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Membrane Potentials and RMP (Resting Membrane Potential)
Prof. Dr. Rashid Mahmood
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 2
Membrane potentials
and
Resting Membrane
Potential
Preamble:
Video of
Potassium
channel
Prof. Dr. Rashid Mahmood
Courtesy: prof. Dr. Ihtesham-Ul-Haq
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 3
Objectives
♦Goal /Aim
By the end of this session students should be able to
understand the Physiology of Membrane potentials and
Resting Membrane Potential
Student should be able to
 Define the electrochemical potential difference (Δμ)
 Use the Nernst equation to determine whether an ion is in
equilibrium across a membrane.
 Compute the equilibrium transmembrane electrical potential
difference across a membrane that is permeable to only one
ionic species.
 Estimate a cell’s resting membrane potential by the Nernst
equation & Goldman equation
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood
4
Lesson contents
• Membrane potentials
• DEFINITIONS
Excitation
Action Potential
Stimulus
 Excitable Tissues
• Types of Channels involved in Various Excitable Tissues
• Basic Physics of Membrane Potentials
• Nernst potential
• Distribution of Ions across the membrane
• Goldman Equation
• Resting Membrane Potential (RMP)
• Origin of RMP © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 5
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 6
DEFINITIONS
• Excitation:
• the process of eliciting the Action Potential (Rapid changes in the
membrane potential that spread rapidly along cell membrane of
excitable tissues)
• Stimulus:
• Anything that excites
“Any Change in the environment”
TYPES: a. Electrical
b. Mechanical &
c. Chemical
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 7
DEFINITIONS
•Excitable Tissues:
•Any tissue that can be excited.
•Any tissue that is capable of generating rapidly
changing electrochemical impulses at their
membranes (Action Potential)
• These include
• Nerve &
• Muscle
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 8
Types of Channels involved in Various Excitable
Tissues
Na+
• Voltage gated channels (fast)
K+
• Slow Ca++- Na+ Channels
• Ligand Gated Channels
• Na+ - K+ Pump
• Na+ Leak Channels
• K+ Leak Channels
Assessment Q.1
• What is meant by Action Potential?
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 9
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 10
Basic
Physics of
Membrane
Potentials
Electrical potentials exist across
the membranes of virtually all
cells of the body
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 11
Basic Physics of Membrane Potentials
• Membrane Potentials Caused by Diffusion
• "Diffusion Potential" Caused by an Ion Concentration
Difference on the Two Sides of the Membrane
• Nernst Potential:
• Relation of the Diffusion Potential to the Concentration
Difference
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 12
Nernst potential
• Definition: The diffusion potential level across a
membrane that exactly opposes the net diffusion
of a particular ion through the membrane is
called the Nernst potential for that ion
• Magnitude of Nernst potential:
• determined by
• ratio of the concentrations of that specific ion on the two sides
of the membrane.
• Directly proportional
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 13
Distribution of Ions across the membrane
• Na+ mainly extracellular---
142 mEq/L (ICF: 14 mEq/L)
• K+ mainly intracellular-----
140 mEq/L (ECF: 4 mEq/L)
• Cl- mainly extra cellular–
103 mEq/L(ICF: 4 mEq/L)
• Non-diffusible intracellular anions.
-- HPO4 –
-- SO4--
• ---Intracellular proteins
• (4 times as in the plasma)
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 14
Nernst Potential
• EMF=± 61log
Z
• EMF is electromotive force
• at normal body temperature of 98.6°F (37°C):
• Z= valency
• +ve for –ve ion
• Conc. Inside= Ci
• Conc. Outside= Co
Conc. inside
Conc. outside
Contribution of K+ Diffusion Channel
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood
15-94 mV
-94 mV
Assessment Q.2
• Calculate Nernst Potential for Potassium ions.
(Log of 35=1.544)
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 16
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 17
Calculation of Nernst Potential for K+
• EMF=± 61log
• Conc. Inside= Ci=
140 mEq/L
• Conc. Outside= Co=
4 mEq/L
• EMF= -61 log (140/4)
• EMF= -61 log (35)
• EMF= -61 (1.544)
• EMF= -94 mv
Conc. inside
Conc. outside
Log of 35=
1.544
Contribution of Na+ Diffusion Channel
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 18
+61 mV
+61 mV
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 19
Calculation of Nernst Potential for Na+
• EMF=± 61log
• Conc. Inside= Ci= 14 mEq/L
• Conc. Outside= Co= 142 mEq/L
• EMF= -61 log (14/ 142)
• EMF= -61 log (0.0986)
• EMF= -61 (-1.00616031)
• EMF= 61.366 mv
Conc. inside
Conc. outside
Log of 0.0986=
-1.006
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 20
Diffusion Potential of Na+ and K+
• POTASSIUM :94
millivolts, with negativity
inside the fiber
membrane.
