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This document discusses how to merge household and individual files from two rounds of a survey, the India Human Development Survey (IHDS). It provides steps to link households and individuals surveyed in both rounds using a linking file, and explains concepts like replacement households, split households, and attrition. The key steps are: 1) Linking the round 2 data to the linking file to get round 1 IDs, 2) Merging this new round 2 file with the round 1 file. The merged files will be a superset containing individuals surveyed in one or both rounds.

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Leontief input output models.ppt final

The document discusses Leontief input-output models, which analyze the interdependent production relationships between industries in an economy. The models are represented using input-output tables and input coefficient matrices. They assume industries use fixed input ratios and are subject to constant returns to scale. The models can be used to determine the optimal output levels for each industry that satisfy total demand without surpluses or shortages, accounting for industries using each other's outputs as inputs.

E views tutorial

This document provides instructions for using EViews to replicate the regression analysis examples from the textbook "Using Econometrics: A Practical Guide". It describes how to create an EViews workfile, enter data, generate variables, create groups, and graph relationships. Specifically, it demonstrates analyzing data on height and weight from the textbook by entering the data, creating a group containing the height and weight series, and graphing their relationship to visually confirm the hypothesized positive relationship.

Theory of unbalanced growth

Hirschman's theory of unbalanced growth proposes strategically selecting and heavily investing in priority sectors to spur development, as underdeveloped countries cannot invest in all sectors simultaneously. The theory argues that intentionally creating imbalances in the economy by focusing investment in some sectors over others is an effective development strategy. Specifically, it recommends initially investing in social overhead capital like education and infrastructure to initiate development, which will then induce greater investment in directly productive activities like manufacturing.

1 trade vs aid

This document discusses two main approaches to promoting development in poorer countries: trade and aid. Trade is believed to encourage economic growth as it allows countries to specialize and export goods, but it relies on the assumption that poorer countries can develop using the same model as wealthier countries. Aid from developed nations provides resources for poorer countries but does not necessarily lead to self-sustaining growth. Overall the document examines the debate around whether trade or aid is better for long-term development in poorer regions of the world.

gruber chapter 20.ppt

This document summarizes a chapter about tax inefficiencies and their implications for optimal taxation. The chapter discusses several topics:
- Taxation and economic efficiency, including how elasticities determine tax inefficiency and deadweight loss.
- Optimal commodity taxation, including Ramsey taxation and the inverse elasticity rule.
- Optimal income taxes, including balancing vertical equity and behavioral responses.
- Tax-benefit linkages and financing social insurance programs, examining how taxes paid may be linked to benefits received.

Gini coefficient

This powerpoint is done by a group of students from Hwa Chong Institution, Singapore. Yap Lay Sheng, Alvin Leong, Clarence Lee, Huang Jian Yang

Decision tree solved

A finance manager is considering drilling a well on their property. Based on past data, there is a 70% chance of finding water at 20 meters depth, and a 20% chance of finding water between 20-25 meters if no water is found at 20 meters. The costs to drill are Rs.500 per meter plus Rs.15,000 to buy water externally if the well is not drilled. The optimal decision tree strategy is to first drill to 20 meters, and if no water, then drill further to 25 meters, resulting in an expected cost of Rs. 11,350.

Harrod domer model PPT

The Harrod-Domer model theorizes that a country's economic growth rate is defined by its savings level and capital-output ratio. It suggests there is no natural balanced growth. The model was developed independently by Roy Harrod and Evsey Domar to explain growth in terms of savings and capital productivity. It requires continuous net investment to sustain real income and production growth. The model's assumptions include no government intervention, full initial employment, a closed economy, fixed capital-labor ratios and constant savings and interest rates. Its main criticism is the unrealistic assumption of no reason for sufficient growth to maintain full employment.

Leontief input output models.ppt final

The document discusses Leontief input-output models, which analyze the interdependent production relationships between industries in an economy. The models are represented using input-output tables and input coefficient matrices. They assume industries use fixed input ratios and are subject to constant returns to scale. The models can be used to determine the optimal output levels for each industry that satisfy total demand without surpluses or shortages, accounting for industries using each other's outputs as inputs.

E views tutorial

This document provides instructions for using EViews to replicate the regression analysis examples from the textbook "Using Econometrics: A Practical Guide". It describes how to create an EViews workfile, enter data, generate variables, create groups, and graph relationships. Specifically, it demonstrates analyzing data on height and weight from the textbook by entering the data, creating a group containing the height and weight series, and graphing their relationship to visually confirm the hypothesized positive relationship.

Theory of unbalanced growth

Hirschman's theory of unbalanced growth proposes strategically selecting and heavily investing in priority sectors to spur development, as underdeveloped countries cannot invest in all sectors simultaneously. The theory argues that intentionally creating imbalances in the economy by focusing investment in some sectors over others is an effective development strategy. Specifically, it recommends initially investing in social overhead capital like education and infrastructure to initiate development, which will then induce greater investment in directly productive activities like manufacturing.

1 trade vs aid

This document discusses two main approaches to promoting development in poorer countries: trade and aid. Trade is believed to encourage economic growth as it allows countries to specialize and export goods, but it relies on the assumption that poorer countries can develop using the same model as wealthier countries. Aid from developed nations provides resources for poorer countries but does not necessarily lead to self-sustaining growth. Overall the document examines the debate around whether trade or aid is better for long-term development in poorer regions of the world.

gruber chapter 20.ppt

This document summarizes a chapter about tax inefficiencies and their implications for optimal taxation. The chapter discusses several topics:
- Taxation and economic efficiency, including how elasticities determine tax inefficiency and deadweight loss.
- Optimal commodity taxation, including Ramsey taxation and the inverse elasticity rule.
- Optimal income taxes, including balancing vertical equity and behavioral responses.
- Tax-benefit linkages and financing social insurance programs, examining how taxes paid may be linked to benefits received.

