How teams are made why teams are made


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Emotional intelligence is a person’s ability to understand their own emotions, the emotions of others, and to act appropriately using these emotions.
Emotional intelligence never stops growing. Because we are always evolving as people, EQ is something that must be nurtured.

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How teams are made why teams are made

  2. 2. Work Group • A group who interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help one another perform within each member’s area of responsibility
  3. 3. Understanding Groups – Formal groups • Work groups defined by the organization’s structure that have designated work assignments and tasks. – Appropriate behaviors are defined by and directed toward organizational goals. – Informal groups • Groups that are independently formed to meet the social needs of their members.
  4. 4. Stages of Group Development
  5. 5. Group Structure: Group Size • Small groups • Social Loafing – Complete tasks faster – The tendency for than larger groups. individuals to expend – Make more effective use less effort when working of facts. collectively than when work individually. • Large groups – Solve problems better than small groups. – Are good for getting diverse input. – Are more effective in fact-finding.
  6. 6. Group Structure (cont’d) • Norms – Acceptable standards or expectations that are shared by the group’s members. – Common types of norms • Effort and performance – Output levels, absenteeism, promptness, socializing • Dress • Loyalty
  7. 7. Group Structure (cont’d) • Conformity – Individuals conform in order to be accepted by groups. – Group pressures can have an effect on an individual member’s judgment and attitudes. – The effect of conformity is not as strong as it once was, although still a powerful force. – Groupthink • The extensive pressure of others in a strongly cohesive or threatened group that causes individual members to change their opinions to conform to that of the group.
  8. 8. Group Structure (cont’d) • Status System – The formal or informal prestige grading, position, or ranking system for members of a group that serves as recognition for individual contributions to the group and as a behavioral motivator. • Formal status systems are effective when the perceived ranking of an individual and the status symbols accorded that individual are congruent.
  9. 9. Group Structure (cont’d) • Group Cohesiveness – The degree to which members are attracted to a group and share the group’s goals. • Highly cohesive groups are more effective and productive than less cohesive groups when their goals aligned with organizational goals.
  10. 10. The Relationship Between Cohesiveness andProductivity
  11. 11. Team: • a special work group whosemembers are joined together in a united and coordinated efforttowards a goal and whose work ismutually dependant with mutual accountability.
  12. 12. Benefits of a Team • Less stress  Increase • Responsibility is shared Productivity  Increased Employee • Sharing of ideas Morale • More creative ideas  Reduced Cost • Less fear of failure  Increased Quality • Sense of accomplishment  Decreased Losses  Increased Profits • Reward and recognition
  13. 13. When to Form a Team • A specific, measurable objective that is best achieved through the coordinate efforts of different people with different skills • An organizational structure and culture that encourages and provides for the team concept • Adequate time for needed training, deliberation, and discussions • Knowledge and use of various problem-solving and decision making techniques
  14. 14. Team selection criteria • Technical abilities: training, skills, experience • Personal attributes: standards, values, initiatives, organizational identification • Interpersonal behaviors: influence, sensitivity, supporting others, trustworthiness • Communication skills: dialogue skills, presentation skills, writing skills, reading skills • Administrative skills: planning, organizing, implementing, delegating, evaluating Ref: Manager’s official guide to Teamworking, Spiegel & Torres, pp. 19-23
  15. 15. Work Team • Generates positive synergy through coordinated effort • Individual efforts result in a level of performance that is greater than the sum of those individual inputs
  16. 16. Comparing Work Groups andWork Teams Work groups Work teamsShare information Goal Collective performanceNeutral (sometimes negative) Synergy Positive Individual Accountability Individual and mutualRandom and varied Skills Complementary
  17. 17. Four Types of Teams
  18. 18. Problem-Solving Teams • Share ideas or offer suggestions on how work processes and methods can be improved
