye capable of directly dyeing cotton fabric. The dye was prepared by the extracted
turmeric powder & mixing it with deionized water at neutral pH, at 95°c for 1.5
hours. The obtained turmeric solution (dye solution) had a yellowish color.
Fig. 5: Turmeric (Curcuma longa)
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3.4 Natural Dyeing
Most of the natural dyes have no substantively on cellulose or other textile fibers
without the use of a mordant. The majority of natural dyes need a mordanting
chemical (preferably metal salt or suitably coordinating complex forming agents) to
create an affinity between the fiber and dye or the pigment molecules of natural
dyes. Aluminium sulphate or other metallic mordant anchored to any fibre, chemically
combine with certain mordant able functional groups present in the natural dyes and
bound by coordinated/covalent bonds or hydrogen bonds and other interactional forces.
Thus, for proper fixation of natural dyes on any textile fiber, mordanting is essential
in most of the cases
Fig. 6: Natural Dyeing
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3.5 Dyeing Process
Dyeing of cotton fabric was done with the natural coloring matter extracted from
turmeric & a mordant (Alum) with the liquor ratio 1:40, at 100°C, for 60 mins. Dyeing
was performed in stainless-steal beaker. The fabric sample was immersed in the
dyeing solution in a water bath at 40 °C. After dyeing, rinsing of sample was
performed in warm and cold deionized water by using acetic acid as a mild detergent
for 10 mins at 80°C. The sample was air dried at room temperature.
100°C 60 min 80°C 10 min
Washing
Temp (°C)
3°C/min 3°C/min
40°C Cooling at 40° C Cooling at 40° C
Time (min)
Figure 7 : Dyeing Curve
3.6 Extraction of Antimicrobial Agent
Here Chitosan is used as antimicrobial agent. Chitosan is natural resources refined
from the waste products of crabbing and shrimp industry. It is obtained from chitin
by treating the latter with strong caustic soda and heat, which removes the N-acetyl
groups.
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Chitosan formation process :
Crustacean Shell
Size Reduction
Deprotienization
NaOH-Wash
Demineralization
HCl-Wash
Dewatering
Chitin
Deacetylation
NaOH-Wash
Dewatering
Chitosan
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3.7 Antimicrobial Finish Process
Application of antimicrobial finishes depends on its type i.e. leaching or non-leaching
antimicrobial finish. In this study leaching Antimicrobial finishes are used. These
finishes can be applied with the help of continuous, exhaust methods and Pad – Dry –
Cure. Here in this research Pad – Dry – Cure method is applied.
3.7.1 Recipe
Sample 1
Chitosan : 0.5 g/L
Knittex CHN : 50 g/L
Pyrovatex CP : 400g/L
Invadine PBN : 5ml/L
Turpex CAN New : 45 g/L
Acetic acid : 2 ml/L
Phosphoric acid : 20 g/L
Sample 2
Chitosan : 0.75 g/L
Knittex CHN : 65 g/L
Pyrovatex CP : 300g/L
Invadine PBN : 5ml/L
Turpex CAN New : 45 g/L
Acetic acid : 2 ml/L
Phosphoric acid : 20 g/L
Sample 3
Chitosan : 1 g/L
Knittex CHN : 80 g/L
Pyrovatex CP : 400g/L
Invadine PBN : 5ml/L
Turpex CAN New : 45 g/L
Acetic acid : 2 ml/L
Phosphoric acid : 20 g/L
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3.7.2 Pretreatment
Before application the sample must be acidified. It must be free from active chlorine
and residues of production additives such as sizes, printing thickeners etc. because they
can have negative influence on the effectiveness and durability of finish.
pH of bath
The pH of bath must be between 5-6. Higher pH values may damage the absorption
capacity of substrate. The absorption properties can be improved by treating the
substrate with any type of wetting agent e.g. “Invadine PBN”
 The pH can be regulated with the help of acetic acid.
Application Way
 Prepare solution according to recipe calculation
 Take sample of bleached cotton fabric.
 Remember sample of fabric should be bleached; neither mercerized nor OBA
(Optical Brightening Agent) applied.
 Set the pick up of padder of padding machine at 70%.
 Set the temperature of curing machine for drying at 120°C for 1-2 minutes.
 After drying, again set the temperature of curing machine at 150°C for 5
minutes or 170°C for 1 minute for curing.
Procedure
The fabric is dipped in a solution and on a padding machine. Adequate liquor pick-up
is essential 70-90 %, depending on weight and construction of fabric and can be
achieved by a combination of absorbent fabric and long contact of the fabric with the
liquor (padding speed).
Drying
Drying on curing machine should be carried out with maximum overfeed. The
recommended drying temperature is 120°C for 1-2 minutes.
If the goods are not cured immediately, they must be prevented from absorbing
moisture from the air by being rolled up and wrapped in plastic film. If the residual
moisture on the goods is too high, they may end up with a harsh handle as a result
of migration.
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Curing
 In the curing oven, 5 min at 150°C must be guaranteed.
 In the case of curing on stenter, 30 to 60 sec at 170°C are sufficient.
 It is advisable to check the curing effect at regular intervals.
 Drying and curing should be carried out at maximum rate of air replacement.
This largely prevents soiling of the machinery.
 If the goods are to be hatched up after curing, it is advisable to cool them
below 40°C, for example by passing the fabric over a cooling device.
 By this method we can prepare samples according to our requirements.
Precautionary Measures
 Wear goggles of face shield and rubber gloves when handling the concentrated
material.
 “Chitosan and Pyrovatex” must be stored at room temperature, i.e. up to 30°C.
 On contact with skin it can cause a little rash or irritation so avoid contact
with skin.
Advantages
 Lasting hygienic freshness and greater wear comfort.
 Prevents microbially caused odors.
 Protects functional characteristics (e.g. elastomer fibers).
 Protection against discoloration and felting caused by micro-organisms.
 Safe hygiene.
 Good wash fastness.
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Chapter 4
Tests, Result and Discussion
4.1 Testing
4.1.1 Color Fastness Properties of Natural Dye
Color fastness is the resistance of a material to change in any of its color
characteristics or extent of transfer of its colorants to adjacent white materials in
touch or both for different environmental and use conditions or treatments like
washing, dry cleaning etc. or exposure to different agency heat, light etc. Fading
means changes in the color with or without loss of depth of shade for exposure to
particular environment/agency/treatments either by lightening or darkening of the
shades. Bleeding is the transfer of color to a secondary material in contact
accompanying white fibre material of similar/dissimilar nature. The color fastness is
usually rated either by loss of depth of color or color change in original sample or it
is often expressed by staining scale meaning that the accompanying material gets
tinted/stained by the color of the original fabric, when the accompanying white fabrics
of similar/dissimilar nature are either in touch/made to touch by some means of test
procedure/protocol.
4.1.1.1 Wash-fastness
The dyed samples were washed in the Launder o meter Laboratory apparatus
according to ISO 105-C06 A2S standard. The size of the sample was 100 x 40 mm, the
wash bath contained 4 g/l ECE phosphate reference detergent B, the volume of the
bath was 150 ml, the temperature of the bath was 40°C and time of washing 45
minutes. Ten stainless steel globules were added into each bath to perform washing,
which corresponds to five domestic washings. After washing, the samples were rinsed
twice in deionized water and air dried at room temperature.
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Fig 8 : Washing Fastness Tester
4.1.1.2 Rubbing Fastness
The dyed samples were Rub fastness in Taber Crock meter - Model 418 found
Laboratory apparatus according to EN ISO 105x12:2001 standard. The size of the
sample was 100 x 20mm, arm is weighted to provide a constant 9N load on the
sample at all times and a mechanical counter keeps track of completed 10 cycles.
After completion of the Rubbing fastness samples are dried. Then it is Compared
AATCC Gray Scale (ISO 105-A03) for Staining of color.
Fig 9 : Crock-meter
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4.1.1.3 Color Measurements
CIE L*a*b* color values and reflectance (R) of samples were measured using a
reflectance spectrophotometer Spectra flash 600 PLUS-CT (Data color). From the CIE
L*a*b* color values, color differences were calculated according to equation 1:
Where ∆L* is the lightness difference, ∆a* is the red/green difference and Δb*
is the yellow/blue difference between standard and batch. From the reflectance
measurements, K/S values were calculated according to equation 2:
Where R is the reflectance, K is absorbance and S is the scattering.
Fig 10 : Spectrophotometer
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Fig 11 : Color measuring Curve
4.1.1.4 Color Fastness to light
The purpose of color fastness to light test is to determine how much the color will
fade when exposed to a known light source.
Procedure:
The sample is cut and should be exposed (
1
2
coverd and
1
2
exposed) together with
standard dyed wool samples (1-8). The standard and the specimen mounted in a frame.
The composite sample must be protected from rain.
The test sample is exposed to light for a certain time (24 hrs, 36 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs) or
by customer demand and compare the change with original unexposed sample. The
changes are assessed by blue scales (1-8).
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Fig 12 : Light fastness tester
4.1.1.5 Results & discussion of Dyeing
Sl. No. Test Name Grade Rating
1 Washing fastness 4 Very good
2 Light fastness 4 Good
Sl. No. Test Name
Dry Wet
Grade Rating Grade Rating
1
Rubbing
fastness
2 Very good 4 Good
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From the above result it is seen that the dyeing of the fabric with natural dye is
very successful as the fastness tests (washing fastness, light fastness & rubbing
fastness) turns out to be preferable for the fabric.
4.1.1.6 Visual Appearance of Sample
Fig 13 : Sample
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4.1.2 Verification Tests of Antimicrobial Finish
After the application of antimicrobial finishes on textiles we check whether our finish
has been applied to the substrate according to the requirement of customer or not. For
this purpose there are many verification tests.
In this chapter we will discuss two major verification tests of antimicrobial finishes-
 Verification Test for application of finish on substrate
 Verification Test for checking the type of finish applied on the substrate. i.e.
leaching or non leaching.
4.1.2.1 Verification Test for the Application of Finish
There are two types of test for verification of antimicrobial finish:
(i) Quantitative Test
(ii) Qualitative Test
Qualitative Test helps us to determine the exact numerical value of how much
effective antimicrobial is.
Qualitative Test helps us to verify that whether antimicrobial finish is applied
properly on the substrate or not. The test that we commonly use on industrial scale is
known as “BPB (Bromo Phenol Blue)” Test.
In this research qualitative test method has been followed.
BPB (Bromo Phenol Blue)
This is a qualitative method for detecting the presence of antimicrobial finishes on
light and dark colored substrates. We will discuss this test for both types of
substrates. Actually BPB is a sodium salt of bromo-phenol blue.
4.1.2.2 Test for Dark Substrates
Field of Detection
It is basically not designed to detect the presence of “Antimicrobial Finish” but we can
also use it.
to detect the Chitosan .
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Test Method
Standards According to the Company
 Prepare 0.001 % solution of BPB
 Take a sample of 2 × 2 inch2
.