• SODIUM: 61 millivolts
positive inside the fiber.
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 21
Goldman Equation
(Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation)
• EMF=-61log
• P= Permeability (depends Lipid solubility, Mol. weight, &
Thickness of membrane)
• More than one ion
• Potential in ECF outside cell membrane= zero
(CNa+i PNa+) + (CK+iPk+) + (CCl-o PCl-)
(CNa+o PNa+) + (CK+oPk+) + (CCl-i PCl-)
Assessment Q.3
• Calculate Nernst Potential for Sodium ions.
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 22
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 23
Resting Membrane Potential
(RMP)
Definition:
The resting membrane potential is the electrical potential
difference across the plasma membrane of a normal living cell in its
unstimulated state.
In most cells RMP is close to Nernst
Potential for K+
25
Channels involved in origin of RMP
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood
Potassium leak channel
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 26
27
Contribution to RMP
• Contributed by
1. K+ Diffusion Potential = -94 mv
2. Na+ Diffusion Potential = +61mv
3. Na+ K+ Pump = -4mv
Net RMP?
Large nerve fibers= -90 mv
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood
28
Origin
of RMP
Contribution by
K+ Diffusion Potential
Contribution by
Na+ K+ Pump
-4 mv
Contribution by
Na+ and K+
Diffusion Potential
(Goldman Equation)
Contribution by
Na+ Diffusion Potential
Net RMP
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood
29
Types of Disturbances across the Cell Membrane
• TWO Types:
• Non-Propagated Potentials:
• Synaptic
• Generator
• Propagated
• Action Potential
Next Lecture: Action Potential© Dr. Rashid Mahmood
Summary (Take Home Points)
• Electrical potentials exist across the membranes of virtually all cells of the body
• The diffusion potential level across a membrane that exactly opposes the net
diffusion of a particular ion through the membrane is called the Nernst potential
for that ion
• Diffusion Potential of POTASSIUM is -94 millivolts, and of SODIUM is +61
millivolts
• Goldman Equation is used to calculate diffusion potential if more than one ions
are taken into consideration
• Resting Membrane Potential (RMP) is defined as the electrical potential
difference across the plasma membrane of a normal living cell in its unstimulated
state.
• In case of large myelinated nerve fibers Contribution to RMP by K+ Diffusion
Potential is -94 mv, by Na+ Diffusion Potential is +61mv; and Na+ K+ Pump© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 30
Assessment Q.4
• In case of large myelinated nerve fibers how much is the
Contribution to RMP by
1. K+ Diffusion Potential
2.Na+ Diffusion Potential, and
3.Na+ K+ Pump
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 31
Learning Resources
• Guyton and Hall (Text book of physiology), 13th
Edition
• Ganong (Text book of physiology), 25th Edition
• Berne & Levy Principles of Physiology (Koeppen BM),
6th Edition
• Human Physiology Stuart Ira Fox, 13th Edition
• Human Physiology : from cells to system Lauralee
Sherwood,9th Edition
• Internet
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 32
Next topic
• Action potential & its propagation
• Prior knowledge required for next lecture
• Membrane potentials and Resting Membrane Potential
• Types of Channels involved in Various Excitable Tissues
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 33
Word derivatives
commonly used
in Physiology
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 34
Human
Physiology : from
cells to system
Lauralee
Sherwood, 9th
Edition
The End
Questions ?
