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A.i. ppt by suvinsh mishra


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A.i. ppt by suvinsh mishra

  1. 1.  Artificial Intelligence (AI) is usually defined as the science of making computers do things that require intelligence when done by humans.  A.I is the study of ideas that enable computers to be intelligent.  The collective attributes of a computer, robot, or other device capable of performing functions such as learning, decision making, or other intelligent human behaviors.
  2. 2.  The real emergence of AI (in computer technology) came during the years 1945- 1956.  Marvin Minsky, John McCarthy, Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, and J.C. Shaw were founders and pioneers of Artificial Intelligence.  These innovators of AI broke away from conventional approaches and examined how to implement human thought in computers. The first term of Artificial Intelligence was first applied in 1956 by John McCarthy during the Dartmouth Conference.  The Dartmouth Conference was the first gathering of all researchers to develop and focus on applying intelligence to computers.  Logic Theorist was considered the first AI program. (In 1956)
  3. 3. • Although some all-purpose languages such as C, C++ and Java are used to create intelligent software, two languages are specifically designed for AI: LISP and PROLOG.  LISP: • LISP (LISt Programming) was invented by John McCarthy in 1958. As the name implies, LISP is a programming language that manipulates lists.  PROLOG: • PROLOG (PROGRAMMING IN LOGIC) is a language that can build a database of facts and a knowledge base of rules. A program in PROLOG can use logical reasoning to answer questions that can be inferred from the knowledge base.
  4. 4. Artificial intelligence works with the help of  Artificial Neurons (Artificial Neural Network): • Artificial neural networks are composed of interconnecting artificial neurons (programming constructs that mimic the properties of biological neurons). And  Scientific theorems(If-Then Statements, Logics)
  5. 5.  Expert Systems!! • An expert system is a computer program that is designed to hold the accumulated knowledge of one or more domain experts. • It reasons with knowledge of some specialist subject with a view to solving problems or giving advice. • They are tested by being placed in the same real world problem solving situation. • Expert systems like: Super computers that are mainly used for weather forecasting. • Autonomous robots that are used in scientific field and medical field works with their own intelligence.
  6. 6.  The special ability of artificial intelligence is to reach a solution based on facts rather than on a preset series of steps—is what most closely resembles the thinking function of the human brain.
  7. 7.  Human Intelligence  Artificial Intelligence • Intuition, Common sense, Judgement, Creativity, Beliefs etc. • The ability to demonstrate their intelligence by communicating effectively. • Plausible Reasoning and Critical thinking. • Ability to simulate human behavior and cognitive processes. • Capture and preserve human expertise. • Raise legal and ethical concerns.
  8. 8. • Humans are fallible. • They have limited knowledge bases. • Information processing of serial nature proceed very slowly in the brain as compared to computers. • Humans are unable to retain large amounts of data in memory. • No “common sense”. • Cannot readily deal with “mixed” knowledge. • May have high development costs. • Fast Response. The ability to comprehend large amounts of data quickly.
  9. 9. We achieve more than we know. We know more than we understand. We understand more than we can explain (Claude Bernard, 19th C French scientific philosopher)
  10. 10. 3 Main Components of A.I.: •Speech Synthesis •Speech Recognition •Logical Reasoning 2 Main Software/Programming languages: •Prolog •Lisp
  11. 11.  The artificial creation of human speech through a speech synthesizer.  It then uses a process called text-to-speech which changes the text into speech.  The quality of speech synthesis is often judged by how well its understood, and how well it resembles actual human speech.  Speech synthesis is also used with speech recognition in other A.I. technologies.
  12. 12.  Converts audio signals into text, or takes spoken input and changes it to written output.  It maps the audio signals to form an abstract meaning of the spoken input.
  13. 13. Converted into a digital format Digital input is then broken down in (x) number of phonemes Program then compares the phonemes to words in its database Program then decides what it thinks the word is and displays the best choice Spoken Input *Phoneme-symbol or unit that represents sounds of speech.
  14. 14.  The logical reasoning process calculates results from specific variables in the problem.  More or less the variables have to be definite rather than a slight chance or good chance of being accurate.  The only results suitable are those that logically follow the inputted variables.