Apparatus
Beakers, Stirrer, Petridishes, Eye cleaner, Measuring Balance, Measuring Cylinders,
Scissors, Glass jars etc.
Chemicals
BPB (Bromo phenol blue), Distilled Water etc
Pretreatment of Sample
Before application the sample must be acidified. It must be free from active chlorine
and residues of production additives such as sizes, printing thickeners etc.
Application of BPB to the Sample
 First of all take some fabric and make a sample of 2*2 inch2
from them by
cutting them into pieces with the help of scissor.
 Now prepare the BPB solution according to the type of substrate (light or
dark) and standards given. Mostly we prepare 500ml or 1000ml of solution in
glass jars. The color of the solution is purple.
 Now place the dark treated samples into the glass jar for 2 minutes. Stirerr
this solution constantly. Now remove the sample from the solution, place them
in petridishes and observe the color of the solution of BPB.
 The solution may have two possible colors according to the antimicrobial
treatment given to the sample. i.e.
 For well-treated sample the solution will have very light or virtually no purple
color.
 For untreated or poorly treated sample the solution will have a dark purple
color.
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Fig 14 : BPB solution
Original Solution Solution after agitation of the sample
From the above experiment we can see that the solution which is obtained after the
agitation of the sample has a very light shade as compared to original purple
solution. So this means that sample is well-treated.
4.1.2.3 Test for Light Substrate
Field of Detection
It is basically not designed to detect the presence of “Antimicrobial Finish” but we
can also use it to detect the Chitosan.
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Test Method
Standards According to the Company:
 Prepare 0.025 % solution of BPB
 Take a sample of 2*2 inch2
Apparatus
Beakers, Stirrer, Petridishes, Eye cleaner, Measuring Balance, Measuring Cylinders,
Scissors, Glass Jars etc.
Chemicals
BPB (Bromophenol blue), Distilled Water etc
Pretreatment of Sample
Before application the sample must be acidified. It must be free from active chlorine
and residues of production additives such as sizes, printing thickeners etc.
Application of BPB to the Sample
First of all take some fabric and make a sample of 2 × 2 inch2
from them by cutting
them into pieces with the help of scissor.
Now prepare the BPB solution according to the type of substrate (light or dark) and
standards given. Mostly we prepare 500ml or 1000ml of solution in glass jars. The
color of the solution is purple.
Now place the light treated samples into the glass jar for 2 minutes. Rinse the
solution constantly, then after 2 minutes remove the samples and rinse them in hot
water in a separate jar. After rinsing place these samples into the petridishes and then
compare them with the “BPB Color Test Scale”.
The “BPB Color Test Scale” is as follows:
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Fig 15 : BPB color test scale
Conclusion of testing
With the help of BPB (Bromo Phenol Blue) Test, we concluded that how much
effective is Chitosan on our samples.
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4.2 Result and Discussion of Anti-Microbial Finish
In this chapter, antimicrobial activity and flame retardancy of the treated fabric is
investigated against different concentration of Chitosan, Pyrovatex® CP New and
Knittex CHN.
First of all, we will talk about the results of effectiveness of antimicrobial activity.
Sample 1
Sample 2
Sample 3
Fig 16 : Sample
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Discussion of Testing Results of Antimicrobial Activity
It is concluded from testing results of antimicrobial activity that sample like 1
has 0.5 g/L amount of Chitosan in their recipes. Amount was less and when
we compare their results with given BPB color Test Scale then we concluded
that It comes in the category of “Under Treated”.
Fig 17 : BPB color test scale
Similarly when we compare Sample 2 with Standard BPB Color Test Scale
then we concluded that it comes in the category of “Slightly Under Treated”. In
this recipe, amount of Chitosan was 0.75 g/L.
When we again compare Sample 3 with Standard BPB Color Test Scale then
we concluded that they come in the category of “Good Treated”. In these
recipes, amount of Chitosan was 1 g/L.
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Chapter – 5
Conclusions
5.1 Conclusion
As it is expressed earlier that the adverse effect on environment due to synthetic
dying and chemical finishing have is very much huge. So there is no exception
without replacing these harmful chemicals with natural components. In this research it
is shown that turmeric used as natural dye and chitosan as antimicrobial agent is
compatible with cotton fabric. It is known that these are totally harmless for the
environment as well as human body. This type of operation can be carried out in
various field (e.g. medical clothing, sportswear, home textiles etc.). With further research
it may be possible to apply these ecofriendly and hygienic materials in other fields.
5.2 Limitation
This research is done by only one recipe (dyeing) and at a fixed temperature. Only
one type of fabric is used. And hence only natural component is used in this research
so time consumption is very much higher than usual. There is also a scarcity of
natural components so this is not suitable for bulk production.
5.3 Future Development
The work should be extended with various recipe at different temperature. Different
types of fabrics should have brought under this process. Finding a way to reduce the
time of this process is also possibility of development.
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A Project work on Natural Dyeing of Cotton Fabric using Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and Antimicrobial finish

  • 1. NATURAL DYEING OF COTTON FABRIC USING TURMERIC (Curcuma longa) AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH A Project Work Presented By Md. Naimul Hasan Md. Anisur Rahman B.M. Tanimul Isalm S.K. Asgar Hossain Abdulluah Al Bitar Ananna Rahman Khandakar Hasanuzzaman Md Naim Hasan Towhid MD. Shariful Huda To The Department of Textile Engineering in partial fulfillment for a degree of Bachelor of Science in Textile Engineering Shyamoli Textile Engineering College (Affiliated by University of Dhaka) April, 2017
  • 2. NATURAL DYEING OF COTTON FABRIC USING TURMERIC (Curcuma longa) AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH A Thesis By Md. Naimul Hasan Registration :4576, Roll:698 Md. Anisur Rahman Registration :4577 , Roll:699 B.M. Tanimul Isalm Registration : 4578 , Roll:700 S.K. Asgar Hossain Registration :4580 , Roll: 701 Abdullah Al Bitar Registration :4581 , Roll:702 Ananna Rahman Registration :4587 , Roll:703 Khandakar Hasanuzzaman Registration :4589 , Roll: 704 Md Naim Hasan Towhid Registration :4592 , Roll:707 MD. Shariful Huda Registration : 4602 , Roll: 711 Supervisor: Avik Kumar Dhar Lecturer (STEC) Submitted To The Department of Textile Engineering in partial fulfillment for a degree of Bachelor of Science in Textile Engineering Shyamoli Textile Engineering College (Affiliated by University of Dhaka) April, 2017
  • 3. INDEX Chapters Sub. Chapters Topics Page No. Acknowledgement 1 Abstract 2 Chapter-1 INTRODUCTION 3-6 1.1.1 Natural Dye 3 1.1.2 Anti-Microbial Finish 3 1.2 Background of Study 4 1.3 Problem Statement 5 1.4 Objective 6 1.5 Scope of Study 6 1.6 Significant of Study 6 Chapter-2 Literature Review 7-32 2.1 Overview 7 2.2 Dyes 8 2.2.1 Requisites of A True Dye 9 2.2.2 Classification of Dyes 10 2.3 Color in Textiles 12 2.4 Natural Dyes 12 2.4.1 History of Natural Dyes 12 2.4.2 Types of Natural Dyes 14 2.4.3 Natural dyes obtained from plants 14 2.4..4 Natural dyes obtained from minerals 17 2.4.5 Natural dyes obtained from animals 17 2.5 Evaluation of Synthetic Dyes 17 2.6 Reincarnation of Natural Dyes 20 2.6.1 Dangers for Dye workers 20 2.6.2 Environmental Pollution from dye factories 20 2.6.3 Alternative to Synthetic Dyes 22 2.7 Characteristics of Natural Dyes 22 2.8 Advantages of Natural Dyes 23 2.9 Limitation of Natural Dyes 24 2.10 Antimicrobial Finish 25 2.11 What are microbes 26 2.12 Effects of microbes on textile and Human beings 26 2.13 Antimicrobial components 27 2.14 History of Antimicrobial Finish 28 2.15 Use of Antimicrobial Finish 29 2.16 Benefit of Antimicrobial Finish 30 2.17 Requirements of Antimicrobial Finish 31 2.18 Durability of Antimicrobial Finish 31 2.19 Problems of Antimicrobial Finish 32 Chapter-3 Materials And Methods 33-42 3.1 Materials 33 3.1.1 Selection of Fabric 33 3.1.2 Dye-stuff 34
  • 4. List of Figure Figure No. Figure Name Page No. 1 Structure of completely deacetylated chitosan 28 2 Chemical structure of turmeric (keto form) 34 3 Turmeric (Curcuma longa) 34 4 Structure of completely deacetylated chitosan 35 5 Turmeric (Curcuma longa) 36 6 Natural Dyeing 37 7 Dyeing Curve 38 8 Washing Fastness Tester 44 9 Crock-meter 44 10 Spectrophotometer 45 11 Color measuring Curve 46 12 Light Fastness tester 47 13 Sample 48 14 BPB solution 51 15 BPB color test scale 53 16 Sample 54 17 BPB color test scale 55 3.1.3 Antimicrobial Agent 35 3.1.4 Chemical Specification 35 3.2 Apparatus 36 3.3 Preparation of Dye 36 3.4 Natural Dyeing 37 3.5 Dyeing Process 38 3.6 Extraction of Antimicrobial Agent 38 3.7 Antimicrobial Finish Process 40 3.7.1 Recipe 40 3.7.2 Pretreatment 41 Chapter-4 Test Result And Discussions 43-54 4.1 Testing 43 4.1.1 Color Fastness Properties of Natural Dye 43 4.1.1.1 Wash Fastness 43 4.1.1.2 Rubbing Fastness 44 4.1.1.3 Color Measurements 45 4.1.1.4 Color Fastness to light 46 4.1.1.5 Results & Discussions of Dyeing 47 4.1.1.6 Visual Appearance of Sample 48 4.1.2 Verification tests of Antimicrobial Finish 49 4.1.2.1 Verification Test for the Application of Finish 49 4.1.2.2 Test for Dark Substrate 49 4.1.2.3 Test for Light Substrate 51 4.2 Result and Discussion of Anti-Microbial Finish 54 Chapter-5 Conclusion 56 5.1 Conclusion 56 5.2 Limitation 56 5.3 Future Development 56 References 57-61
  • 5. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 1 | P a g e ACKNOWLEDGEMENT At first, grateful acknowledgement are made to the Almighty who is the most gracious and merciful. This project and work was carried out at Shyamoli Textile Engineering College. Affiliated by Dhaka University. It is a nice feeling the opportunity to express gratitude for them who have relentlessly encouraged and helped throughout the project. Obviously the special credit goes to the first person, the supervisor Avik Kumar Dhar, lecturer, department of Wet processing, Shyamoli Textile Engineering College. He has an energetic and enthusiastic mind which is really inspiring. His scientific excitement, integral view on research and his positive attitude towards his mission for providing knowledge has made a deep impression. It gives always a pleasant experience while working with him for his endless support and guidance throughout the project and thesis period. The authors would like to heartedly acknowledge with a deep sense of gratitude to Prof. Dr. Eng. Md. Mufazzal Hossain, Shyamoli Textile Engineering College (STEC) for the constant support to get the job done successfully. He took possible measures to provides all types of facilities during this project. Every moment he gave appreciation with special eagerness and cordial support. The supportive attitude of administration has the project and thesis possible. So a special thanks goes to this excellent administration.
