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Module 5
Artificial Intelligence
Applications
Artificial Intelligence (Cognitive science, Robotics
application and Natural Interface)
Artificial Intelligence: Overview
• A branch of Computer Science named Artificial
Intelligence pursues creating the computers or machines
as intelligent as human beings.
• According to the father of Artificial Intelligence, John
McCarthy, it is “The science and engineering of making
intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer
programs”.
• Artificial Intelligence is a way of making a computer, a
computer-controlled robot, or a software think
intelligently, in the similar manner the intelligent humans
think.
Goals of AI
• To Create Expert Systems − The systems which exhibit
intelligent behavior, learn, demonstrate, explain, and
advice its users.
• To Implement Human Intelligence in Machines − Creating
systems that understand, think, learn, and behave like
humans.
What Contributes to AI?
Applications of AI
• Gaming − AI plays crucial role in strategic games such as
chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, etc., where machine can think of
large number of possible positions based on heuristic
knowledge.
• Natural Language Processing − It is possible to interact
with the computer that understands natural language
spoken by humans.
• Expert Systems − There are some applications which
integrate machine, software, and special information to
impart reasoning and advising. They provide explanation
and advice to the users.
Applications of AI
• Vision Systems − These systems understand, interpret,
and comprehend visual input on the computer. For
example,
• A spying aeroplane takes photographs, which are used to
figure out spatial information or map of the areas.
• Doctors use clinical expert system to diagnose the patient.
• Police use computer software that can recognize the face
of criminal with the stored portrait made by forensic artist.
Applications of AI
• Speech Recognition − Some intelligent systems are capable of
hearing and comprehending the language in terms of sentences
and their meanings while a human talks to it. It can handle different
accents, slang words, noise in the background, change in human’s
noise due to cold, etc.
• Handwriting Recognition − The handwriting recognition software
reads the text written on paper by a pen or on screen by a stylus. It
can recognize the shapes of the letters and convert it into editable
text.
• Intelligent Robots − Robots are able to perform the tasks given by
a human. They have sensors to detect physical data from the real
world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump,
and pressure.
Milestones of AI
• 1979The first computer-controlled autonomous vehicle, Stanford Cart, was built.
• 1990Major advances in all areas of AI −
• Significant demonstrations in machine learning
• Case-based reasoning
• Multi-agent planning
• Scheduling
• Data mining, Web Crawler
• natural language understanding and translation
• Vision, Virtual Reality
• Games
• 1997The Deep Blue Chess Program beats the then world chess champion, Garry Kasparov.
• 2000Interactive robot pets become commercially available. MIT displays Kismet, a robot
with a face that expresses emotions. The robot Nomad explores remote regions of
Antarctica and locates meteorites.
Cognitive Science
• Modern Psychology / Cognitive Psychology / Cognitive Science is the
science which studies how the mind operates, how we behave, and
how our brains process information.
• It is natural for us to try to use our understanding of how human
(and other animal) brains lead to intelligent behavior in our quest to
build artificial intelligent systems. Conversely, it makes sense to
explore the properties of artificial systems (computer
models/simulations) to test our hypotheses concerning human
systems.
• Many sub-fields of AI are simultaneously building models of how
the human system operates, and artificial systems for solving real
world problems, and are allowing useful ideas to transfer between
them.
Cognitive Science
• Cognitive science can be roughly summed up as the scientific
interdisciplinary study of the mind.
• Cognitive science is the science of cognition, which includes such
things as:
• – perception
• – action
• – learning
• – memory
• – attention
• – reasoning
• – decision-making
• – language use
Cognitive Science
• Cognitive Science can be used to analyze, describe, predict, or even
correct, augment, if not create minds. Some specific applications
are:
• – Cognitive Modeling
• – Human Computer Interaction
• – Artificial Intelligence
• – Cognitive Robotics
• – Cognitive Engineering
Role of Cognitive Science
• Computers can be used as tools to create, run, and test models of
human cognition
• Additionally (and probably more importantly), computer science
has offered the information processing concepts and vocabulary
that frames much of the current thinking and theorizing in cognitive
science
• Artificial Intelligence is a branch of computer science trying to build
computational models that are claimed to be cognitive themselves.
AI Robots
NOMAD
Kismet
Happy
Angry
Robotics application
• Robotics is a domain in artificial intelligence that deals
with the study of creating intelligent and efficient robots.
• What are Robots?
• Robots are the artificial agents acting in real world environment.
What is Robotics?
• Robotics is a branch of AI, which is composed of Electrical
Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Computer Science for
designing, construction, and application of robots.
• Aspects of Robotics
• The robots have mechanical construction, form, or shape designed to
accomplish a particular task.
• They have electrical components which power and control the machinery.
• They contain some level of computer program that determines what, when
and how a robot does something.
Application of Robotics
• 1. Transport (public and private)
• 2. Exploration (oceans, space, deserts etc.)
• 3. Mining (dangerous environments)
• 4. Civil Defence (search and rescue, fire fighting etc.)
• 5. Security/Surveillance (patrol, observation and intervention)
• 6. Domestic Services (cleaning etc.)
• 7. Entertainment (robotic toys etc.)