Gini coefficient

This powerpoint is done by a group of students from Hwa Chong Institution, Singapore. Yap Lay Sheng, Alvin Leong, Clarence Lee, Huang Jian Yang

Decision tree solved

A finance manager is considering drilling a well on their property. Based on past data, there is a 70% chance of finding water at 20 meters depth, and a 20% chance of finding water between 20-25 meters if no water is found at 20 meters. The costs to drill are Rs.500 per meter plus Rs.15,000 to buy water externally if the well is not drilled. The optimal decision tree strategy is to first drill to 20 meters, and if no water, then drill further to 25 meters, resulting in an expected cost of Rs. 11,350.

Harrod domer model PPT

The Harrod-Domer model theorizes that a country's economic growth rate is defined by its savings level and capital-output ratio. It suggests there is no natural balanced growth. The model was developed independently by Roy Harrod and Evsey Domar to explain growth in terms of savings and capital productivity. It requires continuous net investment to sustain real income and production growth. The model's assumptions include no government intervention, full initial employment, a closed economy, fixed capital-labor ratios and constant savings and interest rates. Its main criticism is the unrealistic assumption of no reason for sufficient growth to maintain full employment.

Theories of Economic Development

Class of the course of Development and Sustainability, Federal University of ABC, October 2021
Recorded video at: https://youtu.be/RB-pQnQXRSQ

Development of knowledge test and some other tests used in social science res...

1. The document discusses various methods for developing and evaluating knowledge tests, including item collection, screening, analysis of item difficulty, discrimination, and point biserial correlation.
2. Reliability of the knowledge test is determined using split-half methods like the Spearman-Brown formula.
3. Knowledge scores are calculated and can be categorized into different levels to interpret respondents' knowledge.

Input – output model of economic development

Input – output model of economic development,Economic model,Development,Planning,Regional development theories,Development planning

Econometrics ch3

This document provides an overview of two-variable regression analysis and the concept of the population regression function. It discusses how regression analysis is used to estimate the mean value of the dependent variable based on the independent variable. It introduces a hypothetical example using family income and consumption expenditure data. It defines key concepts like the population regression line and function, and explains how the regression model specifies the dependent variable as a linear function of the independent variables plus a stochastic disturbance term to account for omitted variables.

Harris-Todaro Migration Model and it's Applicability in Bangladesh

This document presents on the Harris-Todaro Migration Model and its applicability in Bangladesh. It provides background on the model, which was developed in response to rural-urban migration despite high urban unemployment. The model predicts that expected incomes across rural and urban sectors will equalize when factoring informal work. While the model applies to Bangladesh due to wage differentials and higher earning potential in cities, push factors like natural disasters and marriage are also significant drivers of migration in Bangladesh. Therefore, the Harris-Todaro model explains some migration patterns but not completely for Bangladesh.

Input output overview-for-mba-ii-sem

The document compares economic base models and input-output models. Economic base models analyze multiplier effects at the basic/non-basic sector level, while input-output models analyze impacts at a more precise sector-by-sector level by tracing dollar flows between industries. Input-output models build upon economic base models by accounting for inter-industry transactions and better capturing complex interdependencies between sectors.

Characteristics of underdeveloped economies

Underdeveloped economies are characterized by low per capita incomes, underutilized resources, inefficient production techniques, and potential for growth. They have incomes of $1025 or less and rely on agriculture, suffering from poverty, unemployment, and low levels of living. Population growth outpaces economic growth, exacerbating unemployment and poverty. Development requires improving infrastructure, education, health, and industrialization to increase productivity and standards of living.

Production function analysis

The document discusses different production functions used in economics including the Cobb-Douglas production function, CES production function, and Spillman production function.
The Cobb-Douglas production function represents production processes using capital and labor. It has constant returns to scale and diminishing marginal returns. The CES production function displays constant elasticity of substitution between factors.
One of the earliest efforts to estimate an agricultural production function was conducted by Spillman using data on fertilizer, feed, and livestock fattening. He proposed a production function of the form Y = M(1-Rx) to represent diminishing returns.

Chap14 multiple regression model building

The document discusses techniques for building multiple regression models, including:
- Using quadratic and transformed terms to model nonlinear relationships
- Detecting and addressing collinearity among independent variables
- Employing stepwise regression or best-subsets approaches to select significant variables and develop the best-fitting model

Estimation of Elasticities of Substitution for CES and VES Production Functions

This paper presents estimates of elasticities of substitution based upon data obtained from a survey of large-scale firms in the wheat flour milling, rice husking, sugar refining and edible oil processing industries in Pakistan.

The chi – square test

The chi-square test is used to determine if there is a relationship between two categorical variables in two or more independent groups. It can be used when data is arranged in a contingency table with observed and expected frequencies. A sample problem demonstrates how to calculate chi-square by finding the difference between observed and expected counts, squaring these differences, dividing by the expected counts, and summing across all cells. Degrees of freedom and critical values from tables determine whether to reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis of independence. Larger tables can be partitioned into subtables to identify where differences lie. Guidelines are provided for when chi-square or Fisher's exact test should be used based on sample size and expected cell counts.

Lewis model & rastow stages

The document provides information about Naseem Shahzad and their educational qualifications. It then summarizes Lewis's two-sector model of economic development and Rostow's stages of economic growth model.
The Lewis model explains how economic growth is initiated through a structural shift as the industrial sector grows relative to subsistence agriculture. It focuses on the transfer of surplus labor from the traditional to the industrial sector. Rostow identified five stages of economic growth: traditional society, preconditions for take-off, take-off, drive to maturity, and age of high mass consumption. Developing countries are typically in the early stages of traditional society or preconditions.

Heteroscedasticity

Heteroscedasticity occurs when the variance of the error terms in a regression model are not constant, but instead vary depending on the values of the independent variables. While ordinary least squares estimators remain unbiased, their standard errors may be incorrect under heteroscedasticity. This means that confidence intervals and hypothesis tests based on the usual standard errors are unreliable and can lead to misleading conclusions.