  • 6. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 2 | P a g e ABSTRACT Nowadays, synthetic dyes release vast amount of waste and unfixed colorants poses serious health hazard and are disturbing the eco-balance of the nature. Environmental issues in the production and application of synthetic dyes once again revived consumer interest in natural dyes during the last decades of the twentieth century. But the problem associated in dyeing with natural dyes are lower extractions of natural colorants and poor fastness. But using metallic salts as mordant, which traditionally used to improve fastness and produce shade which is hygienic. Turmeric is used is this thesis as natural dyes. Turmeric consists of three main components which are curcumin, demethoxy curcumin and bisdemethoxy curcumin that are responsible for it’s bright yellow color. It is a substantive dye capable of directly dyeing cotton. As fabric production rate is very tremendous and the market limited scope which can be multiplied by value added finishing to textiles like antimicrobial finish. Development of antimicrobial textile finish is highly indispensible and relevant since garments are is direct contact with human body. This new line of interest is due to stringent environmental standards imposed by many countries due to the usage of synthetic dyes which causes allergic reaction and toxicity. Chitosan is used as antimicrobial finish in this thesis. This antimicrobial finishes is applied on cotton fabric by Pad- Dry-Cure method. The purpose of this study is to determine the application of turmeric dyeing on cotton fabric on the basis of the optimum concentration of dye, dyeing time, concentration of mordants, mode and time of mordanting and combination mordant have been worked out for the dyeing of cotton with turmeric extract and it’s antimicrobial properties of the chitosan applied on cotton for it’s value added products in different fields.
  • 7. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 3 | P a g e CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1.1 Natural Dye Natural dyes have been used since the beginning of organized society, developed so human could paint their bodies, cloths, houses, weapons and religious icons. The color were obtained from plants, animals, fruits and earth [1] . But the natural color may not have the desired shade or fastness. And it was also scarce and costly. So it was only used by some selective quantity of the society. Thus synthetic dye was introduced. Synthetic dyes was first brought into practice by the end of the 19th century. Thousands of synthetic dyes are available till now, covering every possible shades and having excellent fastness. These are created from various chemicals and materials in which not all of them are eco-friendly or healthy for human health. Even though synthetic dyes are available and cheap for commercial use, it is extremely harmful environment and health as it leaves a tremendous amount of waste and allergic in contact with human body. And now a days the environmental issue is rising all over the world. This is the main reason of transferring to natural dyes from synthetic dyes. The main purpose of using natural dye is to make the process eco-friendly and hygienic. 1.1.2 Antimicrobial Finish In present times only the product itself do not meet the satisfaction of consumer. It may need to come with many additional properties. In case of garments there are many types of finishing process which gives many additional properties such as flame
  • 8. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 4 | P a g e retardancy, antimicrobial finishes, water proof etc. Antimicrobial finish is discussed in this study. The inherent properties of the textile fibers provide room for the growth of microorganisms. Besides, the structure of the substrates and the chemical process may induce the growth of microbes. Humid and warm environment still aggravate the problem. Infestation by microbes cause cross infection by pathogens and development odor where the fabric is worn next to skin. In addition, the staining and loss of the performance properties of textile substrates are the results of microbial attack. Basically, with a view to protect the wearer and the textile substrate itself antimicrobial finish is applied to textile materials [2] . The main purpose of antimicrobial finish is to penetrate and destroy the bacteria like Salmonella, Listeria, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus Aureus, Streptococcus and also many other environmental bacteria. This component also protect the fabric against Mould, Fungi and Yeasts [3] . 1.2 Background of Study In this study, turmeric is used as natural dye. Turmeric also known as Curcuma longa is used because it contains demothoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin which will produce yellow color[4] . Turmeric was the only yellow dye that did not require a mordant to fix it on wool, cotton or silk; But it’s sensitivity to light, soap and alkali reduced its value considerably. Turmeric dyes were extracted from the ground root of the turmeric or Indian Saffon plant. This bright orange powder was a rich but fugitive dye, considered the finest yellow by many professional dyers and used frequently throughout the 18th and 19th centuries [5] . There are several advantages of using turmeric as a dye. It contains properties such as antioxidant and contains of antiflammatory properties [6] . Curcumin posses not only chemo preventive but also anti-cancer activities[6] . Curcumin has been considered by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) as the third generation of cancer chemo preventive agent in America and phase II clinical trials have been carried out in Germany. Here chitosan is used as antimicrobial agent. It mainly comes from crab and shrimp shells. It is formed by the deacetylation of chitin ( Poly-N-acetyl glucose amine ), an
  • 9. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 5 | P a g e abundant byproduct of the crab and shrimp processing industries. Chitosan is also known as an antimicrobial polysaccharide [7] . The ability of chitosan is to immobilize microorganisms derives from its polycationic character. Its protonised amino groups block the protein sequences of microorganisms, thus inhibiting further proliferation. Chitosan binds to the negatively charged bacterial surface disrupting the cell membrane and altering its permeability. This allows materials to leak out of the bacterial cells resulting cell death. Chitosan is named as most effective antimicrobial agent. Because of its water solubility and it is easy to apply. 1.3 Problem Statement Recent environmental awareness has again revived interest in natural dyes mainly among environmentally conscious people imposed by many countries in response to toxic and allergic reactions associated with synthetic dyes. Natural dyed textiles are eco-friendly, making them a top priority for use in the textile industry with a growing need to find suitable and less toxic [8] [9] [10] . In the late 1994, Germany stuck a severe blow to dyestuff industries and subsequently other European countries also executed ban on import of textiles and garments, colored with a series of azo-dyes made from aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic, allergenic and poisonous. Even after this ban, the textile processing units are one of the most polluting industries. The dyestuff industrial wastes in the form of atmospheric gases wastewaters have been found to be polluting the neighboring areas [11] . However, sources of natural dyes are limited and there light fastness properties are not so well as well as color tones are also limited. But this research is to determine the proper application method of natural dye (Turmeric) on cotton as well as to maintain their standard properties for textile buyers. Microorganism growth is another factor that has resulted in development of antimicrobial finish. Microbial infestation poses danger to both living and non-living matters. Microorganisms cause with textile raw materials and processing chemicals, wet processes in the mills, roll or bulk goods in storage, finished goods in storage and transport, and goods as the consumer uses them. Obnoxious smell form the inner garments such as socks, spread of diseases, staining and degradation of textiles are some of the detrimental effects of bad microbes. The consumers are now increasingly
  • 10. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 6 | P a g e aware of the hygienic life style and there is a necessity and expectation for a wide range of textile products finished with antimicrobial properties [12] . 1.4 Objective The aim of this study is application of natural dye (Turmeric) on cotton fabric and finishing with antimicrobial finish. The objective is to maintain the textile and aesthetic properties as well as to keep it hygienic. 1.5 Scope of Study The scopes have been identified for this study in this study in order to achieve the objective to this research  Natural Dye  Turmeric  Dyeing process with turmeric dye  Mordant  Finishing process  Antimicrobial Finish  Chitosan 1.6 Significant of study There are several significance in this research. Firstly the fastness properties ( wash, light, color ) should be maintained. Besides that , is to decrease the lost of dyes and to avoid from fading. In addition is to increase the usage of natural dyes because they are advantageous to humans. Lastly is to assure the aesthetic properties as well as antimicrobial properties.
  • 11. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 7 | P a g e CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Overview Over the years, dyes have been used to color textile goods. Dyes are applied to textiles in the form of a solution or paste just as manufacturers add dyes to color items either to conceal the original color or enhance their colors to make them attractive to buyers. The art of dyeing is as old as our civilization. Dyed textile remnants found during archaeological excavations at different places all over the world provide evidence to the practice of dyeing in ancient civilizations. Natural dyes were used only for coloring of textiles from ancient times till the nineteenth century [1] . As specialist testifies, natural dyes offer a fairly limited range of colors. Natural dyes are expensive as well as their extraction was often inefficient and time consuming. Natural dyeing process is a length process and there fastness properties not so good. Supply of natural dyes is not sufficient according to the demand. The desire for different shades, cost efficient as well as time efficient process led to the discovery of synthetic dyes and the manufacturer of dyestuff and chemical agents that produce long lasting colors in materials. Color for the textiles industry is mostly obtained from dyes and pigments. In 1856 William Henry Perkin took the first attempt of using synthetic dye[2] .Cheaper to produce, brighter, more color-fast and easy to apply to fabric, these new dyes changed the playing field. Scientists raced to formulate gorgeous new colors and before long, dyed fabric was available to all and natural dyes had become obsolete for most applications[3] .But synthetic dyes release vast amount of waste and unfixed colorants poses serious health hazard and are disturbing the eco-balance of the nature. During the mid 1980s, more interest have been shown in the use of natural dyes as it is believed that these primitive dyes are less toxic, less allergic and more eco-friendly than the synthetic ones[4] . But the problems associated in dying with natural dyes are lower extraction of natural colorants and poor fastness. To overcome these problems various metallic salts are being used as mordant, which are traditionally used to improve fastness and produce different shade with the same dye [5] .
  • 12. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 8 | P a g e Recent market survey has quite convincingly shown that the apparel consumers all over the world are demanding functionality in the textile product[6] . Some of the best examples of functionality are product attributes such as wrinkle resistance, soil release, water repellency, flame retardancy, fade resistance and resistance to microbial invasion [6] . Among these, the antimicrobial property of fabric is being considered to be an important and inevitable parameter for garments which are in direct contact with human body. Clothing can act as carriers for both the pathogenic and odor generating bacteria and moulds by offering an ideal environment for microbial attachment and growth by providing oxygen, water and warmth, as well as nutrients from spillages and body exudates. Textiles are liable to promote cross infection and promote disease; in fact hygiene problems with hospital textiles directly interfere with the recovery of patients [7] . The review of literature covers dyes, dyes in textile, natural plant dyes (types of natural dyes), synthetic dyes, characteristics of natural dyes, Antimicrobial finishing, Microbes, Effect of microbes, History and mechanism of Antimicrobial Finish, Application sector and durability of Antimicrobial finishing and summary of discussion. 2.2 Dyes A dye is an organic compound composed of a chromophore (the colored portion of the dye molecule) and an auxochrome (which slightly alters the color). The auxochrome makes the dye soluble and is a site for bonding the fiber. Dyes are molecules that can be dissolved in water or some other carrier so that they will penetrate into the fiber. Also referred to as dyestuffs, dyes are the most common way to add color to textile goods. When textile goods are placed into the dye bath (dye solution), the item absorbs the molecule of the dye and assumes the color of the dye. Any excess dye that remains on the outside of the fiber can bleed or become sensitive to surface abrasion. Because dyed textiles vary in their ability to hold color [8] chemical additives or mordants such as salt and acid are sometimes used to
  • 13. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 9 | P a g e regulate absorption of the dye into the fiber. This suggests using the proper dye for particular fibers, which also demands knowledge of affinity of the fiber or substrate for particular dyes, whether it is mineral, vegetable, animal or synthetic. A true dye is when the color of a substance is deposited on another substance in an insoluble form from a solution containing the colorant [9] . 2.2.1 Requisites of A True Dye All colored substances are not dyes. However, the requisites of a true dye are as follows :  It must have a suitable color.  It must be able to attach itself to material from solution or to be capable of fixing on it. For example, azobenzene is not a dye. Further, a dye may not be able to dye all types of substrates. For example, picric acid is able to dye silk or wool a permanent yellow but not cotton. Thus, a dye either forms a chemical union with the substrate being dyed or it may get associated with it in intimate physical union.  It must be soluble in water or must form a stable and good dispersion in water. However, it is to be remembered that the pick up of the dye from the medium should be good.  The substrate should be dyed must have natural affinity to an appropriate dye and must be able to absorb it from solution or aqueous dispersion, if necessary, in the presence of concentration, temperature and pH.  When a dye is fixed to a substrate, it must be fast to washing, dry cleaning, perspiration, light, heat and other agencies. It must be resistance to the action of water, acids or alkalis, particularly the latter due to the alkaline nature of washing soda and washing soap.  The shade and fastness of a given dye may vary depending on the substrate due to the different interactions of the molecular orbital of the dye with the substrate, and the ease with which the dye may dissipate its absorbed energy to its environment without itself decomposing [10] .
