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LTE Key Technologies
Prepared By: RF Team
AbdelRahman Fady & Mohamed Mohsen
Course Contents
• Accessing Techniques for DL & UL
• Multiple antenna techniques(MIMO)
• Scheduling, Link Adaptation and HARQ
• Traffic Cases
General RevisionOFDM(Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiple Access)
• OFDM is a type of Multi-Carrier Transmission.
• OFDM is a special case of FDM Technology.
• It is a way of FDM but with the condition of orthogonality
• OFDM is the DL Accessing Technique for LTE.
Think About the benefits?
OFDM Frequency Structure
• The idea of OFDM is to divide the BW into group of orthogonal sub-carriers
• Sub-carrier spacing is the inverse of Ts(Symbol Time)ensure orhogonality
• Considering Ts=66.7 Microsec So we have sub-carrier spacing=15 Khz
OFDM TX/RX Block Diagram
Advantages and Disadvantages
of OFDM
• Key OFDM Advantages
• •Increased Spectral Efficiency
• •Robustness to Multipath Fading
• •Scalable Bandwidth Allocation
• Disadvantages
• •High Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR)
• •Sensitive to Frequency and Timing Errors
• •Guard Band Requirement
• Inter Symbol interference and inter Carrier Interference
Inter Symbol and inter Carrier
interference
• Inter Symbol interference comes from delay
spread of Multi-Path fading
Inter Symbol and inter Carrier
interference
• Inter Carrier interference comes from Doppler shift effect
• The most important part of the symbol to be protected is
the front part is it carriers the phase change.
• The solution of this problem is to add a CP(Cyclic
Prefix).
Beyond 3GCyclic Prefix insertion
• The idea of Cyclic Prefix is to copy the symbol end in the from to protect the
phase information.
• Cyclic Prefix is removed before de-modulation.
• The disadvantage of this is reducing the symbol rate (Ts/Ts+Tcp).
SC-FDMA
• SC-FDMA is used as an Uplink Access Technique.
• SC-FDMA is a solution for the PAPR occurred in OFDM.
• OFDM transmits data in parallel among different sub-carriers while
SC-FDMA transmits data in series among different sub-carriers
grouped as single carrier.
SC-FDMA
• the nominal bandwidth of the transmitted signal will be BW =M/N ·fs.
• M the instantaneous bandwidth of the transmitted signal can be varied,
allowing for flexible bandwidth assignment.
• Furthermore, by shifting the IDFT inputs to which the DFT outputs are
mapped, the transmitted signal can be shifted in the frequency domain
SC-FDMA
Course Contents
• Accessing Techniques for DL & UL
• Multiple antenna techniques(MIMO)
• Scheduling, Link Adaptation and HARQ
• Traffic Cases
Historical Overview
Historical Overview
• Multi antenna systems is the use of multiple receive and/or transmit
antennas
• If one transmitting and many receiving, is called SIMO(single input multi
output)
• If many transmitting and one receiving, is called MISO(multi input single
output)
• If many transmitting and many receiving, is called MIMO(multi input multi
output)
• Multi antenna techniques are used to increase system performance
including capacity, coverage, QoS.
Idea of MiMO
• MiMO makes benefit of channel Multipath fading.
• The two antennas must have “low fading correlation” in order to create
different channel paths.
• MIMO Can’t perform well in a non Multi-path environment.
MIMO Main benefits
• MIMO has two main benefits either:
1) Improving SINR in case of Low SINR
2) Sharing SINR in case of High SINR
• MIMO Achieves these Main benefits through certain modes of
operation:
1) TX Diversity(Open Loop or Closed Loop)
2) RX Diversity(MRC & IRC)
3) Beam Forming
4) SU-MIMO & MU-MIMO(Spatial Multiplexing)
MIMO Channel Model
• To be able to understand the MIMO main operations
we have to understand the Channel model in case
of MIMO
• MIMO adds a new dimension besides time and
frequency called spatial domain
• We would consider a 2x2 MIMO as an example
MIMO Channel Model
• Channel Rank: is the number of independent paths that can be
created in the channel
• TX Rank: is the Min of (Nt,Nr) where Nt is the No. of TX Antennas
and Nr is the number of RX antennas
• Channel rank ≤ TX Rank>>>> Why?!