Schultz’s transformation of traditional agriculture

Schultz proposes ways to transform traditional agriculture into modern agriculture. He defines traditional agriculture as occurring when technology and farmer preferences remain unchanged for long periods, resulting in equilibrium between input marginal productivities and costs. Characteristics include allocative efficiency and no zero-value labor. Schultz suggests supplying new higher-yielding factors through R&D, distribution, and extension. Farmers will demand new factors if they are profitable. The transformation process involves shifting supply and demand curves outwards to a new equilibrium with lower input prices, higher output, and returns. However, critics argue Schultz's concept is too general, ignores disguised unemployment, questions efficiency under his assumptions, and takes a command approach rather than considering farmer responsiveness

LEAST COST METHOD

The Least Cost Method is another method used to obtain the initial feasible solution for the transportation problem. Here, the allocation begins with the cell which has the minimum cost. The lower cost cells are chosen over the higher-cost cell with the objective to have the least cost of transportation.

Solow Growth Model

The Solow Growth Model describes a pure production economy where population grows at a constant rate, consumers save a fixed portion of income, and firms produce output according to a Cobb-Douglas production function. The model shows that the per capita capital stock reaches a steady state where the marginal product of capital equals the capital depreciation rate plus population growth rate, divided by the savings rate. The document provides an example comparing the steady state capital stock under different population growth rates and savings rates.

Input output analysis by roni bhowmik

This document provides a summary of Roni Bhowmik's presentation on input-output analysis. The presentation was given on November 17, 2013 at the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences. It discusses the key concepts of input-output analysis developed by Wassily Leontief, including how input-output tables can be used to model interrelationships between sectors in an economy and estimate multiplier effects. The presentation also provides an example of an input-output table and calculations for direct requirements, total requirements, and type I, II and III multipliers.

Rural – urban migration

Lewis theory, Rani-Fie-Lewis Theory on unlimited supplies of Labour and Todaro Model of Rural Urban Migration are famous theories on Rural_Urban Migration in Development economics

F test

The document discusses the F-test, which is used to determine if the variances of two populations are significantly different. It explains that the F-test involves calculating the F-value, which is the ratio of the larger sample variance to the smaller sample variance. This F-value is then compared to a critical value from the F-distribution table based on the degrees of freedom. If the F-value is less than the critical value, there is no significant difference between the population variances. The document provides an example calculation to demonstrate how to perform an F-test on two samples and determine if their variances are significantly different or not.

Analysis Of Variance - ANOVA

This document provides an overview of analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques. It discusses Fisher's exact test and Lady Bristol's claim to distinguish teas through taste, noting the p-value was below 0.05, rejecting the null hypothesis that her ability was due to chance. It then outlines one-way ANOVA assumptions of normal distribution and independence between groups. Computing an F-score with sums of squares is explained, as is using ANOVA in R through functions like aov and manova. Reasons for using ANOVA are given, including exploring data, handling experimental error, and reducing Type 1 errors.

Merging for ihds.info

This document discusses how to merge household and individual files from two rounds of a survey, the India Human Development Survey (IHDS). It provides steps to link households and individuals surveyed in both rounds using a linking file, and explains concepts like replacement households, split households, and attrition. The key steps are: 1) Linking the round 2 data to the linking file to get round 1 IDs, 2) Merging this new round 2 file with the round 1 file. The merged files will be a superset containing individuals surveyed in one or both rounds.

Merging files (Data Structure)

This document discusses different techniques for merging files in revision control systems. It begins by introducing the concept of merging as reconciling multiple changes made to files. It then discusses external sorting techniques that can handle large amounts of data. The main merging techniques covered are two-way merging, three-way merging, and k-way merging. Two-way merging considers differences between two files alone, while three-way merging also looks at the original parent file. Three-way merging is generally more reliable with less need for user intervention. K-way merging uses a tournament sort algorithm to merge an arbitrary number of files.

Theories of Economic Development

Class of the course of Development and Sustainability, Federal University of ABC, October 2021
Recorded video at: https://youtu.be/RB-pQnQXRSQ

Development of knowledge test and some other tests used in social science res...

1. The document discusses various methods for developing and evaluating knowledge tests, including item collection, screening, analysis of item difficulty, discrimination, and point biserial correlation.
2. Reliability of the knowledge test is determined using split-half methods like the Spearman-Brown formula.
3. Knowledge scores are calculated and can be categorized into different levels to interpret respondents' knowledge.

Input – output model of economic development

Input – output model of economic development,Economic model,Development,Planning,Regional development theories,Development planning

Econometrics ch3

This document provides an overview of two-variable regression analysis and the concept of the population regression function. It discusses how regression analysis is used to estimate the mean value of the dependent variable based on the independent variable. It introduces a hypothetical example using family income and consumption expenditure data. It defines key concepts like the population regression line and function, and explains how the regression model specifies the dependent variable as a linear function of the independent variables plus a stochastic disturbance term to account for omitted variables.

Harris-Todaro Migration Model and it's Applicability in Bangladesh

This document presents on the Harris-Todaro Migration Model and its applicability in Bangladesh. It provides background on the model, which was developed in response to rural-urban migration despite high urban unemployment. The model predicts that expected incomes across rural and urban sectors will equalize when factoring informal work. While the model applies to Bangladesh due to wage differentials and higher earning potential in cities, push factors like natural disasters and marriage are also significant drivers of migration in Bangladesh. Therefore, the Harris-Todaro model explains some migration patterns but not completely for Bangladesh.

Input output overview-for-mba-ii-sem

The document compares economic base models and input-output models. Economic base models analyze multiplier effects at the basic/non-basic sector level, while input-output models analyze impacts at a more precise sector-by-sector level by tracing dollar flows between industries. Input-output models build upon economic base models by accounting for inter-industry transactions and better capturing complex interdependencies between sectors.