  • 14. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 10 | P a g e 2.2.2 Classification of Dyes There are several ways for classification of dyes. It should be noted that each class of dye has a very unique chemistry, structure and particular way of bonding. While some dyes can react chemically with the substrates forming strong bonds in the process, others can be held by physical forces. Some of the prominent ways of classification is given hereunder  Classification based on the source of the material  Chemical classification of the dyes based on the nature of their respective chromophores  Dyes according to the nuclear structure  Industrial classification of dyes [11] Classification based on the source of materials  Natural Dyes  Synthetic Dyes Chemical classification of the Dyes  Acridine dyes,  Anthraquinone dyes,  Arylmethane dyes  Triarylmethane dyes  Azo dyes  Cyanine dyes  Diazonium dyes  Nitro dyes  Nitroso dyes  Phthalocyanine dyes  Quinone-imine dyes  Azin dyes, Eurhodin dyes, Safranin dyes  Xanthene dyes  Indophenol dyes  Oxazin dyes
  • 15. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 11 | P a g e  Oxazone dyes  Thiazin dyes  Thiazole dyes  Fluorene dyes  Rhodamine dyes Dyes according to the nuclear structure  Cationic Dye  Anionic Dye Industrial Classification of the Dyes  Protein Textile Dyes  Cellulose Textile Dyes  Synthetic Dyes Other Important Dyes  Leather dyes  Oxidation dyes  Optical Brightener  Solvent Dyes  Fluorescent Dyes  Fuel Dyes  Smoke Dyes  Sublimation Dyes  Leuco Dyes  Inkjet Dyes
  • 16. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 12 | P a g e 2.3 Color in textiles Dyes, also referred to as are the most common way to add color to textile goods. Color is one of the most significant factors in the appeal and marketability of textile products[12] . Coloring materials have been used for many thousands of years by man. Leather, cloth, food, pottery and housing have all been modified in this way. The two old ways were to cover with a pigment (painting), or to color the whole mass (dyeing). Pigments for painting were usually made from ground up colored rocks and minerals, and the dyes were obtained from animals and plants[11] . But now a days consumers focus is not only on aesthetic but also on functional properties. Color is often the primary consideration in the selection and purchase of clothing and other household textiles and to a large extent, the most exciting thing about textiles [13] . For the normally sighted color is everywhere in the interior of a dwelling, natural and stained wood, wall-papers, upholstery fabrics, pottery, paintings, plants and flowers [14] . The view that most objects made by human beings are decorated in some way and that the decoration of the textile fibers may be achieved by varying the construction of the fabric and adding color through dyeing [15] . 2.4 Natural Dyes Today, many of the traditional dye sources are rarely, if ever, used (onion skins, for instance). However, some of our most common dyes are still derived from natural sources. These are termed natural dyes. 2.4.1 History of Natural Dyes The ability of natural dyes to color textiles has been known since ancient times. The earliest written record of the use of natural dyes was found in China dated 2600 BC. Chemical tests of red fabrics found in the tomb of King Tutankhamen in Egypt show the presence of alizarin, a pigment extracted from madder. In more modern times,
  • 17. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 13 | P a g e Alexander the Great mentions having found purple robes dating to 541BC in the royal treasury when he conquered Susa, the Persian capital. Kermes (from the Kermes insect) is identified in the bible book of Exodus, where references are made to scarlet colored linen. By the 4th century AD, dyes such as woad, madder, weld, Brazilwood, and indigo and a dark reddish-purple were known. Brazil was named for the wood found there. Purple was made from a mollusk and clothing made from it was so expensive only the royal family could afford it. It was extracted from a small gastropod mollusk found in all seas or from a crustacean called a Trumpet Shell or Purple Fish, found near Tyre on the Mediterranean coast. Their body secreted a deep purple fluid which was harvested by cracking the shell and digging out a vein located near the shellfish head with a small pointed utensil. The mucus-like contents of the veins were then mixed together and spread on silk or linen. Estimates are that it took 8,500 shellfish to produce one gram of the dye, hence the fact this dye was worth more than its weight in gold. This expensive dye was also mentioned in the bible, in Acts, where Lydia is a seller of purple. By the 15th century, dyes from insects, such as cochineal and Kermes, were becoming more common. By the 17th century, dyeing cloth "in the wood" was introduced in England: logwood, fustic, etc. In the 18th century a method of bleaching linen with kelp was introduced in Scotland, a Swedish chemist discovered chlorine destroys vegetable colors and the French began to recommend chlorine water for commercial bleaching. Indigo began to be grown in England, and Cudbear, a natural dye prepared from a variety of lichens, is patented. Another natural dye, Quercitron, from the inner bark of the North American oak, is patented in 1775 [16] . By the 1800's, Prussian Blue and Sulphuric acid are available commercially. Prussian blue was formed from prussite of potash and iron salt, making it one of the earliest known chemical dyes. In 1856, William Henry Perkin, while experimenting with coal tar in hopes of finding an artificial quinine as a cure for malaria, discovered the first synthetic dye stuff which he called "Mauve". The color quickly became a favorite of the royal family, and a new industry was begun [17] .
  • 18. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 14 | P a g e 2.4.2 Types of Natural Dyes Natural dyes can be sorted into three categories: natural dyes obtained from plants (indigo), those obtained from animals (cochineal), and those obtained from minerals (ocher). Although some fabrics such as silk and wool can be colored simply by being dipped in the dye, others such as cotton, require a mordant. A mordant is an element which aids the chemical reaction that takes place between the dye and the fiber so that the dye is absorbed. Containers used for dying must be non-reactive (enamel, stainless steel.) Brass, copper or iron pots will do their own mordanting. Not all dyes need mordants to help them adhere to fabric. If they need no mordants, such as lichens and walnut hulls, they are called substantive dyes. If they do need a mordant, they are called adjective dyes. Common mordants are: ALUM, usually used with cream of tartar, which helps evenness and brightens slightly; IRON (or copperas) which saddens or darken colors, bringing out green shades; TIN, usually used with cream of tartar, which blooms or brightens colors, especially reds, oranges and yellows; BLUE VITRIOL which saddens colors and brings out greens and TANNIC ACID used for tans and browns. 2.4.3 Natural dyes obtained from plants One example of a natural dye obtained from plants is madder, which is obtained from the roots of the madder plant. The plants are dug up, the roots washed and dried and ground into powder. During the 19th century, the most widely available fabrics were those which had been dyed with madder. The 'turkey red’ that was so popular at that time, was based on madder. This red was considered brilliant and exotic. The madder plant continued to be used for dyeing until the mid-1800s when a synthetic substitute was developed. Another example of a natural dye obtained from plants is woad. Until the Middle
  • 19. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 15 | P a g e Ages, Europeans used woad to create a blue fabric dye. The woad was a shrub that grew abundantly in parts of Europe. The coloring was in the leaves, which were dried and ground, mixed with water and made into a paste. This dye was supplanted by indigo, an ancient shrub well known to the Egyptians and Indians. Like woad, its color lay in its leaflets and branches. The leaves were fermented, the sediment purified, and the remaining substance was pressed into cakes. Indigo prevailed as the preferred blue dye for a number of reasons. It is a substantive dye, needing no mordant, yet the color achieved is extremely fast to washing and to light. The manufacture of natural indigo lasted well into the early 1900s. In 1905 Adolf von Baeyer (the scientist who also formulated aspirin) was awarded the Nobel Prize for discovering the molecular structure of indigo, and developing a process to produce it synthetically. The natural dye was quickly replaced by the new synthetic, ending an ancient and honored botanical history. The plants given in Table 1 are a selection of plants that have stood the test of time, and are used widely and traditionally by natural dyers. Common Name Latin Name Parts Used General Color Guide Suggested Mordant Alder Alnus spp Bark Yellow/ brown/ black Alum, iron. Copper sulphate Alkanet Anchusa tinctoria Root Grey Alum, cream of tartar Apple Malus spp Bark Yellow Alum Blackberry Rubus spp Berries, young shoots Pink, Purple Alum, tin Betel nut Areca catechu Nut Deep pink Blackwillow Salix negra Bark Red, brown Iron Bloodroot Sanguinaria canadensis Roots Red Alum, tin Buckthorn Rhammus cathartica Twigs, berries, Bark Yellow, brown Alum, cream of tartar, tin, iron Cherry (wild) Prunus spp Bark Pink, yellow, brown Alum Dahlia Dahlia spp Petals Yellow bronze Alum Dog’s mercury Mercurialis perennis Whole plant Yellow Alum Dyer’s broom Genista tinctoria Flowering tops Yellow Alum Elder Sambucus negra Leaves, berreis, Bark Yellow, grey Iron, alum
  • 20. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 16 | P a g e Eucalyptus Eucalyptus Leaves Deep gold, grey Fustic Chloropho-ria tinctoria Wood shavings Yellow Groundnut Arachis hypogea Kernel skins Purple, brown, pink Copper sulphate, alum Henna Lawsonia inermis Leaves Gold Hypogymnia lichen Hypogymnia psychodes Whole lichen Gold, brown Indigo Indigofera Leaves Blue Not required Ivy Hedera helix Berries Yellow, green Alum, tin Madder Rubia tinctora Whole plant Orange, red Alum, tin Maple Acer spp Bark Tan Copper sulphate Marigold Calendual spp Whole plant, Flower heads Yellow Alum Nettles Urtica dioica Leaves Beige, yellowy greens Alum, copper Onion Allium cepa Skins Yellow, orange Alum Oak Quercus spp Inner bark Gold, brown Alum Ochrolech-ina lichen Ochrolech-ina parella Whole lichen Orange, red (when fermanted in urine then boiled) Alum Privet Ligustrum vulgare Leaves, berries Yellow, green, red, purple Alum, tin Ragwort Senecio Flowers Deep yellow Safflower Carthamus tinctoria Petals Yellow, red Alum Sloe - Blackthorn Prunus spinosa Sloe berries, bark Red, pink, brown Alum Tea Camelia sinensis Leaves Beige Turmeric Circuma longa Root Yellow Wild mangosteen Diospyros peregrina Fruit Grey, pink Weld (wild mignonette) Reseda luteula Whole plant Olive green Alum, cream of tartar Woad Isatis tinctoria Whole plant Blue Lime Table 1. A list of plants commonly used for preparing dyes.