Comments ?
drrashid62@gmail.com
rashid.mahmood@rmi.edu.pk
ppt also available at
https://www.slideshare.net
© Prof. Dr. Rashid Mahmood
Thank You
© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 36

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Membrane potentials & Resting Membrane Potential (RMP)

  • 1. Membrane Potentials and RMP (Resting Membrane Potential) Prof. Dr. Rashid Mahmood
  • 2. © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 2 Membrane potentials and Resting Membrane Potential Preamble: Video of Potassium channel Prof. Dr. Rashid Mahmood Courtesy: prof. Dr. Ihtesham-Ul-Haq
  • 3. © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 3
  • 4. Objectives ♦Goal /Aim By the end of this session students should be able to understand the Physiology of Membrane potentials and Resting Membrane Potential Student should be able to  Define the electrochemical potential difference (Δμ)  Use the Nernst equation to determine whether an ion is in equilibrium across a membrane.  Compute the equilibrium transmembrane electrical potential difference across a membrane that is permeable to only one ionic species.  Estimate a cell’s resting membrane potential by the Nernst equation & Goldman equation © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 4
  • 5. Lesson contents • Membrane potentials • DEFINITIONS Excitation Action Potential Stimulus  Excitable Tissues • Types of Channels involved in Various Excitable Tissues • Basic Physics of Membrane Potentials • Nernst potential • Distribution of Ions across the membrane • Goldman Equation • Resting Membrane Potential (RMP) • Origin of RMP © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 5
  • 6. © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 6 DEFINITIONS • Excitation: • the process of eliciting the Action Potential (Rapid changes in the membrane potential that spread rapidly along cell membrane of excitable tissues) • Stimulus: • Anything that excites “Any Change in the environment” TYPES: a. Electrical b. Mechanical & c. Chemical
  • 7. © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 7 DEFINITIONS •Excitable Tissues: •Any tissue that can be excited. •Any tissue that is capable of generating rapidly changing electrochemical impulses at their membranes (Action Potential) • These include • Nerve & • Muscle
  • 8. © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 8 Types of Channels involved in Various Excitable Tissues Na+ • Voltage gated channels (fast) K+ • Slow Ca++- Na+ Channels • Ligand Gated Channels • Na+ - K+ Pump • Na+ Leak Channels • K+ Leak Channels
  • 9. Assessment Q.1 • What is meant by Action Potential? © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 9
  • 10. © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 10 Basic Physics of Membrane Potentials Electrical potentials exist across the membranes of virtually all cells of the body
  • 11. © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 11 Basic Physics of Membrane Potentials • Membrane Potentials Caused by Diffusion • "Diffusion Potential" Caused by an Ion Concentration Difference on the Two Sides of the Membrane • Nernst Potential: • Relation of the Diffusion Potential to the Concentration Difference
  • 12. © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 12 Nernst potential • Definition: The diffusion potential level across a membrane that exactly opposes the net diffusion of a particular ion through the membrane is called the Nernst potential for that ion • Magnitude of Nernst potential: • determined by • ratio of the concentrations of that specific ion on the two sides of the membrane. • Directly proportional
  • 13. © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 13 Distribution of Ions across the membrane • Na+ mainly extracellular--- 142 mEq/L (ICF: 14 mEq/L) • K+ mainly intracellular----- 140 mEq/L (ECF: 4 mEq/L) • Cl- mainly extra cellular– 103 mEq/L(ICF: 4 mEq/L) • Non-diffusible intracellular anions. -- HPO4 – -- SO4-- • ---Intracellular proteins • (4 times as in the plasma)
  • 14. © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 14 Nernst Potential • EMF=± 61log Z • EMF is electromotive force • at normal body temperature of 98.6°F (37°C): • Z= valency • +ve for –ve ion • Conc. Inside= Ci • Conc. Outside= Co Conc. inside Conc. outside
  • 15. Contribution of K+ Diffusion Channel © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 15-94 mV -94 mV
  • 16. Assessment Q.2 • Calculate Nernst Potential for Potassium ions. (Log of 35=1.544) © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 16
  • 17. © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 17 Calculation of Nernst Potential for K+ • EMF=± 61log • Conc. Inside= Ci= 140 mEq/L • Conc. Outside= Co= 4 mEq/L • EMF= -61 log (140/4) • EMF= -61 log (35) • EMF= -61 (1.544) • EMF= -94 mv Conc. inside Conc. outside Log of 35= 1.544
  • 18. Contribution of Na+ Diffusion Channel © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 18 +61 mV +61 mV
  • 19. © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 19 Calculation of Nernst Potential for Na+ • EMF=± 61log • Conc. Inside= Ci= 14 mEq/L • Conc. Outside= Co= 142 mEq/L • EMF= -61 log (14/ 142) • EMF= -61 log (0.0986) • EMF= -61 (-1.00616031) • EMF= 61.366 mv Conc. inside Conc. outside Log of 0.0986= -1.006
  • 20. © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 20 Diffusion Potential of Na+ and K+ • POTASSIUM :94 millivolts, with negativity inside the fiber membrane. • SODIUM: 61 millivolts positive inside the fiber.