• 8. Assistive Technologies (support for the fragile)
• 9. War Machines
• 10. Scientific Instrumentation (e.g. synchrotron sample preparation, chemical screening
etc.)

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Mis module v Artificial Intelligence

  • 1. Module 5 Artificial Intelligence Applications Artificial Intelligence (Cognitive science, Robotics application and Natural Interface)
  • 2. Artificial Intelligence: Overview • A branch of Computer Science named Artificial Intelligence pursues creating the computers or machines as intelligent as human beings. • According to the father of Artificial Intelligence, John McCarthy, it is “The science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs”. • Artificial Intelligence is a way of making a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or a software think intelligently, in the similar manner the intelligent humans think.
  • 3. Goals of AI • To Create Expert Systems − The systems which exhibit intelligent behavior, learn, demonstrate, explain, and advice its users. • To Implement Human Intelligence in Machines − Creating systems that understand, think, learn, and behave like humans.
  • 5. Applications of AI • Gaming − AI plays crucial role in strategic games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, etc., where machine can think of large number of possible positions based on heuristic knowledge. • Natural Language Processing − It is possible to interact with the computer that understands natural language spoken by humans. • Expert Systems − There are some applications which integrate machine, software, and special information to impart reasoning and advising. They provide explanation and advice to the users.
  • 6. Applications of AI • Vision Systems − These systems understand, interpret, and comprehend visual input on the computer. For example, • A spying aeroplane takes photographs, which are used to figure out spatial information or map of the areas. • Doctors use clinical expert system to diagnose the patient. • Police use computer software that can recognize the face of criminal with the stored portrait made by forensic artist.
  • 7. Applications of AI • Speech Recognition − Some intelligent systems are capable of hearing and comprehending the language in terms of sentences and their meanings while a human talks to it. It can handle different accents, slang words, noise in the background, change in human’s noise due to cold, etc. • Handwriting Recognition − The handwriting recognition software reads the text written on paper by a pen or on screen by a stylus. It can recognize the shapes of the letters and convert it into editable text. • Intelligent Robots − Robots are able to perform the tasks given by a human. They have sensors to detect physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure.
  • 8. Milestones of AI • 1979The first computer-controlled autonomous vehicle, Stanford Cart, was built. • 1990Major advances in all areas of AI − • Significant demonstrations in machine learning • Case-based reasoning • Multi-agent planning • Scheduling • Data mining, Web Crawler • natural language understanding and translation • Vision, Virtual Reality • Games • 1997The Deep Blue Chess Program beats the then world chess champion, Garry Kasparov. • 2000Interactive robot pets become commercially available. MIT displays Kismet, a robot with a face that expresses emotions. The robot Nomad explores remote regions of Antarctica and locates meteorites.
  • 9. Cognitive Science • Modern Psychology / Cognitive Psychology / Cognitive Science is the science which studies how the mind operates, how we behave, and how our brains process information. • It is natural for us to try to use our understanding of how human (and other animal) brains lead to intelligent behavior in our quest to build artificial intelligent systems. Conversely, it makes sense to explore the properties of artificial systems (computer models/simulations) to test our hypotheses concerning human systems. • Many sub-fields of AI are simultaneously building models of how the human system operates, and artificial systems for solving real world problems, and are allowing useful ideas to transfer between them.
  • 10. Cognitive Science • Cognitive science can be roughly summed up as the scientific interdisciplinary study of the mind. • Cognitive science is the science of cognition, which includes such things as: • – perception • – action • – learning • – memory • – attention • – reasoning • – decision-making • – language use
  • 11. Cognitive Science • Cognitive Science can be used to analyze, describe, predict, or even correct, augment, if not create minds. Some specific applications are: • – Cognitive Modeling • – Human Computer Interaction • – Artificial Intelligence • – Cognitive Robotics • – Cognitive Engineering
  • 12. Role of Cognitive Science • Computers can be used as tools to create, run, and test models of human cognition • Additionally (and probably more importantly), computer science has offered the information processing concepts and vocabulary that frames much of the current thinking and theorizing in cognitive science • Artificial Intelligence is a branch of computer science trying to build computational models that are claimed to be cognitive themselves.
  • 14. Robotics application • Robotics is a domain in artificial intelligence that deals with the study of creating intelligent and efficient robots. • What are Robots? • Robots are the artificial agents acting in real world environment.
  • 15. What is Robotics? • Robotics is a branch of AI, which is composed of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Computer Science for designing, construction, and application of robots. • Aspects of Robotics • The robots have mechanical construction, form, or shape designed to accomplish a particular task. • They have electrical components which power and control the machinery. • They contain some level of computer program that determines what, when and how a robot does something.
  • 16. Application of Robotics • 1. Transport (public and private) • 2. Exploration (oceans, space, deserts etc.) • 3. Mining (dangerous environments) • 4. Civil Defence (search and rescue, fire fighting etc.) • 5. Security/Surveillance (patrol, observation and intervention) • 6. Domestic Services (cleaning etc.) • 7. Entertainment (robotic toys etc.) • 8. Assistive Technologies (support for the fragile) • 9. War Machines • 10. Scientific Instrumentation (e.g. synchrotron sample preparation, chemical screening etc.)