  • 21. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 17 | P a g e 2.4.4 Natural dyes obtained from minerals Ocher is a dye obtained from an impure earthy ore of iron or a ferruginous clay, usually red (hematite) or yellow (limonite). In addition to being the principal ore of iron, hematite is a constituent of a number of abrasives and pigments. 2.4.5 Natural dyes obtained from animals A good example is cochineal, which is a brilliant red dye produced from insects living on cactus plants. The properties of the cochineal bug was discovered by pre- Columbian Indians who would dry the females in the sun, and then ground the dried bodies to produce a rich, rich red powder. When mixed with water, the powder produced a deep, vibrant red coloring. Cochineal is still harvested today on the Canary Islands. In fact, most cherries today are given their bright red appearance through the artificial color "carmine", which comes from the cochineal insect [16] . 2.5 Evolution of Synthetic Dyes Before 1856 all the dyes used to colour clothing, paint and print came from natural sources such as insects, molluscs, barks, flowers, roots, leaves and berries. The range of colours that could be produced was limited. Dyeing was a well-established craft whose origins can be traced back to antiquity. The earliest written records refer to dyes used in China, Rome, Persia, India and Egypt. Methods used were painstaking and sometimes prohibitively expensive. Royal or Tyrian purple, for example, a colour derived from molluscs and originating in the Mediterranean, was exclusively worn by wealthy royalty. Another animal-based dye was cochineal, a crimson dye derived from beetles living on cactus plants, discovered by pre-Columbian Indians. Vegetable dyes tended to be cheaper and more plentiful. The most common were madder and indigo, the ancient red and blue dyes used for cloth and cosmetics, while other important plant dyes included carthamus, woad, saffron, brazilwood and turmeric. In 1856 a chemist called
  • 22. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 18 | P a g e William Perkin discovered how to mass produce colour in a factory and the synthetic dye industry was born. In 1856 a young chemistry student, William Perkin, was trying to discover how to synthesis quinine, a cure for malaria. His attempt, using a coal tar product called aniline, failed. What he produced instead was a solution with an intense purple colour – the first ever synthetic dye .Perkin realized that aniline purple, better known as mauveine, had great economic potential. He abandoned his studies and pursued his accidental discovery with youthful energy and opportunistic genius. He patented mauveine and with the financial backing of his father built a factory on the banks of the Grand Union Canal in Greenford, West London. He produced the dye in industrial quantities for sale to the textile industry. Mauveine was a huge success. In the 1860s the streets of London and Paris, the fashion capitals of Europe, were ablaze with Perkin's colour. At the Royal Exhibition of 1862 Queen Victoria gave it her seal of approval when she appeared in a silk gown dyed with mauveine. William Perkin's success with mauveine prompted other chemists to experiment with aniline. They created a rainbow of coloured dyes including aniline red, aniline blue and aniline violet. Perkin himself produced two important new colours, 'Britannia Violet' and 'Perkin's Green' (it is said that the water in the Grand Union Canal turned a different colour depending on what dyes were being made that week).Manufacturers soon found that colour novelty was a key factor in attracting consumers. As the chemical companies sought new colours and forged ever stronger links with research laboratories, scientists and engineers, science became irrevocably bound up with industry. It was in this context that the industrial research laboratory emerged. As the range of aniline dyes grew, synthetics gradually took over from natural dyes. Pioneering science and the winning of patents became more important in international competition than a vast natural resource base. The colour in the vivid, natural red dye known as madder comes from a substance called alizarin found in the roots of madder plants. Inspired by the invention of mauveine, chemists started to look for a way to synthesise alizarin. In 1869 William Perkin succeeded in producing alizarin at exactly the same time as his competitors, the German company BASF. BASF's alizarin patent was filed at the London Patent Office just one day before Perkin's application arrived. Perkin and BASF came to an agreement that divided the international market for this important dye: Perkin would
  • 23. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 19 | P a g e sell alizarin to Britain, BASF to the rest of the world. Perkin did well out of alizarin sales for a few years but could not compete with Germany, which soon dominated world trade. The heyday of synthetic dye manufacturing in Perkin's Greenford factory was over and in 1874 he sold his dye works which eventually became part of ICI. Following the commercial success of alizarin, the chemical industry's next big challenge was the synthesis of indigo. Its formula became something of a Holy Grail and remained elusive until the end of the nineteenth century. Natural indigo, derived from the plant Indigofera tinctoria, had been used to dye cloth blue for thousands of years. Its main source was India which, at the time its synthetic counterpart was invented, had over 3000 indigo factories. Indigo was first artificially synthesised in 1880 by the German chemist Adolf von Baeyer. He succeeded in producing only test- tube-sized quantities. The German chemical company BASF funded research into the production of indigo on an industrial scale. In 1897 BASF finally succeeded in launching 'Indigo Pure'. By then they had invested more than the capital value of the company. But within two decades their synthetic indigo dominated the world market. The industry in India went into severe decline as a result and by the mid-twentieth century had all but died out. The birthplace of the synthetic dye industry was Britain where William Perkin discovered mauveine in 1856. However, it did not remain at the forefront for long – despite Britain's head start, Germany was in the lead by the end of the nineteenth century. One reason for Germany's success was its state-subsidised technical schools. Here, scientific talent, upon which industrial innovation depended was nurtured. Gifted students went on to attend universities, some of which were at the vanguard of developments in chemistry. The large German chemical companies, including BASF, Bayer and Hoechst, prospered by collaborating with universities on joint research projects. Intensely competitive, they used systematic investigative approaches and became increasingly adept at the synthesis of new chemicals. Suchcompanies soon dominated the synthetic dye market and by 1914 were responsible for producing 75 percent of the world's dye supply [18] .
  • 24. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 20 | P a g e 2.6 Reincarnation of Natural Dyes Synthetic dyes are brightly colored, changed new world was not without a down side however. The chemicals used to produce dyes today are often highly toxic, carcinogenic, or even explosive. The chemical Anililine, the basisfor a popular group of dyes known as Azo dyes which are considered deadly poisons and dangerous to work with, also being highly flammable. In addition, other harmful chemicals used in the dying process include 1) dioxin – a carcinogen and possible hormone disrupter; 2) Toxic heavy metals such as chrome, copper, and zinc – known carcinogens; and 3) Formaldehyde, a suspected carcinogen. Dye chemicals have caused or fueled many dye factory fires through history, including a massive Rhode Island dye factory fire in 2003 in which vast quantities of dye chemicals spilled into the Blackstone River. 2.6.1 Dangers for Dye Workers In the end of the nineteen century, little regard was paid to the safety and of dye worker labor conditions. However, it soon became apparent that there were deadly risks to workers who manufactured dye and who dyed garments. In the dye industry in 2008, much, but not all has changed, and not even where you might expect it to. In Japan, dye workers are at higher risk of tumors. And in the United States, deaths amongst factory workers from several cancers, cerebrovascular disease, lung disease are significantly higher – 40 times higher, for some diseases – than in the general population. 2.6.2 Environmental Pollution from Dye Factories Almost every industrial dye process involves a solution of a dye in water, in which the fabrics are dipped or washed. After dying a batch of fabric, it’s cheaper to dump the used water – dye effluent – than to clean and re – use the water in the factory. So
  • 25. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 21 | P a g e dye factories across the world are dumping millions of tons of dye effluent into rivers. In China, rivers near factories that producing dyed textiles for Gap, Target and Wal– Mart’s are turning dark red from untreated dye effluent which was being dumped directly into the river, close to 22,000 tons. In Mexico, fields and rivers near jeans factories are turning dark blue from untreated, unregulated dye effluent. Factories dying denims for Levi and Gap dump waste-water contaminated with synthetic indigo straight into the environment. Local residents and farmers report health problems and wonder if the food they are obliged to grow in nearby fields is safe to eat [19] . The CNN report October 2007 which Shana wrote about on Green Cotton, revealed that new testing procedures (chemical burden testing) reveal that young babies and children actually do have increased levels of chemicals in their bloodstream and skin. Because clothing comes into prolonged contact with one’s skin, toxic chemicals are often absorbed into the skin, especially when one’s body is warm and skin pores have opened to allow perspiration. We also know that some individuals have what is known as chemical sensitivity, including when exposed to garments of many types. Symptoms in adults for chemical sensitivity range from skin rashes, headaches, trouble concentrating, nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, dizziness, difficulty breathing, irregular heart beat, and/or seizures. Symptoms in children include red cheeks and ears, dark circles under the eyes, hyperactivity, and behavior or learning problems [20] . Dyes are so problematic because the families of chemical compounds that make good dyes are also toxic to humans. Each new synthetic dye developed is a brand new compound, and because it’s new, no-one knows it’s risks to humans and the environment. Many dyes like Amaranth have entered the market, then have subsequently been discovered to be carcinogenic and withdrawn. The European Union in particular has been pro-active in banning dangerous dyes and dyes formulated from toxic chemicals. But it’s backwards to create a dye, see if it’s hazardous, then ban it if so. Especially since so many dyes are known to be dangerous and carcinogenic.
