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Product Management 101:
MIT Sloan Fall Seminar
Jeff Bussgang
General Partner, Flybridge Capital
Senior Lecturer, Harvard Business School
@bussgang
October 22, 2013
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE1
Session Objectives
• What people mean when they use the phrase,
“Product Market Fit” (PMF), plus:
– Customer Development Process
– Lean Start-Up Theory

• What is great product management?
• Exposure to some tools and techniques to be a
great product manager

CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE2
Session Objectives (2)
• EV(MBA in startup) = mixed
 LTV seeks to increase your expected value
“The value of an MBA for a young entrepreneur is
about negative $250k.”
- Guy Kawasaki in TechCrunch

X

=
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE3
Context for My Perspective
• General Partner at Flybridge Capital, early-stage VC firm in

Boston/NY, current fund: $280M
70+ portfolio companies; seed and Series A focused

• Senior Lecturer at Harvard Business School

• Former entrepreneur
Cofounder/Pres. Upromise (acq’d by SallieMae)
VP at Open Market (IPO ‘96)

• Author: Mastering the VC Game
• Blog: Seeing Both Sides
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE4
Agenda
• Customer Development / Modern Product
Management
• The Product Manager – Role & Responsibilities
• Open English Case Study

CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE5
Old School Product Management
•
•
•
•
•

Report to: Marketing
Output: Requirements Documents
Methodology: Waterfall
Product lifecycles: Years
Decision-Making: Opinion-Driven

CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE6
Modern Product Management
•
•
•
•
•

Report to: CEO
Output: Prototypes
Methodology: Agile
Product lifecycles: Weeks
Decision-Making: Data-Driven

CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE7
Customer Development
vs. Product Development
Product Development
Concept/
Bus. Plan

Product
Dev.

Alpha/Beta
Test

Launch/
1st Ship

Customer Development

Source: Steve Blank

CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE8
“Lessons Learned” Drives Scaling

Concept

Business
Plan/Canvas

Test
Hypotheses

Lessons
Learned

Scale

Do this first instead of scaling
(or raise seed round to test hypotheses…rigorously)

Source: Steve Blank
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE9
Hypothesis-Driven
Entrepreneurship

Pivot
Viable

Perish

Feasible

Desirable

Product-Market Fit:
Proceed with Scaling
Envision
Venture
Concept

Generate
Business
Model
Hypotheses

Test
Hypothesis
Using
Minimum
Viable
Product

Persevere with Next
Test

10
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE10
Startup
1. A team launching a new product under
conditions of extreme uncertainty
2. A vehicle for testing hypotheses about
such an entity
Relentless Focus

Novel/Innovative

Entrepreneurship: the pursuit of opportunity beyond
resources you currently control
- HBS Professor Howard Stevenson
Resource Constrained

11
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE11
The Lean Startup
• Many startups fail because they waste capital and
time developing and marketing a product that no
one wants
• Lean startups rapidly and iteratively test hypotheses
about a new venture based on customer feedback,
then quickly refine promising concepts and cull flops
• Being lean does NOT mean being cheap, it is a
methodology for optimizing—not minimizing—
resources expenditures by avoiding waste
• Being lean does NOT mean avoiding rigorous,
analytical or strategic thinking
12
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE12
Lean Startup Principles
• No idea survives first customer contact, so get
out of the building ASAP to test ideas
• Goal: validation of business model hypotheses,
based on rigorous experiments and clear metrics
• Minimum viable product (MVP): smallest set of
features/marketing initiatives that delivers the
most validated learning
• Rapidly pivot your MVP/business model until you
have validation and product-market fit (PMF)
• Don’t scale until you have achieved PMF
13
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE13
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE14
Practical Pointers
•
•
•
•

Outline for an MRD
PRD template
Sample wireframe
Persona examples: http://bit.ly/18puWOx

CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE15
Other Tools/Techniques
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Structured idea generation
Business model generation
Customer discovery process
Focus groups
Customer survey
Persona development
Competitor benchmarking
Wireframing
Prototype development
Usability testing
Conversion funnel analysis
A/B test

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Landing page optimization
SEM/SEO optimization
Inbound marketing design
PR strategy
Customer support analysis
Clustering and feature
prioritization
Sales pitch
Lead qualification
Bus dev screening
Charter user program
Net promoter analysis
Lifetime value vs. Customer
acquisition costs
16
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE16
Crossing The Chasm

CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE17
Where are You?
Before Product-Market Fit:
Search & Validation
• Lean startup approach
• Hunch-driven hypotheses
• Minimum viable product (MVP)
• Customer development process
• Selling to early adopters
• Pivoting
• Bootstrapping
• Small, founding team
• Product-centric culture;
informal roles
• Early in sales learning curve

