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Mining (ore minerals and lessening the impact of mining)
Retrieved from :What is Ore_ - Definition, Types, Uses & Examples - Video & Lesson Transcript _ Study.com
 An ore is a special type of rock that contains a large enough amount of a
particular mineral (usually a metal) to make it economically practical to
extract that mineral from the surrounding rock.
 Not all minerals are found in a large enough amount in one location to make
it worth it to remove the ore from the rock, through a process known as
mining. Ores can be mined in a number of ways, including strip mining at
uranium mine.
 The ore is always mixed with unwanted or valueless rocks and minerals that
are collectively known as gangue.
Ore Mineral
Retrieved from : What is Ore_ - Definition, Types, Uses & Examples - Video & Lesson Transcript _ Study.com
Magmatic or volcanic ores
 ores form from the cooling and crystallization of minerals within magmas,
lavas, or igneous intrusions.
Carbonate alkaline ores
 ores are formed from other igneous processes other than volcanic and
activity. Rare earth element ores and also some diamonds are part of the
carbonate alkaline group
Metamorphic ores
 form from igneous processes; metamorphic ores often contain lead, zinc,
and silver, as well as some iron oxides.
Sedimentary ores
 form also from igneous processes; deposits include banded iron
formations, and gold, platinum, zinc, tin, and even diamond-containing
ores that formed in sedimentary environments.
Types of Ore
Retrieved from :http://study.com/academy/lesson/extraction-processing-of-minerals-surface-mining-subsurface-mining-smelting.html
Surface mining is just what it sounds like - removing minerals that are near the
earth's surface because this is where the ore deposits are located.
Open-pit mining is a type of strip mining that is used when the ore deposits
are very large or ore deposits extend very deep in the ground. In this type of
mining, a large, open pit is created as machines scrape off any earth that is not
ore and set it to the side
In strip mining, instead of creating one large pit in the ground, long narrow
strips are dug out. The overburden is removed and piled up along the strip. Once
the ore is removed, the overburden is dumped back into the strip.
In subsurface mining, a long tunnel is created either horizontally or vertically.
The tunnel walls are reinforced with wood and ventilation shafts are created to
provide air to the miners underground. It is used when ores are found very deep
below Earth's surface - sometimes hundreds or thousands of feet deep.
Mining Ore Mineral
Retrieved from Photos of Natural Copper Ore, Copper minerals, Crystal ores, rich copper - gold specimens.html/
Mineral Extraction from Ores
 If there is a large enough amount present, the rock will be extracted and
processed in a variety of ways (depending on the type of mineral) to remove
the mineral from the surrounding rock.
 Generally, the ore and the gangue are mined together—i.e., taken out of the
host rock in a mass by either mechanical or manual means. Then the ore is
separated from the gangue by various operations known collectively as
mineral processing, or ore dressing. The desired metallic element is then
extracted from the ore by various smelting, roasting, or leaching processes
 Advances in hydrometallurgy have meant that some metals—such as copper,
uranium, and gold—can be removed from the host rock without drilling and
blasting. Special bacteria are sometimes used as part of this process. After
recovery, the metals may be still further refined (purified) or alloyed with
other metals, as in a copper refinery or steel mill. Mining, processing, and
refining are thus successive steps in the utilization of an ore deposit to yield
a metal.
 Once they are extracted and processed, the minerals can be turned into
whatever products are desired, including the components in your cell phones
and computers. One of the best known metals, gold, is extracted from gold
ore like this sample.
Leaching is just the process of extracting a substance from a solid
material that has come into contact with a liquid.
In leaching, the liquid is very important as it facilitates the ability to
remove (or extract) a given substance from a solid matrix (i.e. material).
Smelting is a metal extraction process in which an ore (usually mixed
with purifying and/or heat generating substances such as limestone and
coke is heated at high temperature in an enclosed furnace. After a reducing
reaction, lighter ore-components (impurities called slag or tailing) rise to
the top and float on the molten metal. Smelting is opposite of roasting
which involves an oxidizing reaction
Roasting is a metallurgical process involving gas–solid reactions at
elevated temperatures with the goal of purifying the metal component(s).
In roasting, the ore or ores concentrate is treated with very hot air.
Some Processes of Mineral
Extraction in Ores
Some Processes of Mineral
Extraction in Ores
Video
2
Video
1
Quote
Effects of Exploitation and Massive
Extraction of Mineral Resources
1. De-vegetation and defacing of lands:
Mining requires removal of vegetation along with underlying soil mantle and
overlying rock masses. This results in destruction of landscape in the area.