Characteristics of underdeveloped economies

Underdeveloped economies are characterized by low per capita incomes, underutilized resources, inefficient production techniques, and potential for growth. They have incomes of $1025 or less and rely on agriculture, suffering from poverty, unemployment, and low levels of living. Population growth outpaces economic growth, exacerbating unemployment and poverty. Development requires improving infrastructure, education, health, and industrialization to increase productivity and standards of living.

Production function analysis

The document discusses different production functions used in economics including the Cobb-Douglas production function, CES production function, and Spillman production function.
The Cobb-Douglas production function represents production processes using capital and labor. It has constant returns to scale and diminishing marginal returns. The CES production function displays constant elasticity of substitution between factors.
One of the earliest efforts to estimate an agricultural production function was conducted by Spillman using data on fertilizer, feed, and livestock fattening. He proposed a production function of the form Y = M(1-Rx) to represent diminishing returns.

Chap14 multiple regression model building

The document discusses techniques for building multiple regression models, including:
- Using quadratic and transformed terms to model nonlinear relationships
- Detecting and addressing collinearity among independent variables
- Employing stepwise regression or best-subsets approaches to select significant variables and develop the best-fitting model

Estimation of Elasticities of Substitution for CES and VES Production Functions

This paper presents estimates of elasticities of substitution based upon data obtained from a survey of large-scale firms in the wheat flour milling, rice husking, sugar refining and edible oil processing industries in Pakistan.

The chi – square test

The chi-square test is used to determine if there is a relationship between two categorical variables in two or more independent groups. It can be used when data is arranged in a contingency table with observed and expected frequencies. A sample problem demonstrates how to calculate chi-square by finding the difference between observed and expected counts, squaring these differences, dividing by the expected counts, and summing across all cells. Degrees of freedom and critical values from tables determine whether to reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis of independence. Larger tables can be partitioned into subtables to identify where differences lie. Guidelines are provided for when chi-square or Fisher's exact test should be used based on sample size and expected cell counts.

Lewis model & rastow stages

The document provides information about Naseem Shahzad and their educational qualifications. It then summarizes Lewis's two-sector model of economic development and Rostow's stages of economic growth model.
The Lewis model explains how economic growth is initiated through a structural shift as the industrial sector grows relative to subsistence agriculture. It focuses on the transfer of surplus labor from the traditional to the industrial sector. Rostow identified five stages of economic growth: traditional society, preconditions for take-off, take-off, drive to maturity, and age of high mass consumption. Developing countries are typically in the early stages of traditional society or preconditions.

Heteroscedasticity

Heteroscedasticity occurs when the variance of the error terms in a regression model are not constant, but instead vary depending on the values of the independent variables. While ordinary least squares estimators remain unbiased, their standard errors may be incorrect under heteroscedasticity. This means that confidence intervals and hypothesis tests based on the usual standard errors are unreliable and can lead to misleading conclusions.

Schultz’s transformation of traditional agriculture

Schultz proposes ways to transform traditional agriculture into modern agriculture. He defines traditional agriculture as occurring when technology and farmer preferences remain unchanged for long periods, resulting in equilibrium between input marginal productivities and costs. Characteristics include allocative efficiency and no zero-value labor. Schultz suggests supplying new higher-yielding factors through R&D, distribution, and extension. Farmers will demand new factors if they are profitable. The transformation process involves shifting supply and demand curves outwards to a new equilibrium with lower input prices, higher output, and returns. However, critics argue Schultz's concept is too general, ignores disguised unemployment, questions efficiency under his assumptions, and takes a command approach rather than considering farmer responsiveness

LEAST COST METHOD

The Least Cost Method is another method used to obtain the initial feasible solution for the transportation problem. Here, the allocation begins with the cell which has the minimum cost. The lower cost cells are chosen over the higher-cost cell with the objective to have the least cost of transportation.

Solow Growth Model

The Solow Growth Model describes a pure production economy where population grows at a constant rate, consumers save a fixed portion of income, and firms produce output according to a Cobb-Douglas production function. The model shows that the per capita capital stock reaches a steady state where the marginal product of capital equals the capital depreciation rate plus population growth rate, divided by the savings rate. The document provides an example comparing the steady state capital stock under different population growth rates and savings rates.

Input output analysis by roni bhowmik

This document provides a summary of Roni Bhowmik's presentation on input-output analysis. The presentation was given on November 17, 2013 at the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences. It discusses the key concepts of input-output analysis developed by Wassily Leontief, including how input-output tables can be used to model interrelationships between sectors in an economy and estimate multiplier effects. The presentation also provides an example of an input-output table and calculations for direct requirements, total requirements, and type I, II and III multipliers.

Rural – urban migration

Lewis theory, Rani-Fie-Lewis Theory on unlimited supplies of Labour and Todaro Model of Rural Urban Migration are famous theories on Rural_Urban Migration in Development economics

F test

The document discusses the F-test, which is used to determine if the variances of two populations are significantly different. It explains that the F-test involves calculating the F-value, which is the ratio of the larger sample variance to the smaller sample variance. This F-value is then compared to a critical value from the F-distribution table based on the degrees of freedom. If the F-value is less than the critical value, there is no significant difference between the population variances. The document provides an example calculation to demonstrate how to perform an F-test on two samples and determine if their variances are significantly different or not.

Analysis Of Variance - ANOVA

This document provides an overview of analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques. It discusses Fisher's exact test and Lady Bristol's claim to distinguish teas through taste, noting the p-value was below 0.05, rejecting the null hypothesis that her ability was due to chance. It then outlines one-way ANOVA assumptions of normal distribution and independence between groups. Computing an F-score with sums of squares is explained, as is using ANOVA in R through functions like aov and manova. Reasons for using ANOVA are given, including exploring data, handling experimental error, and reducing Type 1 errors.

Theories of Economic Development

Theories of Economic Development

Development of knowledge test and some other tests used in social science res...

Development of knowledge test and some other tests used in social science res...