After Product-Market Fit:
Scaling & Optimization
• Building a robust, feature-rich
product
• Crossing the chasm
• Metrics, analytics, funnels
• Designing for virality &
scalability
• Challenges with corporate
partnerships
• Building a brand
• Scaling the team; more
formal roles
• Scaling a sales force
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE18
Should You Always Nail It
Before You Scale It?
• That is, when is it ok to be a little “fat”?
•
•
•
•
•

If you are in a winner take all market
Deep customer lock-in / high switching costs
Network effect businesses
Capital is cheap
Executive team knows how to scale

• Upromise example
• Series A: $34m (March 2000)
• Series B: $55m (October 2000)
• Launch service: April 2001
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE19
Agenda
• Customer Development / Modern Product
Management
• The Product Manager – Role & Responsibilities
• Open English Case Study

CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE20
Product Management Skills
• Responsibilities:
– Define the new product to be built
– Secure the resources to build it
– Manage its development, launch and
ongoing improvement
– Lead the cross-functional product team

• Attributes:
–
–
–
–
–
–

Ability to influence and lead
Resilience and tolerance for ambiguity
Business judgment and market knowledge
Strong process skills and detail orientation
Fluency with technology and implications on product design, business
Design/UX instincts

Mini CEO – with none of the authority
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE21
Product Management Skills (2)
•
•
•
•
•
•

Think Big
Simplify (Product Manager as Editor)
Prioritize
Forecast and Measure
Execute
Cross-functional leadership

CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE22
A Few PM Profiles

Adi Kleiman
• Tel Aviv University (industrial
engineering, MBA)
• SAP Product Manager (4.5 yrs)
• VP of Products, tracx

Nagarjuna Venna
• Warangal (CS & eng)
• Siemens, Lucent, Banyan
engineer (4.5 yrs)
• MIT Sloan
• Start up product manager
• Founder, Chief Product Officer,
BitSight
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE23
Sample Product Roadmap

CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE24
Product Mgr vs. Proj Mgr
• Project Managers
– Focus on successful delivery of the project: deadline,
budget, goals
– Coordinate the cross-functional team involved in delivering
a project / product
– Professional operational managers
– Live and die by the “Gantt Chart”

• Sometimes PM plays Project Mgr role, other times
they are distinct roles
• Important to be clear on roles, responsibilities and
ownership going into a product release
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE25
Product Mgt and Sales
• The pressure to “add this feature to win this deal”,
particularly at the end of the quarter
• When do you listen to your salespeople / customers,
and when do you direct them?
• Sometimes need to slow things down to go faster –
focus on infrastructure, scalability
• Special cases for the business vs. sticking to the
product roadmap
• Opower Case Study: token system
– Opower product organization
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE26
Agenda
• Customer Development / Modern Product
Management
• The Product Manager – Role & Responsibilities
• Open English Case Study

CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE27
Open English Case Study
• Online English language learning program
• Founded 2006 by Andres and Nicolette Moreno
– Andres: Grew up in VZ, Simon Bolivar (engineering),
cofounded offline English language school
– Nic: CO born, Pepperdine (Business and Psychology),
non-profit exec, got into but chose not to attend
Stanford GSB to co-found Open English

• Launched in late 2009 as a subscription service
– ~$1,000 per year – guarantee you’ll learn English
– Pay up front or monthly

CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE28
User Story
The Professional
Fernando Gomez
34 year-old entrepreneur from Mexico City, Mexico

“ My textiles company is starting to do business with more
clients overseas. I’d like to practice my English to make
communication between us easier.”
Why learn English?
To support my growing business
Challenge myself
Current English ability:
Advanced
Learning Goals:
Increase confidence
Improve fluency
Technology Setup:
Personal/Work laptop

Language Topics of Interest:
Business Etiquette
Banking & Finance
Meetings
Industry terminology
Travel
Conversational
News & Current events
Motivation:
Business Relationships
Personal Growth
Education Level:
Advanced Degree

Payment:
Full payment upfront

CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE29
User Story 2
The Seeker
Valentina Silva
25 year-old college graduate from Santiago, Chile

“ My brother moved to the U.S. to get a job, and now is a store
manager in New York City. I want to practice my English so I
can visit him, and explore opportunities nearby.”
Why learn English?
To prepare for job interviews abroad
Current English ability:
Intermediate
Learning Goals:
Become Fluent
Find a job in U.S.