  • 21. © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 21 Goldman Equation (Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation) • EMF=-61log • P= Permeability (depends Lipid solubility, Mol. weight, & Thickness of membrane) • More than one ion • Potential in ECF outside cell membrane= zero (CNa+i PNa+) + (CK+iPk+) + (CCl-o PCl-) (CNa+o PNa+) + (CK+oPk+) + (CCl-i PCl-)
  • 22. Assessment Q.3 • Calculate Nernst Potential for Sodium ions. © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 22
  • 23. © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 23
  • 24. Resting Membrane Potential (RMP) Definition: The resting membrane potential is the electrical potential difference across the plasma membrane of a normal living cell in its unstimulated state. In most cells RMP is close to Nernst Potential for K+
  • 25. 25 Channels involved in origin of RMP © Dr. Rashid Mahmood
  • 26. Potassium leak channel © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 26
  • 27. 27 Contribution to RMP • Contributed by 1. K+ Diffusion Potential = -94 mv 2. Na+ Diffusion Potential = +61mv 3. Na+ K+ Pump = -4mv Net RMP? Large nerve fibers= -90 mv © Dr. Rashid Mahmood
  • 28. 28 Origin of RMP Contribution by K+ Diffusion Potential Contribution by Na+ K+ Pump -4 mv Contribution by Na+ and K+ Diffusion Potential (Goldman Equation) Contribution by Na+ Diffusion Potential Net RMP © Dr. Rashid Mahmood
  • 29. 29 Types of Disturbances across the Cell Membrane • TWO Types: • Non-Propagated Potentials: • Synaptic • Generator • Propagated • Action Potential Next Lecture: Action Potential© Dr. Rashid Mahmood
  • 30. Summary (Take Home Points) • Electrical potentials exist across the membranes of virtually all cells of the body • The diffusion potential level across a membrane that exactly opposes the net diffusion of a particular ion through the membrane is called the Nernst potential for that ion • Diffusion Potential of POTASSIUM is -94 millivolts, and of SODIUM is +61 millivolts • Goldman Equation is used to calculate diffusion potential if more than one ions are taken into consideration • Resting Membrane Potential (RMP) is defined as the electrical potential difference across the plasma membrane of a normal living cell in its unstimulated state. • In case of large myelinated nerve fibers Contribution to RMP by K+ Diffusion Potential is -94 mv, by Na+ Diffusion Potential is +61mv; and Na+ K+ Pump© Dr. Rashid Mahmood 30
  • 31. Assessment Q.4 • In case of large myelinated nerve fibers how much is the Contribution to RMP by 1. K+ Diffusion Potential 2.Na+ Diffusion Potential, and 3.Na+ K+ Pump © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 31
  • 32. Learning Resources • Guyton and Hall (Text book of physiology), 13th Edition • Ganong (Text book of physiology), 25th Edition • Berne & Levy Principles of Physiology (Koeppen BM), 6th Edition • Human Physiology Stuart Ira Fox, 13th Edition • Human Physiology : from cells to system Lauralee Sherwood,9th Edition • Internet © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 32
  • 33. Next topic • Action potential & its propagation • Prior knowledge required for next lecture • Membrane potentials and Resting Membrane Potential • Types of Channels involved in Various Excitable Tissues © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 33
  • 34. Word derivatives commonly used in Physiology © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 34 Human Physiology : from cells to system Lauralee Sherwood, 9th Edition
  • 35. The End Questions ? Comments ? drrashid62@gmail.com rashid.mahmood@rmi.edu.pk ppt also available at https://www.slideshare.net © Prof. Dr. Rashid Mahmood
  • 36. Thank You © Dr. Rashid Mahmood 36

Editor's Notes

  1. Any that is capable of generating rapidly changing electrochemical impulses at their membranes Tissues which are capable of responding to stimuli to highest degree than other tissues of the body in the form of electrical signals. These include Nerve & Muscle Excitable tissues have LOW Threshold of Stimulation
  2. See next slide
  3. Action Potential
  4. In case of large myelinated nerve fibers Contribution to RMP by K+ Diffusion Potential is -94 mv, by Na+ Diffusion Potential is +61mv; and Na+ K+ Pump contributes -4mv. The final calculation is done by putting the values in Goldman Equation