2. Subsidence of land:
Subsidence of mining areas results in tilting of buildings, cracks in houses,
buckling of roads, bending of rail tracks and leaking of gas from cracked pipe
lines leading to serious disasters.
Retrieved from : http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/environment/natural-resources/mining-operation-types-impacts-and-remedial-measures/30038/
Effects of Exploitation and Massive
Extraction of Mineral Resources
3. Water pollution:
Mining pollutes the groundwater. Sulfur, usually present as an impurity in many
ores is known to get converted into sulfuric acid through microbial action, thereby
making the water acidic. Sulfur in one react with water and oxygen to form sulfuric
acid which leaks out from the mine. This is known as acid mine drainage. The acid
mine drainage often contaminates the nearby streams and lakes. It severally
degrades water quality, and can kill aquatic life and make water virtually unusable.
The radioactive substances like uranium, heavy metals also contaminate the water
bodies and kill aquatic animals.
Retrieved from : http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/environment/natural-resources/mining-operation-types-impacts-and-remedial-measures/30038/
Effects of Exploitation and Massive
Extraction of Mineral Resources
5. Air pollution:
In order to separate and purify the metal from other impurities in the ore, smelting
is done which emits enormous quantities of air pollutants. Oxides of sulphur,
arsenic, cadmium and lead etc. shoot up in the atmosphere near the smelters and
the public suffers from several health problems.
6. Noise Pollution:
The ground and noise vibrations are
produced during mining operations such
as drilling and blasting, movement of
mining equipment’s like shovels,
dumpers, drills, dozers, rippers etc.
Retrieved from : http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/environment/natural-resources/mining-operation-types-impacts-and-remedial-measures/30038/
Effects of Exploitation and Massive
Extraction of Mineral Resources
7. Occupational Health Hazards:
Miners working in different type of mines suffer from
asbestosis, silicosis, black lung disease.
Video
Retrieved from : http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/environment/natural-resources/mining-operation-types-impacts-and-remedial-measures/30038/
8. Rapid depletion of high grade minerals:
Increasing demand for high grade minerals has compelled miners to carry out more
extraction of minerals, which require more energy sources and produce large amount
of waste materials.
9. Destruction of Wildlife
As a result of deforestation, wildlife has been
affected since these forests served as their
habitat and source of food.
Some Ways To Minimize the Effects of
the Mining Industry
Retrieved from : http://www.miningglobal.com/top10/515/Top-10-Ways-to-Make-Mines-More-Environmentally-Friendly
Video
People can reduce the consumer goods they use or the content of minerals in
manufactured processes can be reduced. For example, instead of building more cars,
we could rely more on public transit.
 This supervision of the manufacturing process is
essential in order to develop new ways of thinking,
new metrics, and new management/supervisory
tools that will help cushion the transition into more
efficient and less environmentally-harmful patterns
of resource
 For example, structural beams might be designed to
be equally strong while using less steel.
Retrieved from : http://www.miningglobal.com/top10/515/Top-10-Ways-to-Make-Mines-More-Environmentally-Friendly
 For example, plastics might be used instead of metal to build appliances. Or
biomass can be used instead of uranium to produce energy.
 Mining process should be done as safely and efficiently as possible. For
example, aluminum can be substituted as a recyclable material rather than using
bauxite ore, which is a rarer and less reusable item.
 For example, if tin cans are efficiently recycled, less material needs to be mined
to make cans.
 Recycling copper, which takes seven times less energy than processing ore,
recycling steel which uses three-and-a-half times less energy than ore.
Retrieved from : http://www.miningglobal.com/top10/515/Top-10-Ways-to-Make-Mines-More-Environmentally-Friendly
 Mines can be designed so that they produce less waste or
use less toxic chemicals.
 By reducing the amount of wasteful use on a public and
private level, and by steering production towards the sole
use of durable goods that can be easily reusable, re-
manufactured, or recycled, the mining industry can begin
to reduce its impact on an international scale.
 Make mining less destructive of the environment by
systematically examining environmental impacts and
adopting measures to mitigate these impacts
 Governments can require mines to adopt increasingly
effective environmental procedures and invoke penalties for
failure to comply.