• PMI: pre-coder Matrix indicator that it is calculated at the mobile
from RS(Reference Symbols) and reported to the eNB to perform
required signal processing
Important Definitions
TX Diversity Open & Closed Loop
• Open loop means there is no knowledge about channel
conditions
• Open loop TX Diversity is done by transmitting same
code word from different antenna ports
• It is done by either STBC(Space Time Block coding) or
SFBC(Space Frequency Block Coding)
• Closed loop is when there is feedback about channel
condition, CSI(Channel State Information) is reported
• Closed loop is called “ Beam Forming”
Beam Forming
• The idea of beam forming is to direct the antenna
radiation pattern towards a certain group of users in a
certain place
• This is done by multiplying by a certain pre-coding Matrix
calculated from user feedback about the channel spatial
characteristics
• Beam Forming increases the SINR and decreases the
interference
• It is not used till now in any operator
RX Diversity
• RX Diversity is done through either MRC(Maximum
Ration Combining) or IRC(interference Rejection
Combining)
• MRC when channel is mainly impaired by noise
• IRC when channel is mainly impaired by interference
• IRC is a kind of Beam Forming ?!!
Spatial Multiplexing
Spatial Multiplexing
SU-MIMO & MU-MIMO
• SU-MIMO is used in downlink where the two created
layers are used with a single user so the gain is in the
average user Throughput.
• MU-MIMO is used in uplink as the UE can’t transmit with
two antennas simultaneously, so the two created layers
are used to serve two different users.
SU-MIMO & MU-MIMO
Course Contents
• Accessing Techniques for DL & UL
• Multiple antenna techniques(MIMO)
• Scheduling, Link Adaptation and HARQ
• Traffic Cases
Channel dependent Scheduling
• Scheduling in LTE is fast scheduling done every TTI(1ms)
• Scheduling is the most important function in the eNB
• Trade off between Fairness and Throughput while
satisfying the required QoS
• Scheduling has three main types:
1) MAX C/I
2) Round Robin
3) Proportional fair
What it is (a),(b) & (c) ?
Channel dependent Scheduling
DL Scheduling
UL Scheduling
LTE Channel Quality Indicator (CQI)
– Indicates the DL channel quality as experienced by the UE
• UE proposes eNB and optimum MCS so BLER is on target
– CQI not only considers time domain but also frequency domain. CQI
reference resource:
• Time: Defined by a single sub-frame
• Frequency: Defined by PRB corresponding to the band to which the derived
CQI value related
– ‘Meaning of CQI reporting’ (for periodic and aperiodic):
• Wideband CQI: Referred to the complete system BW
• Sub-band CQI: value per sub-band (certain # of RB) that is configured
by higher layers
Presentation / Author / Date
DL Link adaptation
• Motivation of link adaptation: Modify the signal transmitted to and by a
particular user according to the signal quality variation to improve the
system capacity and coverage reliability.
• If SINR is good then higher MCS can be used -> more bits per byte ->
more throughput.
• If SINR is bad then lower MCS should be used (more robust)
• The selection of the modulation and the channel coding rate is based:
• Downlink data channel: CQI report from UE
• Downlink common channel (PDCCH)
• Uplink: BLER measurements
Optimizing air interface efficiency
MCS/TBS Selection
• Based on CQI Status, Appropriate MCS and TBS index is selected based on
SINR value (3GPP Standard measurements)
• After MCS and ITBS selection Transport Block - code word Throughput and
PRB can be mapped and scheduled in DL
Modulation Order
2  QPSK
4  16QAM
6  64QAM
High MCS
corresponds to high
throughput
Only a subset of the complete table
(3GPP TS 36.213 specifies 110 columns)
UL Link adaptation
The eNB measures the uplink channel quality and orders the UE to
use a specific modulation and coding scheme (MCS) based on this.
Other parameters may also be taken into account, such as UE power
headroom, scheduled bandwidth, buffer content and acceptable delay.
Sounding Reference Signal (SRS)
Used by network to be able to estimate the channel quality of uplink channels for
different UE in order to be able to apply dependent UL link adaptation and scheduling
for different UEs.