  19. 19. Problem-Solving Teams • Rarely given authority to unilaterally implement any of their suggested actions • Typically composed of 5-12 hourly employees from the same department • Example: Quality Circles
  20. 20. Self-Managed Work Teams • Collectively control pace of work • Determine work assignments • Organize breaks
  21. 21. Self-Managed Work Teams • Collectively choose inspection procedures • Select their own members and evaluate each other’s performance • Generally composed of 10-15 people
  22. 22. Cross-Functional Teams • Members from diverse areas within and between organizations • Exchange information • Develop new ideas and solve problems
  23. 23. Cross-Functional Teams • Coordinate complex projects • Development is time-consuming due to complexity and diversity • Examples: Task Force and Committees
  24. 24. Virtual Teams • Computer technology ties physically dispersed members together to achieve a common goal
  25. 25. Virtual Teams • Differentiating factors from other teams – Absence of para-verbal and non-verbal cues – Limited social context – Ability to overcome time and space constraints
  26. 26. Key Components of Teams • Context • Composition • Work Design • Process
  27. 27. Context • Presence of adequate resources • Effective leadership • Climate of trust • Performance evaluation and reward system that reflects team contributions
  28. 28. Composition • Abilities of members • Personality • Allocating roles • Diversity • Size of teams • Member flexibility • Member preferences
  29. 29. Work Design • Freedom & Autonomy • Skill variety • Task identity • Task significance
  30. 30. Process • Member commitment to a common purpose • Establishment of specific team goals • Team efficacy • Managed level of conflict • Minimizing social loafing
  31. 31. Process • Member commitment to a common purpose • Establishment of specific team goals • Team efficacy • Managed level of conflict • Minimizing social loafing
  32. 32. Stages of Team Development • Stage 1: Forming • Stage 2: Storming • Stage 3: Norming • Stage 4: Performing
  33. 33. Forming • Teams members uncertain about roles and expectations • Team members try to assess themselves and others • Reliance on strong, formal leadership • Guidelines for a successful forming stage: - Provide structure to the team by assigning and clarifying task/role - Encourage participation - Share all relevant information - Encourage open, honest communication among team members
  34. 34. Storming • Deals with power and decision making • Members challenge the differences in an attempt to gain their individuality and influence • The team members need control and sense of direction. • To help through this stage, some guidelines are: - Assist the team members to establish methods that support the communication of their different points of view. - Determine within the team how the team will make decisions - Encourage members to share their ideas about issues - Facilitate methods to resolve conflicts
  35. 35. Norming • Members produce as a cohesive unit • Functional relationships are established • Members work collaboratively to gain and share insight • To best facilitate this stage, some guidelines are: • Talk openly and honestly about team issues and the members’ concerns • Encourage feedback • Assign tasks for consensus decision making
  36. 36. Performing • Members have learned to work together • Members skills to define tasks, manage conflict, and work towards producing results. • The members are committed to the team and its goals. • Guidelines for this stage are: - Jointly set goals that are challenging and accepted to all members - Continue to look for ways to promote the team’s chances to excel - Keep an ongoing assessment of the team - Acknowledge each member’s contribution - Develop members to their fullest potential
  37. 37. PRIDE principles • Purpose: have a common purpose and goal • Respect: act with mutual respect, trust and support • Individuals: recognize and respect the difference which enhances creativity and collective imagination • Discussion: should have open, honest and frequent discussions • Excellence: team should strive for excellence
  38. 38. A Team-Effectiveness Model
  39. 39. Key Roles of Teams
  40. 40. Turning Individuals Into Team Players • The Challenges – Overcoming individual resistance to team membership. – Countering the influence of individualistic cultures. – Introducing teams in an organization that has historically valued individual achievement. • Shaping Team Players – Selecting employees who can fulfill their team roles. – Training employees to become team players. – Reworking the reward system to encourage cooperative efforts while continuing to recognize individual contributions.