  • 26. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 22 | P a g e 2.6.3 Alternative to Synthetic Dyes In this new millenniums, maintenance of a safe environmental balance will become a necessary requirement. Most of the synthetic dyes are not only based on toxic raw materials and intermediates but their use in textile wet processing also produce effluent which causes environmental pollution. Natural dyes are free from such problems [21] [22] [23] . Moreover, if steps are taken to commercialize the cultivation of plants from which most natural dyes are generated, it will definitely assist in preserving the eco-balance [24] [25] [26] [27] . These natural dyes are not only replaceable but also bio-degradable compared to limited and irreplaceable petrochemical resources of synthetic dyes. These have also been much interest recently in the pharmacological effects and possible health benefits of the use of natural dyes [28-31] . Recently extensive research work is being carried out around the world on application of natural dyes to textile substrates as textile colorants [32-38] . Because the earlier sources of natural colorants as well as the traditional processes of coloration have almost been lost due to the absence of documentation and years of neglecting. It therefore becomes prime necessary for the textile scientists to search new sources and to standardize the application methods of natural dyes to textile substrates to prove their effectiveness and market potential. In this research an attempt has been made to the application of natural dye (Turmeric) on cotton fabric. This topic will be briefly discussed in this thesis. 2.7 Characteristics of Natural Dyes Natural dyes have been defined as using to color food substrate, leather and natural fibers since pre-historic times. Since the advantage of synthetic dyes are found out such as availability, cheapness, excellent color fastness and large color range, the use of natural dyes became poor in 1850s. However, the applications of natural dyes have recently increased with the increase in environmental awareness. The use of non-toxic, non-allergic and eco-friendly natural dyes in textile industry has become a significant issue in order to avoid the hazardous effects of synthetic dyes. In spite of excellent performance of synthetic dyes, the use of natural dyes has been investigated in recent years by many researchers due to non-toxic and non-allergic properties. On the hand, since the production of synthetic dyes
  • 27. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 23 | P a g e Depends on petrochemical sources, a variety of synthetic dyes consists of toxic and carcinogenic amines [39] . Toxicity can be defined as the ability of a substance to cause damage to a living tissue and nervous system and to result in a variety of illness when absorbed by living skin. In literature, LD50 refers to the lethal dose for 50% of the test animals. In natural, a variety of natural dyes are found as non-toxic, non-allergic and non- carcinogenic [39] . In general, textile materials are known as being available to microbial attacks in order to absorb a substantial amount of moisture for microbial growth and to provide large surface are. In particular, natural fibers based on protein and cellulose provide oxygen, nutrients, temperature and moisture for microbial growth. Because of these properties of textile materials, researchers seek to develop antimicrobial and anti-bacterial agents for textile materials. 2.8 Advantages of Natural Dyes Natural dyes are considered to be eco-friendly as these are obtained from renewable resources as compared to synthetic dyes which are derived from non-renewable petroleum resources. These are biodegradable and the residual vegetal matter left after extraction of dyes can be easily composed and used as fertilizer. The produce soft colors soothing to the eye which are in harmony with nature. In addition to these environmental benefits, natural dyes also offer functional benefits to the wearer and users of such textiles. Many of the natural dyes absorbs in the ultraviolet region and therefore fabrics dyed with dyes should offer good protection from ultraviolet light. Improvement in UV protection characteristics of natural cellulosic fibers after treatment with natural dyes has been reported by various researchers[40-42] . Griffony et al. [43] . Observed that treatment with tannins during mordanting itself improved the UV protection of fabrics. Saxena et al. [44] also observed that extracts of tannin-rich pomegranate rind showed strong absorption in UV region and cotton fabrics treated with these extracts showed excellent UV protection which was durable to washing. As cotton and other cellulosics are frequently treated with tannins in the
  • 28. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 24 | P a g e mordanting step during dyeing with natural dyes, it is likely that such dyed fabrics would also show good UV protection. Many of the natural dye materials possess antimicrobial properties. Therefore, textiles dyed with such materials are also likely to show antimicrobial properties and the same has been reported by many researchers [45- 47] . Ibrahim et al. [48] have reported improvements in both UV protection and antibacterial activity for polyamide 6 fabrics after treatment with natural dyes. Fabrics dyed with some natural dyes have been reported by the wearers to be free of odor perhaps due to the antibacterial or bacteriostatic properties of natural dye materials. Users of natural dyed fabrics have also found such fabrics to be mosquito repellent and/or moth repellent as perhaps the plant material from which these dyes were derived might also have contained natural repellent substances. In addition, recently, cellulosic textiles treated with natural plant extract have been found to exhibit flame- retardant properties [49] . Many natural dyes such as myrobolon fruits, turmeric, manjishth root, Arjuna ( Terminalia arjuna ) bark, and safflower florets, among others possess curative properties and have been used in various traditional medicinal systems. Textiles dyed with these materials may also possess healing properties by absorption of medicinal compounds through the skin. Textiles produced in Kerela, India by dyeing with herbs as per the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine and known as “Ayurvastra ” have become very popular as health and well-being textiles and also as medicinal or curative textiles and are being exported to various countries. Various companies are now marketing naturally dyed textiles as health and well-being textiles. 2.9 Limitation of Natural Dyes Natural dyes are considered to be eco-friendly alternative for dyeing of textile materials, especially natural fiber textiles. However, there are many limitations in the usage of natural dyes some of which are listed below.  The extraction process takes too much time, resulting in soil waste.  Although textile dyeing with natural dyes is considered as environmental- friendly, there are many limitations too. One of the limitations of natural dyes is that dyeing process takes a longer period of time than synthetic dyes.
  • 29. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 25 | P a g e Furthermore, in order to improve fastness properties, mordanting process can be treated.  Purification of natural dyes for dyeing machine is not sufficient and costly.  Sources of natural dyes are limited.  After the dyeing process, a variety of dyes and mordant agents can emerge in the washing bath. Natural dyes are, however, biologically degradable.  Color tones of natural dyes are limited.  Natural dyes are more expensive than synthetic dyes.  Being one of the most important problems of natural dyes, repeatability is limited.  Though requiring expensive and complex natural dyes, Bright colors can be obtained in standard conditions.  Some of the natural dyes are sensitive to pH changes, resulting in color changes occasionally.  In natural dyeing, light fastness, washing fastness and rubbing fastness are poor. In order to improve fastness properties of natural dyes, mordanting process is treated to textile materials before the dyeing [50] .  Synthetic fibers are not dyed with natural dyes.  Some mordants used in natural dyeing are not ecological.  Some natural dyes have allergic effects to human [51] .  Unlike synthetic dyes that are created in a laboratory, natural dyes are obtained from plants and are dependent on growing seasons. 2.10 Antimicrobial Finishing Microbial growth on textile leads to odor development, mildew growth derived discoloration up to the loss of functional properties ( elasticity and tenacity ) [50] .For that reason already in the seventeenth century ship cloth was conserved by tanning with iron salt solutions (Brown color) . The use of hygienically effective substance today is related to body tight worn garment and sports textiles, mattresses and socks. Especially cellulosic fibers are in the first place cotton are targeted fibers for antimicrobial functionalization since they retain water and nutrients and are therefore
  • 30. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 26 | P a g e more prone to microbial attack than synthetic fibers; as effective substances, e.g. Mg- hydroxyperoxyacetate and Mg-dihydroperoxide are used [52] . In a regenerative functionalization are applied to cotton and are activated or regenerated during washing (chlorine bleach). Halogenated hydantions are normally used as swimming pool disn- fectants[53] . 2.11 What are Microbs A microorganism or microbe is a microscopic living organism, which may be single- celled or multicellular [54] . Microorganisms i.e. bacteria, fungi, mildew, mold and yeasts are found everywhere in nature, even in hostile environment. The human is usually crowded with innumerable microorganisms. A suitable temperature, moisture, dust and receptive surface provide perfect conditions for their growth [55] .In favorable conditions certain bacteria can grow from a single germ to millions in a very short period of time. They can double every 20-30 seconds in a warm and mosit microclimate that has plenty of food for them e.g. perspiration and other body secretions, skin particles, fats and left overs from worn-out threads [56] . 2.12 Effects of Microbes on Textile and Human Beings Although microbes can be useful in many ways, for example in brewing, baking and biotechnology, they can also be harmful to both textile and humans. Different substances added to textiles, such as size, hand modifiers, antistats, thickeners, lubricants and dirt as well as grease, sweat and dead skin from the human body provide a great source of nourishment for microorganisms. Following are some of the possible effects microorganisms on textiles :  Bad odor  Discoloration  A slick slimy handle  Loss of functional properties like elasticity and tensile strength  Decrease in the life of the textiles, especially cotton and wool [57] .
  • 31. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 27 | P a g e The effect on human health is much more vast than the effect on textile. Most of the microbes involve diseases. Some of them do cause the prevention of some diseases. Bacteria associated with the human body outnumber body cells by ten to one. In most causes the bacteria that cause sickness are that bacteria that normally inhibit the body. They are picked up from the atmosphere. Some of the effect that are caused by microbes on human being is pointed out below :  Various types of infections diseases such as plague, tuberculosis, anthrax, malaria etc.  Food poisoning and water caused diseases  Damage of building materials  Bad odor[58] 2.13 Antimicrobial Component Normal home-washing of textiles, which is generally under mild conditions, does not completely remove the microbes. In order to eliminate microbes, very severe laundering conditions, e.g. a temperature 95°c and strong detergent followed by bleach, are essential. Any surviving microbes can quickly multiply again at each further wearing. This can be avoided by the application of antimicrobial [59] . In this research chitosan is used as antimicrobial agent. This have been investigated as an antimicrobial material against a wide range of target organism like algae, bacteria, yeasts and fungi in experiments involving invivo and in vitro interactions with chitosan in different forms ( solution, film and composites ). Chitosan is considered to be a bactericidal ( kills the live bacteria or some fraction) or bacteriostatic ( hinders the growth of bacteria but does not imply whether or not bacteria are killed ), often with no distinction between activities. The exact mechanism is not fully understood and several other factors may contribute to the antimicrobial action.
  • 32. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 28 | P a g e Fig 1: Structure of completely deacetylated chitosan In the process it is basically the interaction chitosan and negatively charged microbial cell membranes. The interaction is meditated by electrostatic forces between protonated NH3 + groups and the negative residues, presumably by competing with Ca2+ for electronegative sites on the membrane surface. Since such mechanism is based on electrostatic interaction, it suggests that the greater the number of customized amines, the higher will be the antimicrobial activity. Chitosan has the most number of positive amines than any other natural microbial agents [60] . 2.14 History of Antimicrobial Finish During world war II, when cotton fabric was extensively used for tentage, tarpaulins and truck covers, these fabrics need to be protected from rotting caused by microbial attack. This was particularly a problem in the south pacific campaigns, where much of the fighting took place under jungle like conditions. During the early 1940’s, the US army quartermaster Crops and collected and complied data on fungi, yeast and algae isolated from textiles in topical and subtropical areas throughout the world. Cotton duck, webbing and other military fabrics were treated with mixtures of chlorinated waxes, copper and antimony salts that stiffened the fabrics and gave them a distinct odor. At the time potential polluting effects of the application of these
  • 33. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 29 | P a g e materials and toxicity related issue were not a major consideration. After world war II, and as late as the mid-to-late 1950’s fungicides used to cotton fabrics were compounds such as 8-hydroxyginoline salts, copper napthenate, copper ammonium fluoride and chlorinated phenols. As the government and industrial firms became more aware of the environment and workplace hazards these compounds caused. Alternative products were sought. A considerable amount of work was done by the Southern Regional Research Laboratory of the Us Department of Agriculture, the Institute of Textile Technology (ITT) and some of the ITT’s member mills to chemically modify cotton to improve its resistance to rotting and improve other properties by acetylation and Cyanoethylation of cotton. These treatments had limited industry acceptance because of relatively high cost and loss of fabric strength in processing. In addition, the growing use of man-made fibers such as nylon, acrylics and polyester, which have inherent resistance to microbial decomposition, came into wider use to replace cotton in many industrial fabrics [61] . 2.15 Use of Antimicrobial Finish Antimicrobial agents can be applied to colored and white textiles. Their application is possible on all common types of fibers. But the treatment of pure polyester requires pre-treatment in order to access the best application conditions. The names of some of the materials to which they can be applied are given below :  Sportswear  Working Clothes  Lining Fabrics  Terry Fabrics  Socks  Tights  Pullovers  Woolen Blankets  Acrylic Blankets
  • 34. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 30 | P a g e Other than the textile industry, anti microbial finish is also applied in other various activities. They are mentioned below :  Air Filters  Aquarium Filter  Buffer pads  Draperies  Bed sheets  Bed spreads  Carpets  Upholstery  Sleeping bags  Towel  Fire hose fabric [62] . 2.16 Benefit of Antimicrobial Textiles A wide range textile product is now a available for the benefit of the consumer. Initially, the primary objective of the finish was to protect textiles from being affected by microbes particularly fungi. Uniforms, tents, defence textile and technical textiles, such as, geo-textiles have therefore all been finished using antimicrobial agents. Later, the home textiles, such as, curtains coverings and bath mats came with antimicrobial finish. The application of the finish is now extended to textile used for outdoor, healthcare sector, sports and leisure. Novel technologies in antimicrobial finishing are successfully employed in nonwoven sector especially in medical textiles. Textile fibers with built-in antimicrobial properties will also serve the purpose alone or in blends with other fibers. Bioactive fiber is a modified from of the finish, which include chemotherapeutics in their structure, i.e. synthetic drugs of bacterial and fungicidal qualities. These fibers are not only used in medicine and health prophylaxis application but also for manufacturing textile products of daily use and technical textiles.
