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Introductions and
   Conclusions
  The beginning and the end
Some basic definitions…
O Introductions and conclusions can be the most difficult
  parts of papers to write. Your introduction and conclusion
  act as bridges that transport your readers from their own
  lives into the "place" of your analysis/argument. As your
  readers examine your paper, they need a transition to help
  them leave behind the world of Defiance College, television,
  e-mail, and text messages and to help them temporarily
  enter the world of your paper. By providing an introduction
  that helps your readers make a transition between their
  own world and the issues you will be writing about, you give
  your readers the tools they need to get into your topic and
  care about what you are saying. Similarly, once you've
  hooked your reader with the introduction and offered
  evidence to prove your thesis, your conclusion can provide a
  bridge to help your readers make the transition back to
  their daily lives.
Why are they so important?
O The introduction is the first impression you make on
  your reader and you never get another first
  impression. The introduction should “hook” your
  readers and make them want to continue reading the
  assertion you are making about the topic.
O The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the
  issues you have raised in your paper, to review your
  thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your
  ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the
  subject. It is also your opportunity to make a good
  final impression and to end on a positive note.
Strategies for Effective Introductions:
 1. Start by thinking about the question (or
    questions) you are trying to answer. Your
    entire essay will be a response to this
    question, and your introduction is the first
    step toward that end.
 2. Decide how general or broad your opening
    should be. Keep in mind that even a "big
    picture" opening needs to be clearly related
    to your topic. The question you are asking
    determines how "broad" your view should be.
Strategies for Intros. (cont’d):
3.   Try writing your introduction last. You may think that
     you have to write your introduction first, but that isn't
     necessarily true, and it isn't always the most effective
     way to craft a good introduction. You may find that you
     don't know what you are going to argue at the
     beginning of the writing process, and only through the
     experience of writing your paper do you discover your
     main argument.
4.   Don't be afraid to write a tentative introduction first
     and then change it later. Some people find that they
     need to write some kind of introduction in order to get
     the writing process started. That's fine, but if you are
     one of those people, be sure to return to your initial
     introduction later and rewrite if necessary.
Strategies for Intros. (cont’d):
 5.   Open with an attention grabber. Sometimes,
      especially if the topic of your paper is somewhat
      dry or technical, opening with something catchy
      can help. Consider these options:
      O   an intriguing example
      O   a provocative quotation
      O   a puzzling scenario
      O   a vivid and perhaps unexpected anecdote
      O   a thought-provoking question
 6.   Pay special attention to your first sentence. Start
      off on the right foot with your readers by making
      sure that the first sentence actually says something
      useful and that it does so in an interesting and
      error-free way.
Ineffective Introductions
(AVOID these strategies):
O The place holder introduction. When you don't have
  much to say on a given topic, it is easy to create this kind
  of introduction. Essentially, this kind of weaker
  introduction contains several sentences that are vague
  and don't really say much. They exist just to take up the
  "introduction space" in your paper.
O The restated question introduction. Restating the
  question can sometimes be an effective strategy, but it
  can be easy to stop at JUST restating the question instead
  of offering a more specific, interesting introduction to your
  paper. The professor or teaching assistant wrote your
  questions and will be reading ten to seventy essays in
  response to them—he or she does not need to read a
  whole paragraph that simply restates the question. Try to
  do something more interesting.
Ineffective Introductions c0ntinued
(AVOID these strategies):
O The Webster's Dictionary introduction. This introduction
  begins by giving the dictionary definition of one or more of the
  words in the assigned question. Dictionary introductions are
  ineffective simply because they are so overused.
O The "dawn of man" introduction. This kind of introduction
  generally makes broad, sweeping statements about the
  relevance of this topic since the beginning of time. It is usually
  very general (similar to the place holder introduction) and fails
  to connect to the thesis.
O The book report introduction. This introduction is what you
  had to do for your elementary school book reports. It gives the
  name and author of the book you are writing about, tells what
  the book is about, and offers other basic facts about the
  book. You might resort to this sort of introduction when you
  are trying to fill space because it's a familiar, comfortable
  format. It is ineffective because it offers details that your
  reader already knows and that are irrelevant to the thesis.