 Strict observance of regulations will not only protect
environmental and public health, but that will improve the
lifespan of the mining industry
Retrieved from : http://www.miningglobal.com/top10/515/Top-10-Ways-to-Make-Mines-More-Environmentally-Friendly
 Closing of illegal or unregulated mining activity will set an environmental
precedent within the industry.
 Companies and governments can be held accountable for abandoned sites and be
required to carry out an environmental clean-up.
Like tax shifting, can be introduced to provide incentives for practices like product
substitution and disincentives for poor environmental performance.
 The mining industry is one that is always in need of proper research and
development in order to make sure the industry to ever-changing with today’s
commitment to sustainability and turning the world into a more “green friendly’
place.
 Collecting funding and allowing that funding to be dispersed into ROD funds for
Green Mining can be one way to positively impact the environment before and
after mining projects.
 Green Mining can prevent unnecessary waste in the sense of less reusable
materials, better efficiency and a better understood industry.
Retrieved from : http://www.miningglobal.com/top10/515/Top-10-Ways-to-Make-Mines-More-Environmentally-Friendly
 Replenishing mine sites and mine environments is one of the key factors to not
only earning the respect and cooperation of those living near the mine, but will
ultimately protect the mine’s impact on the environment.
 The entire reclamation process should include: removing hazardous materials,
reshaping land, restoring topsoil, and planting native grasses, trees or ground
cover natural to the site.
Retrieved from : http://www.miningglobal.com/top10/515/Top-10-Ways-to-Make-Mines-More-Environmentally-Friendly
What You Can Do. (n.d.). Retrieved July 06, 2016, from
http://econet.ca/issues/mining/whatyoucando.html
Top 10 Ways to Make Mines More Environmentally Friendly. (n.d.).
Retrieved July 06, 2016, from http://www.miningglobal.com/top10/515/Top-
10-Ways-to-Make-Mines-More-Environmentally-Friendly
Mining Operation: Types, Impacts and Remedial Measures. (2014).
Retrieved July 06, 2016, from
http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/environment/natural-resources/mining-
operation-types-impacts-and-remedial-measures/30038/
Zinc: Smelting, producing and classification-Metalpedia. (n.d.). Retrieved
July 07, 2016, from
http://metalpedia.asianmetal.com/metal/zinc/extraction.shtml
Lorig, C. H. (n.d.). Mineral processing. Retrieved July 07, 2016, from
https://www.britannica.com/technology/mineral-processing
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Mining (ore minerals and lessening the impact of mining)

  • 2. Retrieved from :What is Ore_ - Definition, Types, Uses & Examples - Video & Lesson Transcript _ Study.com  An ore is a special type of rock that contains a large enough amount of a particular mineral (usually a metal) to make it economically practical to extract that mineral from the surrounding rock.  Not all minerals are found in a large enough amount in one location to make it worth it to remove the ore from the rock, through a process known as mining. Ores can be mined in a number of ways, including strip mining at uranium mine.  The ore is always mixed with unwanted or valueless rocks and minerals that are collectively known as gangue. Ore Mineral
  • 3. Retrieved from : What is Ore_ - Definition, Types, Uses & Examples - Video & Lesson Transcript _ Study.com Magmatic or volcanic ores  ores form from the cooling and crystallization of minerals within magmas, lavas, or igneous intrusions. Carbonate alkaline ores  ores are formed from other igneous processes other than volcanic and activity. Rare earth element ores and also some diamonds are part of the carbonate alkaline group Metamorphic ores  form from igneous processes; metamorphic ores often contain lead, zinc, and silver, as well as some iron oxides. Sedimentary ores  form also from igneous processes; deposits include banded iron formations, and gold, platinum, zinc, tin, and even diamond-containing ores that formed in sedimentary environments. Types of Ore
  • 4. Retrieved from :http://study.com/academy/lesson/extraction-processing-of-minerals-surface-mining-subsurface-mining-smelting.html Surface mining is just what it sounds like - removing minerals that are near the earth's surface because this is where the ore deposits are located. Open-pit mining is a type of strip mining that is used when the ore deposits are very large or ore deposits extend very deep in the ground. In this type of mining, a large, open pit is created as machines scrape off any earth that is not ore and set it to the side In strip mining, instead of creating one large pit in the ground, long narrow strips are dug out. The overburden is removed and piled up along the strip. Once the ore is removed, the overburden is dumped back into the strip. In subsurface mining, a long tunnel is created either horizontally or vertically. The tunnel walls are reinforced with wood and ventilation shafts are created to provide air to the miners underground. It is used when ores are found very deep below Earth's surface - sometimes hundreds or thousands of feet deep. Mining Ore Mineral
  • 5. Retrieved from Photos of Natural Copper Ore, Copper minerals, Crystal ores, rich copper - gold specimens.html/
  • 6. Mineral Extraction from Ores  If there is a large enough amount present, the rock will be extracted and processed in a variety of ways (depending on the type of mineral) to remove the mineral from the surrounding rock.  Generally, the ore and the gangue are mined together—i.e., taken out of the host rock in a mass by either mechanical or manual means. Then the ore is separated from the gangue by various operations known collectively as mineral processing, or ore dressing. The desired metallic element is then extracted from the ore by various smelting, roasting, or leaching processes  Advances in hydrometallurgy have meant that some metals—such as copper, uranium, and gold—can be removed from the host rock without drilling and blasting. Special bacteria are sometimes used as part of this process. After recovery, the metals may be still further refined (purified) or alloyed with other metals, as in a copper refinery or steel mill. Mining, processing, and refining are thus successive steps in the utilization of an ore deposit to yield a metal.  Once they are extracted and processed, the minerals can be turned into whatever products are desired, including the components in your cell phones and computers. One of the best known metals, gold, is extracted from gold ore like this sample.