Input – output model of economic development

Input – output model of economic development

Econometrics ch3

Econometrics ch3

Harris-Todaro Migration Model and it's Applicability in Bangladesh

Harris-Todaro Migration Model and it's Applicability in Bangladesh

Input output overview-for-mba-ii-sem

Input output overview-for-mba-ii-sem

Characteristics of underdeveloped economies

Characteristics of underdeveloped economies

Production function analysis

Production function analysis

Chap14 multiple regression model building

Chap14 multiple regression model building

Estimation of Elasticities of Substitution for CES and VES Production Functions

Estimation of Elasticities of Substitution for CES and VES Production Functions

The chi – square test

The chi – square test

Lewis model & rastow stages

Lewis model & rastow stages

Heteroscedasticity

Heteroscedasticity

Schultz’s transformation of traditional agriculture

Schultz’s transformation of traditional agriculture

LEAST COST METHOD

LEAST COST METHOD

Solow Growth Model

Solow Growth Model

Input output analysis by roni bhowmik

Input output analysis by roni bhowmik

Rural – urban migration

Rural – urban migration

F test

F test

Analysis Of Variance - ANOVA

Analysis Of Variance - ANOVA

Merging for ihds.info

This document discusses how to merge household and individual files from two rounds of a survey, the India Human Development Survey (IHDS). It provides steps to link households and individuals surveyed in both rounds using a linking file, and explains concepts like replacement households, split households, and attrition. The key steps are: 1) Linking the round 2 data to the linking file to get round 1 IDs, 2) Merging this new round 2 file with the round 1 file. The merged files will be a superset containing individuals surveyed in one or both rounds.

Merging files (Data Structure)

This document discusses different techniques for merging files in revision control systems. It begins by introducing the concept of merging as reconciling multiple changes made to files. It then discusses external sorting techniques that can handle large amounts of data. The main merging techniques covered are two-way merging, three-way merging, and k-way merging. Two-way merging considers differences between two files alone, while three-way merging also looks at the original parent file. Three-way merging is generally more reliable with less need for user intervention. K-way merging uses a tournament sort algorithm to merge an arbitrary number of files.

Hashing PPT

This document discusses hashing and different techniques for implementing dictionaries using hashing. It begins by explaining that dictionaries store elements using keys to allow for quick lookups. It then discusses different data structures that can be used, focusing on hash tables. The document explains that hashing allows for constant-time lookups on average by using a hash function to map keys to table positions. It discusses collision resolution techniques like chaining, linear probing, and double hashing to handle collisions when the hash function maps multiple keys to the same position.

Merging

This document discusses how to merge household and individual files from two rounds of a survey, the India Human Development Survey (IHDS). It provides steps to link households and individuals surveyed in both rounds using a linking file, and describes how the merged files will contain cases surveyed in one or both rounds as well as new households and individuals. Key points are that reinterviewed households may have new or missing members, and variables from each round should be renamed before merging to preserve them separately.

Algorithms for External Memory Sorting

Paper written based on study of algorithms for external memory sorting in the coursework of CSCI-B 503 Algorithms Design and Analysis under guidance of Prof Funda Ergun

3.9 external sorting

The document describes external sorting techniques used when data is too large to fit in main memory. It discusses two-way sorting which uses two tape drive pairs to alternately write sorted runs. It also covers multi-way merging which merges multiple runs simultaneously using a heap. The techniques can improve performance over standard internal sorting.

Hashing

Hashing involves using an algorithm to generate a numeric key from input data. It maps keys to integers in order to store and retrieve data more efficiently. A simple hashing algorithm uses the modulus operator (%) to distribute keys uniformly. Hashing is used for file management, comparing complex values, and cryptography. Collisions occur when different keys hash to the same value, requiring strategies like open hashing, closed hashing, or deleting data. Closed hashing supplements the hash table with linked lists to store colliding entries outside the standard table.

Ch17 Hashing

The document discusses hashing and hash tables. It defines hashing as a technique where the location of an element in a collection is determined by a hashing function of the element's value. Collisions can occur if multiple elements map to the same location. Common techniques for resolving collisions include chaining and open addressing. The Java Collections API provides several implementations of hash tables like HashMap and HashSet.

Sorting algorithms

The document discusses several sorting algorithms including selection sort, insertion sort, bubble sort, merge sort, and quick sort. It provides details on how each algorithm works including pseudocode implementations and analyses of their time complexities. Selection sort, insertion sort and bubble sort have a worst-case time complexity of O(n^2) while merge sort divides the list into halves and merges in O(n log n) time, making it more efficient for large lists.

Hashing Techniques in Data Structures Part2

The document discusses different approaches to handling collisions in hash tables: chaining and open addressing such as linear probing. Chaining involves storing collided keys in linked lists at each array index, while linear probing resolves collisions by probing subsequent indices in the array. The example demonstrates linear probing by inserting several keys into a hash table and showing the array indices where each key is stored.

Hashing

Hashing is a technique for mapping data to array indices to allow for fast insertion and search operations in O(1) time on average. It works by applying a hash function to a key to obtain an array index, which may cause collisions that require resolution techniques like separate chaining or open addressing. Open addressing resolves collisions by probing alternative indices using functions like linear probing, quadratic probing, or double hashing to find the next available empty slot.

Hashing Technique In Data Structures

This document discusses different searching methods like sequential, binary, and hashing. It defines searching as finding an element within a list. Sequential search searches lists sequentially until the element is found or the end is reached, with efficiency of O(n) in worst case. Binary search works on sorted arrays by eliminating half of remaining elements at each step, with efficiency of O(log n). Hashing maps keys to table positions using a hash function, allowing searches, inserts and deletes in O(1) time on average. Good hash functions uniformly distribute keys and generate different hashes for similar keys.