Language Topics of Interest:
Traveling
Restaurants
Culture
Music
Conversation

Learning Pace:
As quickly as possible

Motivation:
To make new friends
Enter an exciting job market
Travel
Practice English with natives
Learn the culture

Technology Set-up:
Desktop shared with family

Payment:
12-month financing
2

CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE30
Company Timeline
04/06
Founded
Vzla Entity

02/07
Founded
US Entity

Launch
OpenEnglish.com

Video Production
Content Library

2006

Free Alpha
Thinkglish.com

2007

2008

2010

2011

Student
Testing
Module

2009

CRM Set Up
Service Model

Subscription Beta
English180.com

05/11
Round B
$4.25M

+500

12/08
Vzla
Launch

2012

+2000

+1000

+100

New Enrollments

4/12
11/11
Round B-1 Round C
$43M
$2M

04/10
Round A
$6M

05/10
LatAm
Launch

03/11
LatAm
Re-Launch

+4000

11/11
Brazil
Launch
02/12
SVB Loan
$2M

7

CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE31
Growing Pains
“With all the growth and developments, there was very little
investment in the learning platform.” – Andres Moreno
• Rigid infrastructure made it difficult to add features
• Limited personalization, ability to predict churn
• Back end that wouldn’t scale more than 20-30% above
current volumes
• 12 month product with one price point vs. ability to upsell,
continue over longer duration to improve LTV
• Payment system only accepted money in US $ from
consumers who held credit cards, not local currencies
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE32
Choices
1. Rearchitect vs. Improve in place?
– Continue to progress with incremental improvements
rather than stop everything, pay down technical debt and
rearchitect the system from scratch

2. Inside team vs. outside team?
– Who should handle the work: the current team or hire an
outside team so as to not distract the current team?

If you were Nic/Andres…what would you do?
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE33
Discussion

CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE34
Summary/Wrap

CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE35
Leading Thinkers/Books/Blogs
• Geoffrey Moore: Crossing the Chasm (read this!)
• Steve Blank: Customer Development Process (read Four
Steps to the Epiphany)

• Eric Ries: Lean Startups (read this too!)
• Marty Cagan: Silicon Valley Product Group (great book
and blog)

• HBS Prof Tom Eisenmann: Launching Tech Ventures
(great blog)

• Sean Ellis: Startup Marketing (great blog)
• Andrew Chen: Growth Hackers (great blog)
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE36
Product Management 101:
MIT Sloan Fall Seminar
Jeff Bussgang
General Partner, Flybridge Capital
Senior Lecturer, Harvard Business School
@bussgang
October 22, 2013
CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE37

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MIT Class on Product Management 10-22-2013

