Groups & teams


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various groups and teams in the modern types of organisations

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Groups & teams

  2. 2. Groups, Teams and Organizational Effectiveness • Group – Two or more people who interact with each other to accomplish certain goals or meet certain needs.
  3. 3. Groups, Teams and Organizational Effectiveness • A group may be defined as an organised system of two or more individuals, • who are interacting and interdependent, • who have common motives, • have a set of role relationships among its members, • and have norms that regulate the behaviour of its members.
  4. 4. Groups & gatherings of people
  5. 5. Groups, Teams and Organizational Effectiveness • Team – A group whose members work intensely with each other to achieve a specific, common goal or objective. – All teams are groups but not all groups are teams. • Teams often are difficult to form. • It takes time for members to learn how to work together.
  6. 6. Groups, Teams and Organizational Effectiveness • Two characteristics distinguish teams from groups – Intensity with which team members work together – Presence of a specific, overriding team goal or objective
  7. 7. Difference between Groups & Teams Work Groups Teams Individual accountability Individual and mutual accountability Come together to share information and perspectives Frequently come together for discussion, decision making, problem solving, and planning. Focus on individual goals Focus on team goals Produce individual work products Produce collective work products Define individual roles, responsibilities, and tasks Define individual roles, responsibilities, and tasks to help team do its work; often share and rotate them Concern with one's own outcome and challenges Concern with outcomes of everyone and challenges the team faces Purpose, goals, approach to work shaped by manager Purpose, goals, approach to work shaped by team leader with team members
  8. 8. Difference between Groups & Teams Work Groups Teams The group meetings of work groups are run efficiently The team meetings are open ended & problem solving, allowing every member to participate actively The skills of members are random and varied The skills involved are complementary in nature
  9. 9. Reasons for formation of groups • Certain tasks can be performed only through the combined efforts of a number of individuals working together • Groups may encourage collusion among members • Groups may provide companionship and a source of mutual understanding and support from colleagues
  10. 10. Reasons for formation of groups • Membership of a group provides the individual with a sense of belonging • The group provides guidelines on generally acceptable behaviour • The group provides protection for its members
  11. 11. Group formation theories • 1. Propinquity theory (George Homes): spatial or geographical proximity • 2. Balance theory (Theodore Newcomb): similar attitudes and common interest relevant to some object or a group goal • 3. Exchange theory (John W Thibaut and Harold H Kelley): reward – cost outcome evaluation • Other economic, social, psychological reasons too
  12. 12. Propinquity theory • This is the basic theory of group formation, put forward by George Homes. Propinquity means that people form groups because of spatial or geographical proximity. In an organization, employees who share their workstations are more likely to combine as a group. • However, this theory has been criticized in the wake of globalization and internet revolution that facilitate group formation without proximity or face-to-face interactions.
  13. 13. Balance theory • This theory has been proposed by Theodore Newcomb who suggests that persons are attracted to one another on the basis of similar attitudes and values related to religion, politics, lifestyle, marriage, work, authority etc. Once the relationship is formed, the participants strive to maintain a symmetrical balance between the attraction and the common attitudes and values. • If an imbalance occurs, an attempt is made to restore the balance. • If the balance cannot be restored, the relationship dissolves
  14. 14. Exchange theory • this theory has been propounded by John W Thibaut and Harold H Kelley who suggest that a minimum positive level (rewards greater than costs) of an outcome must exist for the formation of a group. Rewards from interactions gratify needs whereas costs incur anxiety, frustration, embarrassment, or fatigue.
  15. 15. Other economic, social, psychological reasons • Security • Status • Self-esteem • Satisfaction of social & psychological needs • Goal achievement • Provide knowledge & information
  16. 16. Group dynamics (GD) (Kurt Lewin) • GD studies the nature, formation, and reasons why groups are formed. It also deals with group processes or how groups affect the behaviour of individual members and also the organisation, and the ways and means of enhancing the effectiveness/ productivity of groups/ organisations.
  17. 17. Why study groups ? • Modern organizations are characterised by - • large scale production, extensive division of labour & use of specialised skills, focus on efficiency, diversified work force, knowledge workers • Where group processes predominate
  18. 18. Why study groups ? • Understanding the group processes in organisations helps us to assess how people in organisations work together and accomplish results • The study of group development processes, group cohesiveness, group conflict, group decision making, group think process, group dynamics, etc
  19. 19. Features of a group • A social unit consisting of two or more individuals who perceive themselves as belonging to the group. This characteristic of the group helps in distinguishing one group from the other and gives the group its unique identity. • A collection of individuals who have common motives and goals. Groups function either working towards a given goal, or away from certain threats facing the group.
  20. 20. Features of a group • A collection of individuals who are interdependent, i.e. what one is doing may have consequences for others. • Individuals who are trying to satisfy a need through their joint association also influence each other.
  21. 21. Features of a group • A gathering of individuals who interact with one another either directly or indirectly. • A collection of individuals whose interactions are structured by a set of roles and norms.