Merging for ihds.info

Merging for ihds.info

Merging files (Data Structure)

Merging files (Data Structure)

Hashing PPT

Hashing PPT

Merging

Merging

Algorithms for External Memory Sorting

Algorithms for External Memory Sorting

3.9 external sorting

3.9 external sorting

Hashing

Hashing

Ch17 Hashing

Ch17 Hashing

Sorting algorithms

Sorting algorithms

Hashing Techniques in Data Structures Part2

Hashing Techniques in Data Structures Part2

Hashing

Hashing

Hashing Technique In Data Structures

Hashing Technique In Data Structures

Texas Water Development Board Updates June 2024

Presented at June 6-7 Texas Alliance of Groundwater Districts Business Meeting

PAS PSDF Mop Up Workshop Presentation 2024 .pptx

This is the slide deck of what PAS learnt supporting councils awarded Planning Skills Delivery Funds

A Guide to AI for Smarter Nonprofits - Dr. Cori Faklaris, UNC Charlotte

Working with data is a challenge for many organizations. Nonprofits in particular may need to collect and analyze sensitive, incomplete, and/or biased historical data about people. In this talk, Dr. Cori Faklaris of UNC Charlotte provides an overview of current AI capabilities and weaknesses to consider when integrating current AI technologies into the data workflow. The talk is organized around three takeaways: (1) For better or sometimes worse, AI provides you with “infinite interns.” (2) Give people permission & guardrails to learn what works with these “interns” and what doesn’t. (3) Create a roadmap for adding in more AI to assist nonprofit work, along with strategies for bias mitigation.

加急办理华威大学毕业证硕士文凭证书原版一模一样

原版一模一样【微信：741003700 】【华威大学毕业证硕士文凭证书】【微信：741003700 】学位证，留信认证（真实可查，永久存档）offer、雅思、外壳等材料/诚信可靠,可直接看成品样本，帮您解决无法毕业带来的各种难题！外壳，原版制作，诚信可靠，可直接看成品样本。行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备。十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，包您满意。
本公司拥有海外各大学样板无数，能完美还原海外各大学 Bachelor Diploma degree, Master Degree Diploma
1:1完美还原海外各大学毕业材料上的工艺：水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠。文字图案浮雕、激光镭射、紫外荧光、温感、复印防伪等防伪工艺。材料咨询办理、认证咨询办理请加学历顾问Q/微741003700
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才

2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 38

Jennifer Schaus and Associates hosts a complimentary webinar series on The FAR in 2024. Join the webinars on Wednesdays and Fridays at noon, eastern.
Recordings are on YouTube and the company website.
https://www.youtube.com/@jenniferschaus/videos

Transit-Oriented Development Study Working Group Meeting

This presentation on TOD best practices and model zoning was shared with the Cuyahoga County TOD working group on June 5, 2024.

Indira P.S Vs sub Collector Kochi - The settlement register is not a holy cow...

Indira P.S Vs sub Collector Kochi - The settlement register is not a holy cow...Jamesadhikaram land matter consultancy 9447464502

Indira P.S Vs sub Collector Kochi - The settlement register is not a holy cow James Joseph AdhikarathilMonitoring Health for the SDGs - Global Health Statistics 2024 - WHO

The 2024 World Health Statistics edition reviews more than 50 health-related indicators from the Sustainable Development Goals and WHO’s Thirteenth General Programme of Work. It also highlights the findings from the Global health estimates 2021, notably the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on life expectancy and healthy life expectancy.

Milton Keynes Hospital Charity - A guide to leaving a gift in your Will

A forever thank you in your Will to Milton Keynes University Hospital can change lives for years to come.

2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 39

Jennifer Schaus and Associates hosts a complimentary webinar series on The FAR in 2024. Join the webinars on Wednesdays and Fridays at noon, eastern.
Recordings are on YouTube and the company website.
https://www.youtube.com/@jenniferschaus/videos

Donate to charity during this holiday season

For people who have money and are philanthropic, there are infinite opportunities to gift a needy person or child a Merry Christmas. Even if you are living on a shoestring budget, you will be surprised at how much you can do.
Donate Us
https://serudsindia.org/how-to-donate-to-charity-during-this-holiday-season/
#charityforchildren, #donateforchildren, #donateclothesforchildren, #donatebooksforchildren, #donatetoysforchildren, #sponsorforchildren, #sponsorclothesforchildren, #sponsorbooksforchildren, #sponsortoysforchildren, #seruds, #kurnool

About Potato, The scientific name of the plant is Solanum tuberosum (L).

The potato is a starchy root vegetable native to the Americas that is consumed as a staple food in many parts of the world. Potatoes are tubers of the plant Solanum tuberosum, a perennial in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Wild potato species can be found from the southern United States to southern Chile
Synopsis (short abstract) In December 2023, the UN General Assembly proclaimed 30 May as the International Day of Potato.

快速办理(UVM毕业证书)佛蒙特大学毕业证学位证一模一样

学校原件一模一样【微信：741003700 】《(UVM毕业证书)佛蒙特大学毕业证学位证》【微信：741003700 】学位证，留信认证（真实可查，永久存档）原件一模一样纸张工艺/offer、雅思、外壳等材料/诚信可靠,可直接看成品样本，帮您解决无法毕业带来的各种难题！外壳，原版制作，诚信可靠，可直接看成品样本。行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备。十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，包您满意。
本公司拥有海外各大学样板无数，能完美还原。
1:1完美还原海外各大学毕业材料上的工艺：水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠。文字图案浮雕、激光镭射、紫外荧光、温感、复印防伪等防伪工艺。材料咨询办理、认证咨询办理请加学历顾问Q/微741003700
【主营项目】
一.毕业证【q微741003700】成绩单、使馆认证、教育部认证、雅思托福成绩单、学生卡等！
二.真实使馆公证(即留学回国人员证明,不成功不收费)
三.真实教育部学历学位认证（教育部存档！教育部留服网站永久可查）
四.办理各国各大学文凭(一对一专业服务,可全程监控跟踪进度)
如果您处于以下几种情况：
◇在校期间，因各种原因未能顺利毕业……拿不到官方毕业证【q/微741003700】
◇面对父母的压力，希望尽快拿到；
◇不清楚认证流程以及材料该如何准备；
◇回国时间很长，忘记办理；
◇回国马上就要找工作，办给用人单位看；
◇企事业单位必须要求办理的
◇需要报考公务员、购买免税车、落转户口
◇申请留学生创业基金
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才

IEA World Energy Investment June 2024- Statistics

IEA World Energy Investment Report 2024
Publication: June 2024

United Nations World Oceans Day 2024; June 8th " Awaken new dephts".