  • 35. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 31 | P a g e The field of application of the bioactive fibers includes sanitary materials, dressing materials, surgical threads, materials for filtration of gases and liquids, air conditioning and ventilation, constructional materials, special materials for food industry, pharmaceutical industry, footwear industry, clothing industry, automatic industry, etc[63] . 2.17 Requirements of Antimicrobial Finish : Textile material in particular, the garments are more susceptible to wear and tear. It is important to take into account the impact of stress strain, thermal and mechanical effects on the finished substrates. The following requirements need to be satisfied to obtain maximum benefits out of the finish.  Durability to washing, dry cleaning and hot pressing.  Selective activity to undesirable microorganisms.  Should not produce harmful effects to the manufacturer, user and the environment.  Should comply with the statutory requirements of regulating agencies.  Compatibility with the chemical processes.  Easy method of application.  No deterioration of fabric quality  Resistant to body fluids.  Resistant to disinfections/ sterilization [63] . 2.18 Durability of Antimicrobial Textiles Temporary antimicrobial properties in textiles are easy to achieve in finishing but readily lost in laundering. Temporary antimicrobial textiles are useful only for disposal materials. Durable antimicrobial function is quite challenging to achieve and can last more than 50 machine washes [64] .
  • 36. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 32 | P a g e 2.19 Problems of Antimicrobial Finishes Some common problems related with application of antimicrobial finishes are given as follows :  Stiff hand and fabric strength loss : This may be caused by the choice of binders and resins with controlled-release finishes.  Color change : This may occur due to inappropriate choice of antimicrobial finishes.  Selectivity : Some antimicrobial finishes are efficient against Gram-positive bacteria or Gram-negative bacteria, while others against fungi. A formulation that is mixture of several substance will be more effective for good all-round protection against microbes.  Toxicological and environment problem : Include skin irritation, sensitizing, allergy of dermatitis on prolonged contact with skin, biodegradability and bioaccumulation.  Handling : The higher the biocide activity, the higher the need for safe handling and prevention from toxicity.  Development of resistant microbes : An area of concern regarding the use of antimicrobial finishes is that is their long term use may lead to the development of resistant microbes which might have deadly consequences for humans [65] .
  • 37. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 33 | P a g e CHAPTER THREE MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1 Materials Following materials are required for this research :  Fabric  Dye-stuff  Antimicrobial agent  Chemicals 3.1.1 Selection of Fabric 100% bleached cotton (woven) fabric is used in this research. Cotton fabric is free from toxins & irritants. Fabric Specification Type : 100% woven cotton fabric Warp Count : 20s Weft Count : 20s EPI : 54 PPI : 40 GSM : 123 Weave Design : Plain
  • 38. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 34 | P a g e 3.1.2 Dye – stuff In this research Turmeric is used as dye – stuff. Turmeric is the most popular natural dye in textile dyeing. Turmeric is a rich source of phenolic compounds called curcuminoids. The active colouring ingredient in turmeric rhizome is Curcumin, which is also known as Natural Yellow. Its general formula is given in Figure. Fig. 2. Chemical structure of turmeric (keto form) Turmeric is considered a fugitive dye. Fugitive dyes fade over time but can always be re-dyed. It is also very pH sensitive so you should always wash it in PH neutral soap. At home and work I only wash my fibers with pH neutral soap. Most natural dyes need a mordant to bond with fiber (metallic salt like alum) but turmeric can dye fibers without one. Fig. 3: Turmeric (Curcuma longa)
  • 39. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 35 | P a g e 3.1.3 Antimicrobial agent In this research chitosan is used as antimicrobial agent. This have been investigated as an antimicrobial material against a wide range of target organism like algae, bacteria, yeasts and fungi in experiments involving invivo and in vitro interactions with chitosan in different forms ( solution, film and composites ). Chitosan is considered to be a bactericidal ( kills the live bacteria or some fraction) or bacteriostatic ( hinders the growth of bacteria but does not imply whether or not bacteria are killed ), often with no distinction between activities. Fig 4 :Structure of completely deacetylated chitosan 3.1.4 Chemical specification Process Chemical Country Dyeing Alum [KAl(SO4)2.12H2O] China Washing Acetic Acid [CH3COOH] Bangladesh Finishing Knittex CHN Pyrovatex CP Invadine PBN Turpex Acetic Acid Phosphoric Acid Indonesia Germany China Bangladesh Bangladesh Taiwan
  • 40. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 36 | P a g e 3.2 Apparatus Beakers Stirrer pH Meter Electric Balance Scissor Thermometer Dye Bath Washing Machine Drying Machine Curing Machine 3.3 Preparation of Dye The dye is extracted from the fresh or dried rhizomes of turmeric. It is a substantive dye capable of directly dyeing cotton fabric. The dye was prepared by the extracted turmeric powder & mixing it with deionized water at neutral pH, at 95°c for 1.5 hours. The obtained turmeric solution (dye solution) had a yellowish color. Fig. 5: Turmeric (Curcuma longa)
  • 41. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 37 | P a g e 3.4 Natural Dyeing Most of the natural dyes have no substantively on cellulose or other textile fibers without the use of a mordant. The majority of natural dyes need a mordanting chemical (preferably metal salt or suitably coordinating complex forming agents) to create an affinity between the fiber and dye or the pigment molecules of natural dyes. Aluminium sulphate or other metallic mordant anchored to any fibre, chemically combine with certain mordant able functional groups present in the natural dyes and bound by coordinated/covalent bonds or hydrogen bonds and other interactional forces. Thus, for proper fixation of natural dyes on any textile fiber, mordanting is essential in most of the cases Fig. 6: Natural Dyeing
  • 42. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 38 | P a g e 3.5 Dyeing Process Dyeing of cotton fabric was done with the natural coloring matter extracted from turmeric & a mordant (Alum) with the liquor ratio 1:40, at 100°C, for 60 mins. Dyeing was performed in stainless-steal beaker. The fabric sample was immersed in the dyeing solution in a water bath at 40 °C. After dyeing, rinsing of sample was performed in warm and cold deionized water by using acetic acid as a mild detergent for 10 mins at 80°C. The sample was air dried at room temperature. 100°C 60 min 80°C 10 min Washing Temp (°C) 3°C/min 3°C/min 40°C Cooling at 40° C Cooling at 40° C Time (min) Figure 7 : Dyeing Curve 3.6 Extraction of Antimicrobial Agent Here Chitosan is used as antimicrobial agent. Chitosan is natural resources refined from the waste products of crabbing and shrimp industry. It is obtained from chitin by treating the latter with strong caustic soda and heat, which removes the N-acetyl groups.
  • 43. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 39 | P a g e Chitosan formation process : Crustacean Shell Size Reduction Deprotienization NaOH-Wash Demineralization HCl-Wash Dewatering Chitin Deacetylation NaOH-Wash Dewatering Chitosan
  • 44. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 40 | P a g e 3.7 Antimicrobial Finish Process Application of antimicrobial finishes depends on its type i.e. leaching or non-leaching antimicrobial finish. In this study leaching Antimicrobial finishes are used. These finishes can be applied with the help of continuous, exhaust methods and Pad – Dry – Cure. Here in this research Pad – Dry – Cure method is applied. 3.7.1 Recipe Sample 1 Chitosan : 0.5 g/L Knittex CHN : 50 g/L Pyrovatex CP : 400g/L Invadine PBN : 5ml/L Turpex CAN New : 45 g/L Acetic acid : 2 ml/L Phosphoric acid : 20 g/L Sample 2 Chitosan : 0.75 g/L Knittex CHN : 65 g/L Pyrovatex CP : 300g/L Invadine PBN : 5ml/L Turpex CAN New : 45 g/L Acetic acid : 2 ml/L Phosphoric acid : 20 g/L Sample 3 Chitosan : 1 g/L Knittex CHN : 80 g/L Pyrovatex CP : 400g/L Invadine PBN : 5ml/L Turpex CAN New : 45 g/L Acetic acid : 2 ml/L Phosphoric acid : 20 g/L
  • 45. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 41 | P a g e 3.7.2 Pretreatment Before application the sample must be acidified. It must be free from active chlorine and residues of production additives such as sizes, printing thickeners etc. because they can have negative influence on the effectiveness and durability of finish. pH of bath The pH of bath must be between 5-6. Higher pH values may damage the absorption capacity of substrate. The absorption properties can be improved by treating the substrate with any type of wetting agent e.g. “Invadine PBN”  The pH can be regulated with the help of acetic acid. Application Way  Prepare solution according to recipe calculation  Take sample of bleached cotton fabric.  Remember sample of fabric should be bleached; neither mercerized nor OBA (Optical Brightening Agent) applied.  Set the pick up of padder of padding machine at 70%.  Set the temperature of curing machine for drying at 120°C for 1-2 minutes.  After drying, again set the temperature of curing machine at 150°C for 5 minutes or 170°C for 1 minute for curing. Procedure The fabric is dipped in a solution and on a padding machine. Adequate liquor pick-up is essential 70-90 %, depending on weight and construction of fabric and can be achieved by a combination of absorbent fabric and long contact of the fabric with the liquor (padding speed). Drying Drying on curing machine should be carried out with maximum overfeed. The recommended drying temperature is 120°C for 1-2 minutes. If the goods are not cured immediately, they must be prevented from absorbing moisture from the air by being rolled up and wrapped in plastic film. If the residual moisture on the goods is too high, they may end up with a harsh handle as a result of migration.