  22. 22. Groups’ and Teams’ Contributions to Organizational Effectiveness
  23. 23. Groups and Teams as Performance Enhancers • Advantage of synergy – People working in a group are able to produce more outputs than would have been produced if each person had worked separately
  24. 24. Groups and Teams as Performance Enhancers • Factors that contribute to synergy – Ability of group members to bounce ideas off one another – To correct one another’s mistakes – To bring a diverse knowledge base to bear on a problem – To accomplish work that is too vast for any one individual to achieve
  25. 25. Groups and Teams as Performance Enhancers • To take advantage of the potential for synergy, managers need to make sure groups are composed of members who have complementary skills and knowledge relevant to the group’s work
  26. 26. Groups and Teams and Responsiveness to Customers • Responsiveness to Customers – Difficult to achieve given the many constraints. • Safety issues, regulations, costs. – Cross-functional teams can provide the wide variety of skills needed to meet customer demands. • Teams consist of members of different departments.
  27. 27. Teams and Innovation • Innovation – The creative development of new products, new technologies, new services, or new organizational structures • Individuals rarely possess the wide variety of skills needed for successful innovation. • Team members can uncover each other’s flaws and balance each other’s strengths and weaknesses • Managers should empower the team and make it accountable for the innovation process.
  28. 28. Groups and Teams as Motivators • Members of groups, and particularly teams, are often better motivated and satisfied than individuals. – Team members are more motivated and satisfied than if they were working alone. – Team members can see the effect of their contribution to achieving team and organizational goals. – Teams provide needed social interaction and help employees cope with work-related stressors.
  29. 29. The Stages of Group Development • American organizational psychologist Bruce Tuckman (1965) •
  30. 30. Stages of Group Development • Forming – Group members get to know each other and familiarize themeselves • Storming – Group members disagree on direction and leadership. Managers need to be sure the conflict stays focused. • Norming – Close ties and consensus begin to develop between group members. Norms are laid down.
  31. 31. Stages of Group Development • Performing – The group begins to do its real work. • Adjourning – Only for task forces that are temporary. – Note that these steps take time!
  32. 32. Punctuated equilibrium model • Put forward by Gersick, C. J. G
  33. 33. Phase I According to the model, a framework of behavioral patterns and assumptions through which a group approaches its project emerges in its first meeting, and the group stays with that framework through the first half of its life. Teams may show little visible progress during this time because members may be unable to perceive a use for the information they are generating until they revise the initial framework. Mid point At their calendar midpoints, groups experience transitions- paradigmatic shifts in their approaches to their work-enabling them to capitalize on the gradual learning they have done and make significant advances. The transition is a powerful opportunity for a group to alter the course of its life midstream. But the transition must be used well, for once it is past a team is unlikely to alter its basic plans again. Phase 2 A second period of inertial movement, takes its direction from plans crystallized during the transition. At completion, when a team makes a final effort to satisfy outside expectations, it experiences the positive and negative consequences of past choices.
  34. 34. Punctuated equilibrium model
  35. 35. Types of Groups • Groups can divided into 3 types • A) Formal groups • B) Informal groups • C) Virtual groups
  36. 36. Formal Groups • Functional groups • Project/ Task groups • Task force/ ad hoc committee
  37. 37. Informal Groups • Friendship groups • Interest groups • Reference/consultation groups Functions of informal groups friendship, social belongingness, personal interest, cultural affinity, communication clarification, etc
  38. 38. Virtual Groups • Virtual Groups • Groups of people who are based in different locations, may or may not come face to face and more often make use of electronic communication channels
  39. 39. Types of groups • 1. Primary and Secondary groups • 2. Small and Large groups
  40. 40. Structure of Groups Key factors/features of group structure 1. Leadership 2. Roles 3. Norms 4. Status 5. Size 6. Composition
  41. 41. Structure of Groups 1. Leadership •Leader is appointed to guide, supervise, evaluate & motivate •Facilitate achievement of group task/ goal •Formal leaders will have authority, legitimate power •Informal leadership
  42. 42. Cntd. • Leadership can be of different types - Authoritative or democratic - Single person or collective • Leader continuously evaluates, directs and motivates member behaviour towards overall goals
  43. 43. Structure of Groups 2. Roles A set of activities expected of a person occupying a particular position A pattern of behaviour expected of members roles are impersonal Roles are related to task/ organizational goal
  44. 44. cntd. • Role identity • Role perception • Role expectations • Role conflict
  45. 45. Structure of Groups 3. Norms Norms are shared values/ accepted ways behaviour Categories of norms Performance related processes Appearance factors Allocation of resources
  46. 46. Structure of Groups 4. Status •Socially defined position or rank given to groups/ group members by others •Formal status (positions/titles) •Informal status (qualitative factors)
  47. 47. Structure of Groups 5. Size 6. Composition