The program will expand our perspectives and appreciation for our blue planet, build new foundations for our relationship to the ocean, and ignite a wave of action toward necessary change.

原版制作(英国Southampton毕业证书)南安普顿大学毕业证录取通知书一模一样

学校原件一模一样【微信：741003700 】《(英国Southampton毕业证书)南安普顿大学毕业证》【微信：741003700 】学位证，留信认证（真实可查，永久存档）原件一模一样纸张工艺/offer、雅思、外壳等材料/诚信可靠,可直接看成品样本，帮您解决无法毕业带来的各种难题！外壳，原版制作，诚信可靠，可直接看成品样本。行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备。十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，包您满意。
本公司拥有海外各大学样板无数，能完美还原。
1:1完美还原海外各大学毕业材料上的工艺：水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠。文字图案浮雕、激光镭射、紫外荧光、温感、复印防伪等防伪工艺。材料咨询办理、认证咨询办理请加学历顾问Q/微741003700
【主营项目】
一.毕业证【q微741003700】成绩单、使馆认证、教育部认证、雅思托福成绩单、学生卡等！
二.真实使馆公证(即留学回国人员证明,不成功不收费)
三.真实教育部学历学位认证（教育部存档！教育部留服网站永久可查）
四.办理各国各大学文凭(一对一专业服务,可全程监控跟踪进度)
如果您处于以下几种情况：
◇在校期间，因各种原因未能顺利毕业……拿不到官方毕业证【q/微741003700】
◇面对父母的压力，希望尽快拿到；
◇不清楚认证流程以及材料该如何准备；
◇回国时间很长，忘记办理；
◇回国马上就要找工作，办给用人单位看；
◇企事业单位必须要求办理的
◇需要报考公务员、购买免税车、落转户口
◇申请留学生创业基金
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才

RFP for Reno's Community Assistance Center

Property appraisals completed in May for downtown Reno’s Community Assistance and Triage Centers (CAC) reveal that repairing the buildings to bring them back into service would cost an estimated $10.1 million—nearly four times the amount previously reported by city staff.

快速办理(Bristol毕业证书)布里斯托大学毕业证Offer一模一样

学校原件一模一样【微信：741003700 】《(Bristol毕业证书)布里斯托大学毕业证》【微信：741003700 】学位证，留信认证（真实可查，永久存档）原件一模一样纸张工艺/offer、雅思、外壳等材料/诚信可靠,可直接看成品样本，帮您解决无法毕业带来的各种难题！外壳，原版制作，诚信可靠，可直接看成品样本。行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备。十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，包您满意。
本公司拥有海外各大学样板无数，能完美还原。
1:1完美还原海外各大学毕业材料上的工艺：水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠。文字图案浮雕、激光镭射、紫外荧光、温感、复印防伪等防伪工艺。材料咨询办理、认证咨询办理请加学历顾问Q/微741003700
【主营项目】
一.毕业证【q微741003700】成绩单、使馆认证、教育部认证、雅思托福成绩单、学生卡等！
二.真实使馆公证(即留学回国人员证明,不成功不收费)
三.真实教育部学历学位认证（教育部存档！教育部留服网站永久可查）
四.办理各国各大学文凭(一对一专业服务,可全程监控跟踪进度)
如果您处于以下几种情况：
◇在校期间，因各种原因未能顺利毕业……拿不到官方毕业证【q/微741003700】
◇面对父母的压力，希望尽快拿到；
◇不清楚认证流程以及材料该如何准备；
◇回国时间很长，忘记办理；
◇回国马上就要找工作，办给用人单位看；
◇企事业单位必须要求办理的
◇需要报考公务员、购买免税车、落转户口
◇申请留学生创业基金
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才

2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 40

Jennifer Schaus and Associates hosts a complimentary webinar series on The FAR in 2024. Join the webinars on Wednesdays and Fridays at noon, eastern.
Recordings are on YouTube and the company website.
https://www.youtube.com/@jenniferschaus/videos

Contributi dei parlamentari del PD - Contributi L. 3/2019

DI SEGUITO SONO PUBBLICATI, AI SENSI DELL'ART. 11 DELLA LEGGE N. 3/2019, GLI IMPORTI RICEVUTI DALL'ENTRATA IN VIGORE DELLA SUDDETTA NORMA (31/01/2019) E FINO AL MESE SOLARE ANTECEDENTE QUELLO DELLA PUBBLICAZIONE SUL PRESENTE SITO

Texas Water Development Board Updates June 2024

Texas Water Development Board Updates June 2024

PAS PSDF Mop Up Workshop Presentation 2024 .pptx

PAS PSDF Mop Up Workshop Presentation 2024 .pptx

A Guide to AI for Smarter Nonprofits - Dr. Cori Faklaris, UNC Charlotte

A Guide to AI for Smarter Nonprofits - Dr. Cori Faklaris, UNC Charlotte

加急办理华威大学毕业证硕士文凭证书原版一模一样

加急办理华威大学毕业证硕士文凭证书原版一模一样

2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 38

2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 38

Transit-Oriented Development Study Working Group Meeting

Transit-Oriented Development Study Working Group Meeting

Indira P.S Vs sub Collector Kochi - The settlement register is not a holy cow...

Indira P.S Vs sub Collector Kochi - The settlement register is not a holy cow...