  41. 41. Team Roles • Sponsor: supports, empowers team • Leader/coordinator: organizes team activities • Facilitator: helps team members function as team • Evaluator: looks at the big picture • Recorder: documents teamwork • Team worker: engages in the task completion
  42. 42. A Team that WorksKey elements • Commitment to the team • Team members are cooperative and collaborate • Honest and open communication • Effective method for decisions-making • Have a process for managing conflict
  43. 43. Commitment to the TeamCommitment from: • Team members • Manager • Organization
  44. 44. Collaboration and CooperationEffective Skills  Listening: hear, interpret  Questioning: interact, discuss and pose questions  Persuading: exchanging, defending and rethinking ideas  Respecting: respect the opinion of others. Encourage and support the ideas and efforts of others  Helping: offer assistance  Sharing: offering ideas and reporting their findings to each other  Participating: contributing to the project
  45. 45. Contemporary Issues in ManagingTeams • Team Effectiveness and Quality Management Requires That Teams: 1. Are small enough to be efficient and effective. 2. Are properly trained in required skills. 3. Allocated enough time to work on problems. 4. Are given authority to resolve problems and take corrective action. 5. Have a designated “champion” to call on when needed.
  46. 46. Team and Workforce Diversity:Advantages and Disadvantages of Diversity
  47. 47. Reinvigorating Mature Teams • Problems of Mature Teams – Becoming stagnant and complacent as cohesiveness increases. – Developing groupthink. – Confronting more difficult issues. • Reinvigorating Teams 1. Prepare members to deal with problems of maturity. 2. Offer refresher training. 3. Offer advanced training. 4. Encourage teams to treat their development as a constant learning experience.
  48. 48. Span of Control – The number of employees who can be effectively and efficiently supervised by a manager – Width of span is affected by: • Skills and abilities of the manager and the employees • Characteristics of the work being done • Similarity of tasks • Complexity of tasks • Physical proximity of subordinates • Standardization of tasks • Sophistication of the organization’s information system • Strength of the organization’s culture • Preferred style of the manager
  49. 49. Locus of Control Locus of Control The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate. Internals Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them. Externals Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.
  50. 50. Common Characteristics Functional Cross Self Self Top Operating Functional Managing Defining Executive Autonomy- Low Low-Mod Low High High mission Autonomy- Low-Mod High High High High procedure Authority- High High Low Low High internal Duration High Low-Mod High Variable High Stability High Low-Mod High Variable High Functional Low High Low Variable High diversity
  51. 51. Trust: The Foundation of Team Trust A positive expectation that another will not—through words, actions, or decisions—act opportunistically. Trust is a history- dependent process (familiarity) based on relevant but limited samples of experience (risk).
  52. 52. Dimensions of Trust • Integrity • Loyalty – honesty and – the willingness to truthfulness. protect and save face for another person. • Competence • Openness – an individual’s technical and interpersonal – reliance on the person knowledge and skills. to give you the full truth. • Consistency – an individual’s reliability, predictability, and good judgment in handling situations.
  53. 53. Relationships among Team Members Source: Reprinted by special permission of the publisher, PsychologicalAssessment Resources, Inc., from Making Vocational Choices, copyright 1973, 1985, 1992 by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. All rights reserved.
  54. 54. Advantages of Using Teams • Teams outperform individuals. • Teams provide a way to better use employee talents. • Teams are more flexible and responsive. • Teams can be quickly assembled, deployed, refocused, and disbanded.
  55. 55. Characteristics of Effective Teams • Are unified in their • Have a clear commitment to team understanding of their goals. goals. • Have good • Have competent communication systems. members with relevant technical and • Possess effective interpersonal skills. negotiating skills • Exhibit high mutual • Have appropriate trust in the character leadership and integrity of their • Have both internally and members. externally supportive environments
  56. 56. Characteristics of Effective Teams
  57. 57. A Team That Does NOT WorkReasons  Confused and conflicting goals  Unresolved roles and responsibilities  Lack of team trust  Lack of support  Lack of communication  Critical/negative attitude
  58. 58. Key Areas of Resistance Resistance Organization Management Individual• top-down structure with • fear of losing control • fear of losing many formal levels • fear of not being needed individuality and • bureaucratic practices • failure to support team individual recognition • rigid and cautious initiatives and members • lack of confidence in corporate culture • failure set clear goals abilities • one-way information • failure to understand the • fear of sharing ideas to flow issues/project/team protect own interest • department • unwilling to take risk • inability to express ideas segregation • Too passive and does no • fear of conflict hold members accountable
  59. 59. Teams  higher level of success for companies