  48. 48. Group Cohesiveness • The degree to which members are attracted to their group & are committed to it, and the strength of their desire to remain in the group • It can contribute to higher productivity and functional efficiency of groups
  49. 49. Factors affecting Group Cohesiveness 1. Membership – Size – Compatibility – Permanence
  50. 50. Factors affecting Group Cohesiveness 2. Work environment – Nature of task – Physical setting – Communication
  51. 51. Factors affecting Group Cohesiveness 3. Organizational factors – Management and leadership – Success – External threat
  52. 52. Factors affecting Group Cohesiveness 4. Group development and maturity – Forming – Storming – Norming – Performing
  53. 53. Advantages of higher cohesiveness 1. Better achievement of group goals 2. Better achievement of organizational goals, particularly when group and organizational goals converge 3. Better relationship among members 4. Higher job satisfaction 5. It can foster friendly competition 6. It makes change management easier
  54. 54. Potential disadvantages of group cohesiveness • Strong group loyalty can lead to inter group rivalry • It can often lead to petty, narrow mindedness • It can lead to discrimination against less vocal/ resourceful groups All of these can potentially harm the effectiveness organisations
  55. 55. Techniques of Group Decision Making • Ordinary group interaction (formal meetings) • Brainstorming • Nominal Group Technique • Electronic Meetings • Delphi Technique • Devil’s advocacy
  56. 56. Ordinary group interaction (formal meetings) • Conventional method • Chairman convenes the meeting • Explains the problem • Controls who speaks when • Obtains consensus – Less participative, – Less productive – Less effective
  57. 57. Ordinary group interaction (formal meetings) • Can be made more effective – By making meetings more participative – better time management – Proper procedures
  58. 58. Brainstorming • First proposed by Alex Osborn – an advertisement executive • Is more of an informal decision making tool • Group of 6 to 10 people • It is used to generate ideas/alternatives • Which will be followed by free-wheeling discussion
  59. 59. Brainstorming Members of the brainstorming groups are required to follow 4 main rules: 1.Avoid criticising others’ ideas 2.Share even far out ideas 3.Offer as many comments as possible 4.Build on others’ ideas to create your own
  60. 60. Brainstorming Advantages –Help generate large number of ideas –Innovative ideas can also develop –Involves everyone –Encourages communication –Focuses the mind Disadvantages –Production blocking –Evaluation apprehension
  61. 61. Nominal Group Technique • First developed by A Delbecq and A H Van de Ven • Is more formal and structured decision making process • An improvement over Brainstorming technique
  62. 62. Nominal Group Technique • STEP 1: Each group member writes down individual ideas on the decision or problem being discussed. • STEP 2: Each member presents individual ideas orally. The ideas are usually written on a board for all other members to see and refer to. • STEP 3: After all members present their ideas, the entire group discusses these ideas. Discussion is for clarity. • STEP 4: each group member rank orders the ideas. The idea with the highest ranking determines the final decision
  63. 63. Nominal Group Technique • Nominal groups outperform the brainstorming groups as far as relevance/ effectiveness in decision making • It permits a group to meet formally, but does not restrict independent thinking
  64. 64. Delphi method • First developed by RAND Corporation for the US Air Force • Decision making by experts • A group formed with people outside the organisation
  65. 65. Delphi method • STEP 1: A problem is presented to the panel of experts • STEP 2: Group members are asked to offer solutions to the problem by providing anonymous responses to a carefully designed questionnaires. • STEP 3: Responses of all group members are compiled and sent out to all group members. • STEP 4: Individual group members are asked to generate a new individual solution to the problem after they have studied the individual responses of all other group members. • STEP 5: Step 3 and 4 are repeated until a consensus problem solutions is reached.
  66. 66. Delphi method Advantages – Expertise of outsiders can be tapped – Is used both by business and government organisations Disadvantages – May take longer time – Lacks the effectiveness of face to face interaction
  67. 67. Cntd. • Electronic Meetings • Devil’s advocacy
  68. 68. Effectiveness of different techniques Type of Groups Criteria Interacting Brainstorming Nominal Electronic Number & quality of ideas low Moderate High High Social pressure High Low Moderate Low Money costs low Low Low High Speed moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Task orientation Low High High High Potential for inter- personal conflict High Low Moderate Low Commitment to solution high Not applicable Moderate Moderate Development of group cohesiveness high high moderate low
  69. 69. Advantages and disadvantage of group decision making • Advantages – More ideas – Better ideas – Diversity of views – Critical evaluation – More participation – Ownership of ideas – Greater acceptability
  70. 70. Advantages and disadvantage of group decision making • Disadvantages – Time consuming – Conformity pressures – Group think – Dominance by some/few members – Production blocking – Evaluation apprehension – Unclear responsibility for implementing decisions
  71. 71. Group think • It is an extreme form of group consensus in which the group thinks as a unit rather than as a collection of individuals. • Group think is associated with groups with extremely high degree of group cohesiveness • While it can contribute to unity within groups, in its extreme form it can reduce the effectiveness of groups. It can lead to discouraging/suppressing diversity of ideas and constructive criticism within the group. It can lead to inter-group conflicts/hatred as well.