  15. 15. • IBM’s Watson. • Driver-less Transportation. • Automated Assembly Lines and Dangerous Jobs. • Surgery Aid Robots. • Next-Generation Traffic Control
  16. 16. • IBM’s Watson is currently being put to work in healthcare and finance.  Watson’s Capabilities: • Natural language processing - to help understand the complexities of unstructured data which makes up as much as 90% of the data in the world today • Hypothesis generation and evaluation - by applying advanced analytics to weight and evaluate a panel of responses based on only relevant evidence • Evidence-based learning - to improve based on outcomes to get smarter with each iteration and interaction  Watson in Medicine: • Watson can incorporate treatment guidelines, electronic medical record data, doctor's and nurse's notes, research, clinical studies, journal articles, and patient information in order to better inform the doctor of a proper diagnosis  Watson in Finance: • Capable of performing deep content analysis and evidence-based reasoning to accelerate and improve decisions, reduce operational costs, and optimize outcomes.
  17. 17. • Google has been investing in a driverless car, and has completed over 480,000 autonomous-driving miles accident-free. • Through the use of cameras, sensors and special software built into vehicles manufacturers have been able to build cars that park themselves at the touch of a button. • Driverless trains carry passengers from city to city in Japan without the need for human help. • Google’s driverless car relies on lasers and sensors to spot obstacles, interpret signs and interact with traffic and pedestrians. • Artificial intelligence takes away the responsibility from the drivers, and also eliminates the danger of distracted driving and boasts a reaction time much faster than that of any human.
  18. 18. • Some countries have put smart robots to work disabling land mines and handling radioactive materials in order to limit the risk to human workers. • Ford is using an Artificial Intelligence based approach for vehicle assembly process planning, ergonomics analysis, and a system that uses machine translation to translate assembly-build instructions for assembly plants that don't use English. • Other Companies such as GM have developed robots with Artificial Intelligence techniques to inspect cars made by humans.
  19. 19. • Cedars-Sinai Medical Center relies on special software to examine the heart and stop heart attacks before they occur • Artificial muscles feature smart technology that allows them to function more like real muscles. • Penelope, a Robotic Surgery Assistant developed at Columbia University can not only pass the correct tools to doctors, but also keep track of these tools and learn about a doctor's preferences through artificial intelligence. • The most advanced surgical robots are programmed to perform the entire surgery on their own, except for the suturing or the cutting. In these operations, a surgeon stands by just in case something goes wrong. • Miniature intelligent robots are being developed for eye surgeries.
  20. 20.  Right now, A.I. is at level comparable to less intelligent animals or insects.  Is it possible to go farther, to reach human intelligence?  “Cognitivists”, who believe the human conscious can be simulated, and “Anti- Cognitivists” who believe it to be impossible.
  21. 21.  2050: Estimated date of the emergence of the Singularity, or greater-than-human super- intelligence.  At this point, it’s thought that certain machines will exceed the human brain in terms of intelligence  It’s believed that this breakthrough will lead to a rapid advancement in technology, as super intelligent A.I. designs new computers and machines at a rate no human could
  22. 22.  Strong A.I. is intelligence that matches or exceeds that of human intelligence.  Ultimate goal of A.I. research.  Weak A.I. is narrow/more focused than strong A.I.  Whole Brain emulation- Mapping and re- creating the human brain through neuro- imaging.
  23. 23.  One basic problem lies in the question of what intelligence is exactly.  How can we recreate a learning, thinking mind with technology? Is it even possible? Some do not think so.  David Gelernter, a Yale professor, says A.I. is “lost in the woods”.
  24. 24.  What is the human conscious? Gelernter argues that we can’t construct a conscious A.I. without even knowing what exactly the conscious is.  “Without this cognitive continuum, AI has no comprehensive view of thought: it tends to ignore some thought modes (such as free association and dreaming), is uncertain how to integrate emotion and thought, and has made strikingly little progress in understanding analogies--which seem to underlie creativity.”  Scientists need to figure out the “algorithms of thought”, basically a way to mathematically simulate the human thought process.  The human brain relies on chemistry and physics of different molecules in order to function. How could scientists ever replicate this process?
  25. 25. For Humans Intelligence is no more than TAKING a right decision at right time And For Machines Artificial Intelligence is no more than CHOOSING a right decision at right time I think Artificial intelligence is the Second intelligence ever to exist
  26. 26. Be Not Afraid Of Falling Be Afraid Of Not Trying