Strategies for Effective Conclusions:
1.   Play the "So What" Game. If you're stuck and feel like
     your conclusion isn't saying anything new or
     interesting, ask a friend to read it with you. Whenever
     you make a statement from your conclusion, ask the
     friend to say, "So what?" or "Why should anybody
     care?" Then ponder that question and answer it
2.   Return to the theme or themes in the introduction.
     This strategy brings the reader full circle. For example,
     if you begin by describing a scenario, you can end
     with the same scenario as proof that your essay is
     helpful in creating a new understanding. You may also
     refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words
     or parallel concepts and images that you also used in
     the introduction.
Strategies for conclusions (cont’d):
 3. Synthesize, don't summarize: Include a brief
    summary of the paper's main points, but don't
    simply repeat things that were in your paper.
    Instead, show your reader how the points you
    made and the support and examples you used fit
    together.
 4. Include a provocative insight or quotation from the
    research or reading you did for your paper.
 5. Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue,
    or questions for further study. This can redirect
    your reader's thought process and help her to
    apply your info and ideas to her own life or to see
    the broader implications.
Ineffective Conclusions
(AVOID these strategies):
O The "That's My Story and I'm Sticking to It" Conclusion. This
  conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully
  short. It does not push the ideas forward. People write this
  kind of conclusion when they can't think of anything else to
  say.
O The "Sherlock Holmes" Conclusion. Sometimes writers will
  state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion. You
  might be tempted to use this strategy if you don't want to give
  everything away too early in your paper. You may think it
  would be more dramatic to keep the reader in the dark until
  the end and then "wow" him with your main idea, as in a
  Sherlock Holmes mystery. The reader, however, does not
  expect a mystery, but an analytical discussion of your topic in
  an academic style, with the main argument (thesis) stated up
  front.
Ineffective Conclusions continued.
(AVOID these strategies):
O The "America the Beautiful"/"I Am Woman"/"We
 Shall Overcome" Conclusion. This kind of
 conclusion usually draws on emotion to make its
 appeal, but while this emotion and even
 sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually
 out of character with the rest of an analytical
 paper. A more sophisticated commentary, rather
 than emotional praise, would be a more fitting
 tribute to the topic.
Ineffective Conclusions continued.
(AVOID these strategies):
O The "Grab Bag" Conclusion. This kind of
  conclusion includes extra information that the
  writer found or thought of but couldn't integrate
  into the main paper. You may find it hard to leave
  out details that you discovered after hours of
  research and thought, but adding random facts
  and bits of evidence at the end of an otherwise-
  well-organized essay can just create confusion.
Source:
O The Writing Center at the University of North
  Carolina at Chapel Hill
  http://writingcenter.unc.edu/resources/han
  douts-demos

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Introductions and conclusions

  • 1. Introductions and Conclusions The beginning and the end
  • 2. Some basic definitions… O Introductions and conclusions can be the most difficult parts of papers to write. Your introduction and conclusion act as bridges that transport your readers from their own lives into the "place" of your analysis/argument. As your readers examine your paper, they need a transition to help them leave behind the world of Defiance College, television, e-mail, and text messages and to help them temporarily enter the world of your paper. By providing an introduction that helps your readers make a transition between their own world and the issues you will be writing about, you give your readers the tools they need to get into your topic and care about what you are saying. Similarly, once you've hooked your reader with the introduction and offered evidence to prove your thesis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives.
  • 3. Why are they so important? O The introduction is the first impression you make on your reader and you never get another first impression. The introduction should “hook” your readers and make them want to continue reading the assertion you are making about the topic. O The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to review your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject. It is also your opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.
  • 4. Strategies for Effective Introductions: 1. Start by thinking about the question (or questions) you are trying to answer. Your entire essay will be a response to this question, and your introduction is the first step toward that end. 2. Decide how general or broad your opening should be. Keep in mind that even a "big picture" opening needs to be clearly related to your topic. The question you are asking determines how "broad" your view should be.
  • 5. Strategies for Intros. (cont’d): 3. Try writing your introduction last. You may think that you have to write your introduction first, but that isn't necessarily true, and it isn't always the most effective way to craft a good introduction. You may find that you don't know what you are going to argue at the beginning of the writing process, and only through the experience of writing your paper do you discover your main argument. 4. Don't be afraid to write a tentative introduction first and then change it later. Some people find that they need to write some kind of introduction in order to get the writing process started. That's fine, but if you are one of those people, be sure to return to your initial introduction later and rewrite if necessary.