  • 7. Leaching is just the process of extracting a substance from a solid material that has come into contact with a liquid. In leaching, the liquid is very important as it facilitates the ability to remove (or extract) a given substance from a solid matrix (i.e. material). Smelting is a metal extraction process in which an ore (usually mixed with purifying and/or heat generating substances such as limestone and coke is heated at high temperature in an enclosed furnace. After a reducing reaction, lighter ore-components (impurities called slag or tailing) rise to the top and float on the molten metal. Smelting is opposite of roasting which involves an oxidizing reaction Roasting is a metallurgical process involving gas–solid reactions at elevated temperatures with the goal of purifying the metal component(s). In roasting, the ore or ores concentrate is treated with very hot air. Some Processes of Mineral Extraction in Ores
  • 8. Some Processes of Mineral Extraction in Ores Video 2 Video 1
  • 10. Effects of Exploitation and Massive Extraction of Mineral Resources 1. De-vegetation and defacing of lands: Mining requires removal of vegetation along with underlying soil mantle and overlying rock masses. This results in destruction of landscape in the area. 2. Subsidence of land: Subsidence of mining areas results in tilting of buildings, cracks in houses, buckling of roads, bending of rail tracks and leaking of gas from cracked pipe lines leading to serious disasters. Retrieved from : http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/environment/natural-resources/mining-operation-types-impacts-and-remedial-measures/30038/
  • 11. Effects of Exploitation and Massive Extraction of Mineral Resources 3. Water pollution: Mining pollutes the groundwater. Sulfur, usually present as an impurity in many ores is known to get converted into sulfuric acid through microbial action, thereby making the water acidic. Sulfur in one react with water and oxygen to form sulfuric acid which leaks out from the mine. This is known as acid mine drainage. The acid mine drainage often contaminates the nearby streams and lakes. It severally degrades water quality, and can kill aquatic life and make water virtually unusable. The radioactive substances like uranium, heavy metals also contaminate the water bodies and kill aquatic animals. Retrieved from : http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/environment/natural-resources/mining-operation-types-impacts-and-remedial-measures/30038/
  • 12. Effects of Exploitation and Massive Extraction of Mineral Resources 5. Air pollution: In order to separate and purify the metal from other impurities in the ore, smelting is done which emits enormous quantities of air pollutants. Oxides of sulphur, arsenic, cadmium and lead etc. shoot up in the atmosphere near the smelters and the public suffers from several health problems. 6. Noise Pollution: The ground and noise vibrations are produced during mining operations such as drilling and blasting, movement of mining equipment’s like shovels, dumpers, drills, dozers, rippers etc. Retrieved from : http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/environment/natural-resources/mining-operation-types-impacts-and-remedial-measures/30038/
  • 13. Effects of Exploitation and Massive Extraction of Mineral Resources 7. Occupational Health Hazards: Miners working in different type of mines suffer from asbestosis, silicosis, black lung disease. Video Retrieved from : http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/environment/natural-resources/mining-operation-types-impacts-and-remedial-measures/30038/ 8. Rapid depletion of high grade minerals: Increasing demand for high grade minerals has compelled miners to carry out more extraction of minerals, which require more energy sources and produce large amount of waste materials. 9. Destruction of Wildlife As a result of deforestation, wildlife has been affected since these forests served as their habitat and source of food.