Periodic CQI (PUCCH)
Aperiodic CQIs (PUSCH)
UL grant + CQI indicator
HARQ Operation
• LTE Can Recover PDU errors at two layers: RLC & MAC
• MAC introduces H-ARQ solution at MAC layer to recover
any error in the physical layer
• UE Combines all of the retransmission to increase
probability of successfully reception
• The number of simultaneous H-ARQ operations depends
on Mobile category
• If the number of HARQ Retransmission is reached the
RAB is released
QoS Handling
QoS Handling

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LTE Key Technologies

  • 1. LTE Key Technologies Prepared By: RF Team AbdelRahman Fady & Mohamed Mohsen
  • 2. Course Contents • Accessing Techniques for DL & UL • Multiple antenna techniques(MIMO) • Scheduling, Link Adaptation and HARQ • Traffic Cases
  • 3. General RevisionOFDM(Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) • OFDM is a type of Multi-Carrier Transmission. • OFDM is a special case of FDM Technology. • It is a way of FDM but with the condition of orthogonality • OFDM is the DL Accessing Technique for LTE. Think About the benefits?
  • 4. OFDM Frequency Structure • The idea of OFDM is to divide the BW into group of orthogonal sub-carriers • Sub-carrier spacing is the inverse of Ts(Symbol Time)ensure orhogonality • Considering Ts=66.7 Microsec So we have sub-carrier spacing=15 Khz
  • 6. Advantages and Disadvantages of OFDM • Key OFDM Advantages • •Increased Spectral Efficiency • •Robustness to Multipath Fading • •Scalable Bandwidth Allocation • Disadvantages • •High Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) • •Sensitive to Frequency and Timing Errors • •Guard Band Requirement • Inter Symbol interference and inter Carrier Interference
  • 7. Inter Symbol and inter Carrier interference • Inter Symbol interference comes from delay spread of Multi-Path fading
  • 8. Inter Symbol and inter Carrier interference • Inter Carrier interference comes from Doppler shift effect • The most important part of the symbol to be protected is the front part is it carriers the phase change. • The solution of this problem is to add a CP(Cyclic Prefix).
  • 9. Beyond 3GCyclic Prefix insertion • The idea of Cyclic Prefix is to copy the symbol end in the from to protect the phase information. • Cyclic Prefix is removed before de-modulation. • The disadvantage of this is reducing the symbol rate (Ts/Ts+Tcp).
  • 10. SC-FDMA • SC-FDMA is used as an Uplink Access Technique. • SC-FDMA is a solution for the PAPR occurred in OFDM. • OFDM transmits data in parallel among different sub-carriers while SC-FDMA transmits data in series among different sub-carriers grouped as single carrier.
  • 11. SC-FDMA • the nominal bandwidth of the transmitted signal will be BW =M/N ·fs. • M the instantaneous bandwidth of the transmitted signal can be varied, allowing for flexible bandwidth assignment. • Furthermore, by shifting the IDFT inputs to which the DFT outputs are mapped, the transmitted signal can be shifted in the frequency domain
  • 13. Course Contents • Accessing Techniques for DL & UL • Multiple antenna techniques(MIMO) • Scheduling, Link Adaptation and HARQ • Traffic Cases
  • 15. Historical Overview • Multi antenna systems is the use of multiple receive and/or transmit antennas • If one transmitting and many receiving, is called SIMO(single input multi output) • If many transmitting and one receiving, is called MISO(multi input single output) • If many transmitting and many receiving, is called MIMO(multi input multi output) • Multi antenna techniques are used to increase system performance including capacity, coverage, QoS.
  • 16. Idea of MiMO • MiMO makes benefit of channel Multipath fading. • The two antennas must have “low fading correlation” in order to create different channel paths. • MIMO Can’t perform well in a non Multi-path environment.