Monitoring Health for the SDGs - Global Health Statistics 2024 - WHO

Monitoring Health for the SDGs - Global Health Statistics 2024 - WHO

Milton Keynes Hospital Charity - A guide to leaving a gift in your Will

Milton Keynes Hospital Charity - A guide to leaving a gift in your Will

2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 39

2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 39

Donate to charity during this holiday season

Donate to charity during this holiday season

About Potato, The scientific name of the plant is Solanum tuberosum (L).

About Potato, The scientific name of the plant is Solanum tuberosum (L).

快速办理(UVM毕业证书)佛蒙特大学毕业证学位证一模一样

快速办理(UVM毕业证书)佛蒙特大学毕业证学位证一模一样

IEA World Energy Investment June 2024- Statistics

IEA World Energy Investment June 2024- Statistics

United Nations World Oceans Day 2024; June 8th " Awaken new dephts".

United Nations World Oceans Day 2024; June 8th " Awaken new dephts".

原版制作(英国Southampton毕业证书)南安普顿大学毕业证录取通知书一模一样

原版制作(英国Southampton毕业证书)南安普顿大学毕业证录取通知书一模一样

RFP for Reno's Community Assistance Center

RFP for Reno's Community Assistance Center

快速办理(Bristol毕业证书)布里斯托大学毕业证Offer一模一样

快速办理(Bristol毕业证书)布里斯托大学毕业证Offer一模一样

2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 40

2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 40

Contributi dei parlamentari del PD - Contributi L. 3/2019

Contributi dei parlamentari del PD - Contributi L. 3/2019

- 1. INDIA HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SURVEY (IHDS) TRAINING PROGRAM MARCH 16, 2016 How to merge two rounds?
- 3. Relationship between IHDS-I and IHDS-II households IHDS-I sample (N=41,554) Replacement households in IHDS-II (N=2,134) Split households from round 1 (N=5,397) Reinterview Households (N=34,621) Attrition (N=6,911) Most important concept in merging two data files 1. Some households in round 1 with no match in round 2 and vice versa 2. Households in round 1 match with more than 1 household in round 2
- 4. Any questions? Who were chosen for reinterview? Recontact rate of 83%? What does it mean? How were replacement households chosen? What is a split household?
- 5. What is needed to merge household files? 1. Round 1 household file – N=41,554 2. Round 2 household file – N=42,152 (Why are there more cases in round 2?) 3. Linking file – N=42,152 – gives Round 1 identification codes for all Round 2 households that were reinterviewed, missing linking codes for 2,134 households that are new
- 6. Step 1 – Link round 2 data to linking file to get round 1 ID use linkhh, clear sort STATEID DISTID PSUID HHID HHSPLITID merge 1:1 STATEID DISTID PSUID HHID HHSPLITID using round2HH sort STATEID DISTID PSUID HHID2005 HHSPLITID2005, gen(_mergeR2link) save round2HH_plus, replace
- 7. Step 2-Merge this Round 2+ file with Round 1 file use round1HH rename HHID HHID2005 rename HHSPLITID HHSPLITID2005 sort STATEID DISTID PSUID HHID2005 HHSPLITID2005 merge 1:m STATEID DISTID PSUID HHID2005 HHSPLITID2005 using round2HH_plus, gen(_mergeR1R2) sort STATEID DISTID PSUID HHID HHSPLITID save mergedHHR1R2, replace
- 8. Cases in Merged file is superset Households surveyed in both rounds N=40,018 Households surveyed in round 1 only (attrition) N=6,911 Households surveyd in round 2 only (replacement) N=2,134 Total N=49,063 Keep only _mergeR1R2==3 for panel analysis (N=40,018)
- 10. Relationship between IHDS-I and IHDS-II individuals IHDS-I sample (N=215,754) New individulas, new HH (N=9,760) New Ind in R1 HH (N=43,822) Reinterview Ind (N=150,995) HH attrition (N=29,299) Ind. attrition in interview hh (N=35,464) Most important concept in merging two data files 1. Even reinterview households have new members (births, marriages) 2. Even reinterview households have some members who are no longer there (deaths, marriages, migration)
- 11. What is needed to merge individual files? 1. Round 1 household file – N=215,754 2. Round 2 household file – N=204,568 (Why are there more cases in round 2?) 3. Linking file – N=204,568 – gives Round 1 identification codes for all Round 2 households that were reinterviewed, missing linking codes for 2,134 households that are new
- 12. Step 1 – Link round 2 data to linking file to get round 1 ID use linkind, clear sort STATEID DISTID PSUID HHID HHSPLITID PERSONID merge 1:1 STATEID DISTID PSUID HHID HHSPLITID PERONID using round2IND sort STATEID DISTID PSUID HHID2005 HHSPLITID2005, gen(_mergeR2link) save round2IND_plus, replace
- 13. Step 2-Merge this Round 2+ file with Round 1 file use round1IND rename HHID HHID2005 rename HHSPLITID HHSPLITID2005 rename PERSONID PERSONID2005 sort STATEID DISTID PSUID HHID2005 HHSPLITID2005 PERSONID2005 merge 1:m STATEID DISTID PSUID HHID2005 HHSPLITID2005 PERSONID2005 using round2IND_plus, gen(_mergeR1R2) sort STATEID DISTID PSUID HHID HHSPLITID save mergedINDR1R2, replace
- 14. Cases in Merged file is superset Individuals surveyed in both rounds N=150,988 Individuals surveyed in round 1 only (attrition/death/migration) N=64,766 Individuals surveyd in round 2 only (replacement/new) N=53,580 Total N=269,334 Keep only _mergeR1R2==3 for panel analysis (N=150,988)
- 16. Same process as individual file linkage But only one thing to note, there was no ever married woman file for 2004-5 so you will be merging with the household file from 2004-5
- 17. Merging Caution
- 18. Merging overwrites variables So if you want to keep variables from round 1 and round 2 separate, before merging you may want to rename all round 1 variables Typically we use the command Rename * x* Rename xSTATEID STATEID et. For merging So xr05 will be age in 20045 and r05 will be age in 2011-12