  • 14. Some Ways To Minimize the Effects of the Mining Industry Retrieved from : http://www.miningglobal.com/top10/515/Top-10-Ways-to-Make-Mines-More-Environmentally-Friendly Video People can reduce the consumer goods they use or the content of minerals in manufactured processes can be reduced. For example, instead of building more cars, we could rely more on public transit.  This supervision of the manufacturing process is essential in order to develop new ways of thinking, new metrics, and new management/supervisory tools that will help cushion the transition into more efficient and less environmentally-harmful patterns of resource  For example, structural beams might be designed to be equally strong while using less steel.
  • 15. Retrieved from : http://www.miningglobal.com/top10/515/Top-10-Ways-to-Make-Mines-More-Environmentally-Friendly  For example, plastics might be used instead of metal to build appliances. Or biomass can be used instead of uranium to produce energy.  Mining process should be done as safely and efficiently as possible. For example, aluminum can be substituted as a recyclable material rather than using bauxite ore, which is a rarer and less reusable item.  For example, if tin cans are efficiently recycled, less material needs to be mined to make cans.  Recycling copper, which takes seven times less energy than processing ore, recycling steel which uses three-and-a-half times less energy than ore.
  • 16. Retrieved from : http://www.miningglobal.com/top10/515/Top-10-Ways-to-Make-Mines-More-Environmentally-Friendly  Mines can be designed so that they produce less waste or use less toxic chemicals.  By reducing the amount of wasteful use on a public and private level, and by steering production towards the sole use of durable goods that can be easily reusable, re- manufactured, or recycled, the mining industry can begin to reduce its impact on an international scale.  Make mining less destructive of the environment by systematically examining environmental impacts and adopting measures to mitigate these impacts  Governments can require mines to adopt increasingly effective environmental procedures and invoke penalties for failure to comply.  Strict observance of regulations will not only protect environmental and public health, but that will improve the lifespan of the mining industry
  • 17. Retrieved from : http://www.miningglobal.com/top10/515/Top-10-Ways-to-Make-Mines-More-Environmentally-Friendly  Closing of illegal or unregulated mining activity will set an environmental precedent within the industry.  Companies and governments can be held accountable for abandoned sites and be required to carry out an environmental clean-up. Like tax shifting, can be introduced to provide incentives for practices like product substitution and disincentives for poor environmental performance.
  • 18.  The mining industry is one that is always in need of proper research and development in order to make sure the industry to ever-changing with today’s commitment to sustainability and turning the world into a more “green friendly’ place.  Collecting funding and allowing that funding to be dispersed into ROD funds for Green Mining can be one way to positively impact the environment before and after mining projects.  Green Mining can prevent unnecessary waste in the sense of less reusable materials, better efficiency and a better understood industry. Retrieved from : http://www.miningglobal.com/top10/515/Top-10-Ways-to-Make-Mines-More-Environmentally-Friendly
  • 19.  Replenishing mine sites and mine environments is one of the key factors to not only earning the respect and cooperation of those living near the mine, but will ultimately protect the mine’s impact on the environment.  The entire reclamation process should include: removing hazardous materials, reshaping land, restoring topsoil, and planting native grasses, trees or ground cover natural to the site. Retrieved from : http://www.miningglobal.com/top10/515/Top-10-Ways-to-Make-Mines-More-Environmentally-Friendly
  • 20. What You Can Do. (n.d.). Retrieved July 06, 2016, from http://econet.ca/issues/mining/whatyoucando.html Top 10 Ways to Make Mines More Environmentally Friendly. (n.d.). Retrieved July 06, 2016, from http://www.miningglobal.com/top10/515/Top- 10-Ways-to-Make-Mines-More-Environmentally-Friendly Mining Operation: Types, Impacts and Remedial Measures. (2014). Retrieved July 06, 2016, from http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/environment/natural-resources/mining- operation-types-impacts-and-remedial-measures/30038/ Zinc: Smelting, producing and classification-Metalpedia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 07, 2016, from http://metalpedia.asianmetal.com/metal/zinc/extraction.shtml Lorig, C. H. (n.d.). Mineral processing. Retrieved July 07, 2016, from https://www.britannica.com/technology/mineral-processing