about nerve fibers
It is the structural and the functional unit of nervous system.
The human nervous system contains approximate 1012 neurons.
A nerve fiber is a thread like extension of a nerve cell and consists of an axon and myelin sheath (if present) in the nervous system.
In peripheral nervous system it is formed by
schwann’s cell. While in case of central nervous system it is formed by oligodendroglia.
The places ,where myelin sheath is absent are called node of ranvier(2-3µm) and these are present once about 1-3 mm distance along the myelin sheath.
IT PREVENTS LEAKAGE OF IONS BY 5000 FOLDS.
IT INCREASES VELOCITY OF CONDUCTION BY 5-50 FOLDS DUE TO
SALTATORY CONDUCTION i.e. ABOUT 100 m/s IN CASE OF
MYELINATED NERVE FIBERS WHILE IN NONMYELINATED
IT IS ABOUT 0.25 m/s.
SALTATORY CONDUCTION CONSERVES ENERGY BECAUSE ONLY NODES OF RANVIER GET DEPOLARISED.
These are α type motor nerve fibers.
The neurotransmitter released at the neuron endings is acetylcholine(Ach).
It always leads to muscles excitation . Inhibition takes place centrally due to participation of interneurons.
they innervate smooth muscles , cardiac muscles and glands.
Their main work is to maintain homeostasis with the help of autonomic nervous system.
they can lead to either excitation or inhibition of effector organs
Erlanger and Grasser studied the action potential of mixed nerve trunk by means of cathode ray oscilloscope and they obtained the compounded spike. So they divided nerve fibers into 3 groups. They observed that the main cause of difference in nerve fibers is diameter
AS Diameter increases
Velocity of conduction increases.
Magnitude of electrical response increases.
Threshold of excitation decreases.
Duration of response decreases.
Refractory period decreases.