  • 46. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 42 | P a g e Curing  In the curing oven, 5 min at 150°C must be guaranteed.  In the case of curing on stenter, 30 to 60 sec at 170°C are sufficient.  It is advisable to check the curing effect at regular intervals.  Drying and curing should be carried out at maximum rate of air replacement. This largely prevents soiling of the machinery.  If the goods are to be hatched up after curing, it is advisable to cool them below 40°C, for example by passing the fabric over a cooling device.  By this method we can prepare samples according to our requirements. Precautionary Measures  Wear goggles of face shield and rubber gloves when handling the concentrated material.  “Chitosan and Pyrovatex” must be stored at room temperature, i.e. up to 30°C.  On contact with skin it can cause a little rash or irritation so avoid contact with skin. Advantages  Lasting hygienic freshness and greater wear comfort.  Prevents microbially caused odors.  Protects functional characteristics (e.g. elastomer fibers).  Protection against discoloration and felting caused by micro-organisms.  Safe hygiene.  Good wash fastness.
  • 47. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 43 | P a g e Chapter 4 Tests, Result and Discussion 4.1 Testing 4.1.1 Color Fastness Properties of Natural Dye Color fastness is the resistance of a material to change in any of its color characteristics or extent of transfer of its colorants to adjacent white materials in touch or both for different environmental and use conditions or treatments like washing, dry cleaning etc. or exposure to different agency heat, light etc. Fading means changes in the color with or without loss of depth of shade for exposure to particular environment/agency/treatments either by lightening or darkening of the shades. Bleeding is the transfer of color to a secondary material in contact accompanying white fibre material of similar/dissimilar nature. The color fastness is usually rated either by loss of depth of color or color change in original sample or it is often expressed by staining scale meaning that the accompanying material gets tinted/stained by the color of the original fabric, when the accompanying white fabrics of similar/dissimilar nature are either in touch/made to touch by some means of test procedure/protocol. 4.1.1.1 Wash-fastness The dyed samples were washed in the Launder o meter Laboratory apparatus according to ISO 105-C06 A2S standard. The size of the sample was 100 x 40 mm, the wash bath contained 4 g/l ECE phosphate reference detergent B, the volume of the bath was 150 ml, the temperature of the bath was 40°C and time of washing 45 minutes. Ten stainless steel globules were added into each bath to perform washing, which corresponds to five domestic washings. After washing, the samples were rinsed twice in deionized water and air dried at room temperature.
  • 48. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 44 | P a g e Fig 8 : Washing Fastness Tester 4.1.1.2 Rubbing Fastness The dyed samples were Rub fastness in Taber Crock meter - Model 418 found Laboratory apparatus according to EN ISO 105x12:2001 standard. The size of the sample was 100 x 20mm, arm is weighted to provide a constant 9N load on the sample at all times and a mechanical counter keeps track of completed 10 cycles. After completion of the Rubbing fastness samples are dried. Then it is Compared AATCC Gray Scale (ISO 105-A03) for Staining of color. Fig 9 : Crock-meter
  • 49. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 45 | P a g e 4.1.1.3 Color Measurements CIE L*a*b* color values and reflectance (R) of samples were measured using a reflectance spectrophotometer Spectra flash 600 PLUS-CT (Data color). From the CIE L*a*b* color values, color differences were calculated according to equation 1: Where ∆L* is the lightness difference, ∆a* is the red/green difference and Δb* is the yellow/blue difference between standard and batch. From the reflectance measurements, K/S values were calculated according to equation 2: Where R is the reflectance, K is absorbance and S is the scattering. Fig 10 : Spectrophotometer
  • 50. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 46 | P a g e Fig 11 : Color measuring Curve 4.1.1.4 Color Fastness to light The purpose of color fastness to light test is to determine how much the color will fade when exposed to a known light source. Procedure: The sample is cut and should be exposed ( 1 2 coverd and 1 2 exposed) together with standard dyed wool samples (1-8). The standard and the specimen mounted in a frame. The composite sample must be protected from rain. The test sample is exposed to light for a certain time (24 hrs, 36 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs) or by customer demand and compare the change with original unexposed sample. The changes are assessed by blue scales (1-8).
  • 51. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 47 | P a g e Fig 12 : Light fastness tester 4.1.1.5 Results & discussion of Dyeing Sl. No. Test Name Grade Rating 1 Washing fastness 4 Very good 2 Light fastness 4 Good Sl. No. Test Name Dry Wet Grade Rating Grade Rating 1 Rubbing fastness 2 Very good 4 Good
  • 52. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 48 | P a g e From the above result it is seen that the dyeing of the fabric with natural dye is very successful as the fastness tests (washing fastness, light fastness & rubbing fastness) turns out to be preferable for the fabric. 4.1.1.6 Visual Appearance of Sample Fig 13 : Sample
  • 53. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 49 | P a g e 4.1.2 Verification Tests of Antimicrobial Finish After the application of antimicrobial finishes on textiles we check whether our finish has been applied to the substrate according to the requirement of customer or not. For this purpose there are many verification tests. In this chapter we will discuss two major verification tests of antimicrobial finishes-  Verification Test for application of finish on substrate  Verification Test for checking the type of finish applied on the substrate. i.e. leaching or non leaching. 4.1.2.1 Verification Test for the Application of Finish There are two types of test for verification of antimicrobial finish: (i) Quantitative Test (ii) Qualitative Test Qualitative Test helps us to determine the exact numerical value of how much effective antimicrobial is. Qualitative Test helps us to verify that whether antimicrobial finish is applied properly on the substrate or not. The test that we commonly use on industrial scale is known as “BPB (Bromo Phenol Blue)” Test. In this research qualitative test method has been followed. BPB (Bromo Phenol Blue) This is a qualitative method for detecting the presence of antimicrobial finishes on light and dark colored substrates. We will discuss this test for both types of substrates. Actually BPB is a sodium salt of bromo-phenol blue. 4.1.2.2 Test for Dark Substrates Field of Detection It is basically not designed to detect the presence of “Antimicrobial Finish” but we can also use it. to detect the Chitosan .
  • 54. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 50 | P a g e Test Method Standards According to the Company  Prepare 0.001 % solution of BPB  Take a sample of 2 × 2 inch2 . Apparatus Beakers, Stirrer, Petridishes, Eye cleaner, Measuring Balance, Measuring Cylinders, Scissors, Glass jars etc. Chemicals BPB (Bromo phenol blue), Distilled Water etc Pretreatment of Sample Before application the sample must be acidified. It must be free from active chlorine and residues of production additives such as sizes, printing thickeners etc. Application of BPB to the Sample  First of all take some fabric and make a sample of 2*2 inch2 from them by cutting them into pieces with the help of scissor.  Now prepare the BPB solution according to the type of substrate (light or dark) and standards given. Mostly we prepare 500ml or 1000ml of solution in glass jars. The color of the solution is purple.  Now place the dark treated samples into the glass jar for 2 minutes. Stirerr this solution constantly. Now remove the sample from the solution, place them in petridishes and observe the color of the solution of BPB.  The solution may have two possible colors according to the antimicrobial treatment given to the sample. i.e.  For well-treated sample the solution will have very light or virtually no purple color.  For untreated or poorly treated sample the solution will have a dark purple color.
  • 55. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 51 | P a g e Fig 14 : BPB solution Original Solution Solution after agitation of the sample From the above experiment we can see that the solution which is obtained after the agitation of the sample has a very light shade as compared to original purple solution. So this means that sample is well-treated. 4.1.2.3 Test for Light Substrate Field of Detection It is basically not designed to detect the presence of “Antimicrobial Finish” but we can also use it to detect the Chitosan.
  • 56. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 52 | P a g e Test Method Standards According to the Company:  Prepare 0.025 % solution of BPB  Take a sample of 2*2 inch2 Apparatus Beakers, Stirrer, Petridishes, Eye cleaner, Measuring Balance, Measuring Cylinders, Scissors, Glass Jars etc. Chemicals BPB (Bromophenol blue), Distilled Water etc Pretreatment of Sample Before application the sample must be acidified. It must be free from active chlorine and residues of production additives such as sizes, printing thickeners etc. Application of BPB to the Sample First of all take some fabric and make a sample of 2 × 2 inch2 from them by cutting them into pieces with the help of scissor. Now prepare the BPB solution according to the type of substrate (light or dark) and standards given. Mostly we prepare 500ml or 1000ml of solution in glass jars. The color of the solution is purple. Now place the light treated samples into the glass jar for 2 minutes. Rinse the solution constantly, then after 2 minutes remove the samples and rinse them in hot water in a separate jar. After rinsing place these samples into the petridishes and then compare them with the “BPB Color Test Scale”. The “BPB Color Test Scale” is as follows:
  • 57. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 53 | P a g e Fig 15 : BPB color test scale Conclusion of testing With the help of BPB (Bromo Phenol Blue) Test, we concluded that how much effective is Chitosan on our samples.
  • 58. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 54 | P a g e 4.2 Result and Discussion of Anti-Microbial Finish In this chapter, antimicrobial activity and flame retardancy of the treated fabric is investigated against different concentration of Chitosan, Pyrovatex® CP New and Knittex CHN. First of all, we will talk about the results of effectiveness of antimicrobial activity. Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Fig 16 : Sample
  • 59. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 55 | P a g e Discussion of Testing Results of Antimicrobial Activity It is concluded from testing results of antimicrobial activity that sample like 1 has 0.5 g/L amount of Chitosan in their recipes. Amount was less and when we compare their results with given BPB color Test Scale then we concluded that It comes in the category of “Under Treated”. Fig 17 : BPB color test scale Similarly when we compare Sample 2 with Standard BPB Color Test Scale then we concluded that it comes in the category of “Slightly Under Treated”. In this recipe, amount of Chitosan was 0.75 g/L. When we again compare Sample 3 with Standard BPB Color Test Scale then we concluded that they come in the category of “Good Treated”. In these recipes, amount of Chitosan was 1 g/L.
  • 60. TURMERIC DYEING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISH 56 | P a g e Chapter – 5 Conclusions 5.1 Conclusion As it is expressed earlier that the adverse effect on environment due to synthetic dying and chemical finishing have is very much huge. So there is no exception without replacing these harmful chemicals with natural components. In this research it is shown that turmeric used as natural dye and chitosan as antimicrobial agent is compatible with cotton fabric. It is known that these are totally harmless for the environment as well as human body. This type of operation can be carried out in various field (e.g. medical clothing, sportswear, home textiles etc.). With further research it may be possible to apply these ecofriendly and hygienic materials in other fields. 5.2 Limitation This research is done by only one recipe (dyeing) and at a fixed temperature. Only one type of fabric is used. And hence only natural component is used in this research so time consumption is very much higher than usual. There is also a scarcity of natural components so this is not suitable for bulk production. 5.3 Future Development The work should be extended with various recipe at different temperature. Different types of fabrics should have brought under this process. Finding a way to reduce the time of this process is also possibility of development.
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