  • 1. Product Management 101: MIT Sloan Fall Seminar Jeff Bussgang General Partner, Flybridge Capital Senior Lecturer, Harvard Business School @bussgang October 22, 2013 CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE1
  • 2. Session Objectives • What people mean when they use the phrase, “Product Market Fit” (PMF), plus: – Customer Development Process – Lean Start-Up Theory • What is great product management? • Exposure to some tools and techniques to be a great product manager CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE2
  • 3. Session Objectives (2) • EV(MBA in startup) = mixed  LTV seeks to increase your expected value “The value of an MBA for a young entrepreneur is about negative $250k.” - Guy Kawasaki in TechCrunch X = CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE3
  • 4. Context for My Perspective • General Partner at Flybridge Capital, early-stage VC firm in Boston/NY, current fund: $280M 70+ portfolio companies; seed and Series A focused • Senior Lecturer at Harvard Business School • Former entrepreneur Cofounder/Pres. Upromise (acq’d by SallieMae) VP at Open Market (IPO ‘96) • Author: Mastering the VC Game • Blog: Seeing Both Sides CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE4
  • 5. Agenda • Customer Development / Modern Product Management • The Product Manager – Role & Responsibilities • Open English Case Study CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE5
  • 6. Old School Product Management • • • • • Report to: Marketing Output: Requirements Documents Methodology: Waterfall Product lifecycles: Years Decision-Making: Opinion-Driven CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE6
  • 7. Modern Product Management • • • • • Report to: CEO Output: Prototypes Methodology: Agile Product lifecycles: Weeks Decision-Making: Data-Driven CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE7
  • 8. Customer Development vs. Product Development Product Development Concept/ Bus. Plan Product Dev. Alpha/Beta Test Launch/ 1st Ship Customer Development Source: Steve Blank CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE8
  • 9. “Lessons Learned” Drives Scaling Concept Business Plan/Canvas Test Hypotheses Lessons Learned Scale Do this first instead of scaling (or raise seed round to test hypotheses…rigorously) Source: Steve Blank CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE9
  • 10. Hypothesis-Driven Entrepreneurship Pivot Viable Perish Feasible Desirable Product-Market Fit: Proceed with Scaling Envision Venture Concept Generate Business Model Hypotheses Test Hypothesis Using Minimum Viable Product Persevere with Next Test 10 CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE10
  • 11. Startup 1. A team launching a new product under conditions of extreme uncertainty 2. A vehicle for testing hypotheses about such an entity Relentless Focus Novel/Innovative Entrepreneurship: the pursuit of opportunity beyond resources you currently control - HBS Professor Howard Stevenson Resource Constrained 11 CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE11
  • 12. The Lean Startup • Many startups fail because they waste capital and time developing and marketing a product that no one wants • Lean startups rapidly and iteratively test hypotheses about a new venture based on customer feedback, then quickly refine promising concepts and cull flops • Being lean does NOT mean being cheap, it is a methodology for optimizing—not minimizing— resources expenditures by avoiding waste • Being lean does NOT mean avoiding rigorous, analytical or strategic thinking 12 CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE12
  • 13. Lean Startup Principles • No idea survives first customer contact, so get out of the building ASAP to test ideas • Goal: validation of business model hypotheses, based on rigorous experiments and clear metrics • Minimum viable product (MVP): smallest set of features/marketing initiatives that delivers the most validated learning • Rapidly pivot your MVP/business model until you have validation and product-market fit (PMF) • Don’t scale until you have achieved PMF 13 CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE13
  • 15. Practical Pointers • • • • Outline for an MRD PRD template Sample wireframe Persona examples: http://bit.ly/18puWOx CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE15
  • 16. Other Tools/Techniques • • • • • • • • • • • • Structured idea generation Business model generation Customer discovery process Focus groups Customer survey Persona development Competitor benchmarking Wireframing Prototype development Usability testing Conversion funnel analysis A/B test • • • • • • • • • • • • Landing page optimization SEM/SEO optimization Inbound marketing design PR strategy Customer support analysis Clustering and feature prioritization Sales pitch Lead qualification Bus dev screening Charter user program Net promoter analysis Lifetime value vs. Customer acquisition costs 16 CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE16
  • 17. Crossing The Chasm CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE17
  • 18. Where are You? Before Product-Market Fit: Search & Validation • Lean startup approach • Hunch-driven hypotheses • Minimum viable product (MVP) • Customer development process • Selling to early adopters • Pivoting • Bootstrapping • Small, founding team • Product-centric culture; informal roles • Early in sales learning curve After Product-Market Fit: Scaling & Optimization • Building a robust, feature-rich product • Crossing the chasm • Metrics, analytics, funnels • Designing for virality & scalability • Challenges with corporate partnerships • Building a brand • Scaling the team; more formal roles • Scaling a sales force CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE18
  • 19. Should You Always Nail It Before You Scale It? • That is, when is it ok to be a little “fat”? • • • • • If you are in a winner take all market Deep customer lock-in / high switching costs Network effect businesses Capital is cheap Executive team knows how to scale • Upromise example • Series A: $34m (March 2000) • Series B: $55m (October 2000) • Launch service: April 2001 CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE19
  • 20. Agenda • Customer Development / Modern Product Management • The Product Manager – Role & Responsibilities • Open English Case Study CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE20