  • 17. MIMO Main benefits • MIMO has two main benefits either: 1) Improving SINR in case of Low SINR 2) Sharing SINR in case of High SINR • MIMO Achieves these Main benefits through certain modes of operation: 1) TX Diversity(Open Loop or Closed Loop) 2) RX Diversity(MRC & IRC) 3) Beam Forming 4) SU-MIMO & MU-MIMO(Spatial Multiplexing)
  • 18. MIMO Channel Model • To be able to understand the MIMO main operations we have to understand the Channel model in case of MIMO • MIMO adds a new dimension besides time and frequency called spatial domain • We would consider a 2x2 MIMO as an example
  • 20. • Channel Rank: is the number of independent paths that can be created in the channel • TX Rank: is the Min of (Nt,Nr) where Nt is the No. of TX Antennas and Nr is the number of RX antennas • Channel rank ≤ TX Rank>>>> Why?! • PMI: pre-coder Matrix indicator that it is calculated at the mobile from RS(Reference Symbols) and reported to the eNB to perform required signal processing Important Definitions
  • 21. TX Diversity Open & Closed Loop • Open loop means there is no knowledge about channel conditions • Open loop TX Diversity is done by transmitting same code word from different antenna ports • It is done by either STBC(Space Time Block coding) or SFBC(Space Frequency Block Coding) • Closed loop is when there is feedback about channel condition, CSI(Channel State Information) is reported • Closed loop is called “ Beam Forming”
  • 22. Beam Forming • The idea of beam forming is to direct the antenna radiation pattern towards a certain group of users in a certain place • This is done by multiplying by a certain pre-coding Matrix calculated from user feedback about the channel spatial characteristics • Beam Forming increases the SINR and decreases the interference • It is not used till now in any operator
  • 23. RX Diversity • RX Diversity is done through either MRC(Maximum Ration Combining) or IRC(interference Rejection Combining) • MRC when channel is mainly impaired by noise • IRC when channel is mainly impaired by interference • IRC is a kind of Beam Forming ?!!
  • 26. SU-MIMO & MU-MIMO • SU-MIMO is used in downlink where the two created layers are used with a single user so the gain is in the average user Throughput. • MU-MIMO is used in uplink as the UE can’t transmit with two antennas simultaneously, so the two created layers are used to serve two different users.
  • 28. Course Contents • Accessing Techniques for DL & UL • Multiple antenna techniques(MIMO) • Scheduling, Link Adaptation and HARQ • Traffic Cases
  • 29. Channel dependent Scheduling • Scheduling in LTE is fast scheduling done every TTI(1ms) • Scheduling is the most important function in the eNB • Trade off between Fairness and Throughput while satisfying the required QoS • Scheduling has three main types: 1) MAX C/I 2) Round Robin 3) Proportional fair
  • 30. What it is (a),(b) & (c) ? Channel dependent Scheduling
  • 33. LTE Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) – Indicates the DL channel quality as experienced by the UE • UE proposes eNB and optimum MCS so BLER is on target – CQI not only considers time domain but also frequency domain. CQI reference resource: • Time: Defined by a single sub-frame • Frequency: Defined by PRB corresponding to the band to which the derived CQI value related – ‘Meaning of CQI reporting’ (for periodic and aperiodic): • Wideband CQI: Referred to the complete system BW • Sub-band CQI: value per sub-band (certain # of RB) that is configured by higher layers
  • 34. Presentation / Author / Date DL Link adaptation • Motivation of link adaptation: Modify the signal transmitted to and by a particular user according to the signal quality variation to improve the system capacity and coverage reliability. • If SINR is good then higher MCS can be used -> more bits per byte -> more throughput. • If SINR is bad then lower MCS should be used (more robust) • The selection of the modulation and the channel coding rate is based: • Downlink data channel: CQI report from UE • Downlink common channel (PDCCH) • Uplink: BLER measurements Optimizing air interface efficiency
  • 35. MCS/TBS Selection • Based on CQI Status, Appropriate MCS and TBS index is selected based on SINR value (3GPP Standard measurements) • After MCS and ITBS selection Transport Block - code word Throughput and PRB can be mapped and scheduled in DL Modulation Order 2  QPSK 4  16QAM 6  64QAM High MCS corresponds to high throughput Only a subset of the complete table (3GPP TS 36.213 specifies 110 columns)
  • 36. UL Link adaptation The eNB measures the uplink channel quality and orders the UE to use a specific modulation and coding scheme (MCS) based on this. Other parameters may also be taken into account, such as UE power headroom, scheduled bandwidth, buffer content and acceptable delay. Sounding Reference Signal (SRS) Used by network to be able to estimate the channel quality of uplink channels for different UE in order to be able to apply dependent UL link adaptation and scheduling for different UEs. Periodic CQI (PUCCH) Aperiodic CQIs (PUSCH) UL grant + CQI indicator
  • 37. HARQ Operation • LTE Can Recover PDU errors at two layers: RLC & MAC • MAC introduces H-ARQ solution at MAC layer to recover any error in the physical layer • UE Combines all of the retransmission to increase probability of successfully reception • The number of simultaneous H-ARQ operations depends on Mobile category • If the number of HARQ Retransmission is reached the RAB is released