  • 6. Strategies for Intros. (cont’d): 5. Open with an attention grabber. Sometimes, especially if the topic of your paper is somewhat dry or technical, opening with something catchy can help. Consider these options: O an intriguing example O a provocative quotation O a puzzling scenario O a vivid and perhaps unexpected anecdote O a thought-provoking question 6. Pay special attention to your first sentence. Start off on the right foot with your readers by making sure that the first sentence actually says something useful and that it does so in an interesting and error-free way.
  • 7. Ineffective Introductions (AVOID these strategies): O The place holder introduction. When you don't have much to say on a given topic, it is easy to create this kind of introduction. Essentially, this kind of weaker introduction contains several sentences that are vague and don't really say much. They exist just to take up the "introduction space" in your paper. O The restated question introduction. Restating the question can sometimes be an effective strategy, but it can be easy to stop at JUST restating the question instead of offering a more specific, interesting introduction to your paper. The professor or teaching assistant wrote your questions and will be reading ten to seventy essays in response to them—he or she does not need to read a whole paragraph that simply restates the question. Try to do something more interesting.
  • 8. Ineffective Introductions c0ntinued (AVOID these strategies): O The Webster's Dictionary introduction. This introduction begins by giving the dictionary definition of one or more of the words in the assigned question. Dictionary introductions are ineffective simply because they are so overused. O The "dawn of man" introduction. This kind of introduction generally makes broad, sweeping statements about the relevance of this topic since the beginning of time. It is usually very general (similar to the place holder introduction) and fails to connect to the thesis. O The book report introduction. This introduction is what you had to do for your elementary school book reports. It gives the name and author of the book you are writing about, tells what the book is about, and offers other basic facts about the book. You might resort to this sort of introduction when you are trying to fill space because it's a familiar, comfortable format. It is ineffective because it offers details that your reader already knows and that are irrelevant to the thesis.
  • 9. Strategies for Effective Conclusions: 1. Play the "So What" Game. If you're stuck and feel like your conclusion isn't saying anything new or interesting, ask a friend to read it with you. Whenever you make a statement from your conclusion, ask the friend to say, "So what?" or "Why should anybody care?" Then ponder that question and answer it 2. Return to the theme or themes in the introduction. This strategy brings the reader full circle. For example, if you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding. You may also refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words or parallel concepts and images that you also used in the introduction.
  • 10. Strategies for conclusions (cont’d): 3. Synthesize, don't summarize: Include a brief summary of the paper's main points, but don't simply repeat things that were in your paper. Instead, show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together. 4. Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for your paper. 5. Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study. This can redirect your reader's thought process and help her to apply your info and ideas to her own life or to see the broader implications.
  • 11. Ineffective Conclusions (AVOID these strategies): O The "That's My Story and I'm Sticking to It" Conclusion. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short. It does not push the ideas forward. People write this kind of conclusion when they can't think of anything else to say. O The "Sherlock Holmes" Conclusion. Sometimes writers will state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion. You might be tempted to use this strategy if you don't want to give everything away too early in your paper. You may think it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in the dark until the end and then "wow" him with your main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery. The reader, however, does not expect a mystery, but an analytical discussion of your topic in an academic style, with the main argument (thesis) stated up front.
  • 12. Ineffective Conclusions continued. (AVOID these strategies): O The "America the Beautiful"/"I Am Woman"/"We Shall Overcome" Conclusion. This kind of conclusion usually draws on emotion to make its appeal, but while this emotion and even sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually out of character with the rest of an analytical paper. A more sophisticated commentary, rather than emotional praise, would be a more fitting tribute to the topic.
  • 13. Ineffective Conclusions continued. (AVOID these strategies): O The "Grab Bag" Conclusion. This kind of conclusion includes extra information that the writer found or thought of but couldn't integrate into the main paper. You may find it hard to leave out details that you discovered after hours of research and thought, but adding random facts and bits of evidence at the end of an otherwise- well-organized essay can just create confusion.
  • 14. Source: O The Writing Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill http://writingcenter.unc.edu/resources/han douts-demos