  • 21. Product Management Skills • Responsibilities: – Define the new product to be built – Secure the resources to build it – Manage its development, launch and ongoing improvement – Lead the cross-functional product team • Attributes: – – – – – – Ability to influence and lead Resilience and tolerance for ambiguity Business judgment and market knowledge Strong process skills and detail orientation Fluency with technology and implications on product design, business Design/UX instincts Mini CEO – with none of the authority CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE21
  • 22. Product Management Skills (2) • • • • • • Think Big Simplify (Product Manager as Editor) Prioritize Forecast and Measure Execute Cross-functional leadership CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE22
  • 23. A Few PM Profiles Adi Kleiman • Tel Aviv University (industrial engineering, MBA) • SAP Product Manager (4.5 yrs) • VP of Products, tracx Nagarjuna Venna • Warangal (CS & eng) • Siemens, Lucent, Banyan engineer (4.5 yrs) • MIT Sloan • Start up product manager • Founder, Chief Product Officer, BitSight CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE23
  • 24. Sample Product Roadmap CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE24
  • 25. Product Mgr vs. Proj Mgr • Project Managers – Focus on successful delivery of the project: deadline, budget, goals – Coordinate the cross-functional team involved in delivering a project / product – Professional operational managers – Live and die by the “Gantt Chart” • Sometimes PM plays Project Mgr role, other times they are distinct roles • Important to be clear on roles, responsibilities and ownership going into a product release CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE25
  • 26. Product Mgt and Sales • The pressure to “add this feature to win this deal”, particularly at the end of the quarter • When do you listen to your salespeople / customers, and when do you direct them? • Sometimes need to slow things down to go faster – focus on infrastructure, scalability • Special cases for the business vs. sticking to the product roadmap • Opower Case Study: token system – Opower product organization CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE26
  • 27. Agenda • Customer Development / Modern Product Management • The Product Manager – Role & Responsibilities • Open English Case Study CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE27
  • 28. Open English Case Study • Online English language learning program • Founded 2006 by Andres and Nicolette Moreno – Andres: Grew up in VZ, Simon Bolivar (engineering), cofounded offline English language school – Nic: CO born, Pepperdine (Business and Psychology), non-profit exec, got into but chose not to attend Stanford GSB to co-found Open English • Launched in late 2009 as a subscription service – ~$1,000 per year – guarantee you’ll learn English – Pay up front or monthly CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE28
  • 29. User Story The Professional Fernando Gomez 34 year-old entrepreneur from Mexico City, Mexico “ My textiles company is starting to do business with more clients overseas. I’d like to practice my English to make communication between us easier.” Why learn English? To support my growing business Challenge myself Current English ability: Advanced Learning Goals: Increase confidence Improve fluency Technology Setup: Personal/Work laptop Language Topics of Interest: Business Etiquette Banking & Finance Meetings Industry terminology Travel Conversational News & Current events Motivation: Business Relationships Personal Growth Education Level: Advanced Degree Payment: Full payment upfront CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE29
  • 30. User Story 2 The Seeker Valentina Silva 25 year-old college graduate from Santiago, Chile “ My brother moved to the U.S. to get a job, and now is a store manager in New York City. I want to practice my English so I can visit him, and explore opportunities nearby.” Why learn English? To prepare for job interviews abroad Current English ability: Intermediate Learning Goals: Become Fluent Find a job in U.S. Language Topics of Interest: Traveling Restaurants Culture Music Conversation Learning Pace: As quickly as possible Motivation: To make new friends Enter an exciting job market Travel Practice English with natives Learn the culture Technology Set-up: Desktop shared with family Payment: 12-month financing 2 CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE30
  • 31. Company Timeline 04/06 Founded Vzla Entity 02/07 Founded US Entity Launch OpenEnglish.com Video Production Content Library 2006 Free Alpha Thinkglish.com 2007 2008 2010 2011 Student Testing Module 2009 CRM Set Up Service Model Subscription Beta English180.com 05/11 Round B $4.25M +500 12/08 Vzla Launch 2012 +2000 +1000 +100 New Enrollments 4/12 11/11 Round B-1 Round C $43M $2M 04/10 Round A $6M 05/10 LatAm Launch 03/11 LatAm Re-Launch +4000 11/11 Brazil Launch 02/12 SVB Loan $2M 7 CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE31
  • 32. Growing Pains “With all the growth and developments, there was very little investment in the learning platform.” – Andres Moreno • Rigid infrastructure made it difficult to add features • Limited personalization, ability to predict churn • Back end that wouldn’t scale more than 20-30% above current volumes • 12 month product with one price point vs. ability to upsell, continue over longer duration to improve LTV • Payment system only accepted money in US $ from consumers who held credit cards, not local currencies CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE32
  • 33. Choices 1. Rearchitect vs. Improve in place? – Continue to progress with incremental improvements rather than stop everything, pay down technical debt and rearchitect the system from scratch 2. Inside team vs. outside team? – Who should handle the work: the current team or hire an outside team so as to not distract the current team? If you were Nic/Andres…what would you do? CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE33
  • 36. Leading Thinkers/Books/Blogs • Geoffrey Moore: Crossing the Chasm (read this!) • Steve Blank: Customer Development Process (read Four Steps to the Epiphany) • Eric Ries: Lean Startups (read this too!) • Marty Cagan: Silicon Valley Product Group (great book and blog) • HBS Prof Tom Eisenmann: Launching Tech Ventures (great blog) • Sean Ellis: Startup Marketing (great blog) • Andrew Chen: Growth Hackers (great blog) CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE36
  • 37. Product Management 101: MIT Sloan Fall Seminar Jeff Bussgang General Partner, Flybridge Capital Senior Lecturer, Harvard Business School @bussgang October 22, 2013 CONFIDENTIAL PRESENTATION | PAGE37