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Chapter -One
Introduction to Financial
Management
Introduction
Finance:
 No business activity can be undertaken without finance
and hence, finance is the lifeblood of business.
 Every business requires money to make more money
regardless of its size.
 Efficient management of business is only possible with
efficient management of finance
 Finance can be divided into three main areas:
1. Personal Finance: This focuses on the financial
decisions made by individuals or families to manage
their money, budgeting, saving, investing, retirement
planning, and managing debts.
2
2. Corporate Finance:
 involves financial management within organizations and
businesses.
 It includes making investment decisions, managing
capital structure, analyzing financial performance, and
determining the optimal allocation of resources to
maximize shareholder value
3. Public Finance:
 This deals with the financial management of public
entities such as governments, municipalities, and other
public institutions.
 It encompasses budgeting, taxation, public expenditure,
and the management of public assets and liabilities
3
Introduction
Introduction
Financial Management :
Is an integral part of overall management decision-making
process
Can be defined as the art and science of managing
money
is part of the management activity which is concerned
with the planning and controlling of firms financial
resources.
Deals with the acquisition of funds and their optimum
utilization.
Financial management is concerned with three types of
decisions; namely:
1. Investment,
2. Financing, and
4
Financial management decisions:
5
1. The investment decision: decisions have to be made as to
where capital is to be invested. It generally answers the
question that:
 Is it worth acquiring another company?
 Is it worth expanding the factory?
 is it worth launching a new product?
 Is it worth to invest in stock or bond of another firms?
 In what mix should investment be made in stock/bond of
other firms?
 It is the financial manager’s role to decide on which criteria
to be used in making these kind of investment decisions.
2. The financing decision(capital structure decisions):
 The company needs finance for investment
 Finance can be raised from shareholders or from debt
 It is the job of the Financial Manager to be aware of the
Financial management decisions:
6
3. Dividend decisions : Decisions with respect to :
 Whether the firm should distribute all profits, partial profit
or no profit from current earnings
 Whether dividend should be distributed in cash, stock or
other form
Goal of Financial Management
7
 Is concerned with the goal or objective that is used to
evaluate the soundness of financial decisions
 Objectives of Financial Management may be broadly
divided into two
1. Profit maximization( net income)
2. Wealth maximization( capital gain)
Profit maximization goal
 Is based on the presumption that the most important
financial goal is to “ earn the highest possible profit
for the firm.”
 It is assumed that profit is the most important measure of
economic efficiency or the yardstick for judging the
economic performance.
 Each financial decision is evaluated on the basis of its
overall contribution to the firm’s profit.
 Limitations of profit maximization as a goal include:
o Ignores the time value of money
o Ignores changes in the risk level of the firm
o It leads to exploiting workers and consumers.
o May encourage immoral practices such as corrupt
practice, unfair trade practice, etc.
8
Wealth maximization goal
 Wealth maximization is one of the modern approaches of FM
goal.
 Wealth is the value of the firm as indicated by the share price
 Share price today is equal to the present value of all future
expected dividends from the shares.
 Value creation occurs when we maximize the share price for
the shareholders
 The strength of value maximization as the goal of financial
management is that it addresses the limitation of profit
maximization goal as it :
 Considers both time and risk of the business
 Considers general economic activity
 Considers conditions in the stock market, Interest rates
9
 Top three US Companies ranked by wealth
1. Apple
 Market cap: $3.03 trillion
2. Microsoft
 Market cap: $2.43 trillion
3. Alphabet (Google)
 Market cap: $1.62 trillion
10
Financial management assumptions, contexts
and principles
11
Financial management assumptions, contexts and
principles
12
 Financial management is studied:
A. Under the assumptions of existence Financial
Markets
B. In the context of corporate form of business
organizations and
C. Under the guidance of the basic principles that form
the financial management
A. Financial Management Assumptions- Existence of Financial
Markets
13
 Financial management assumes the existence of financial market
 Financial markets:
 are markets that channel funds (savings) to those individuals and
institutions that need more funds for spending .
 Are where debt and equity securities are traded(bought and sold)
 Participants in the financial markets include individuals,
businesses, governments, banks, brokers, insurance companies
 The corporation raises capital in the financial markets by selling
shares and bonds .
 The corporation invests the raised capital in return generating assets
or new projects.
 And finally, the cash flow from those assets/projects are reinvested
in the corporation , given back to the investors(dividend) and paid
to government in the form of taxes.
Types of financial Market
A. Based on maturity of financial instrument traded
1. Money market
 Provides short-term funds using securities having short-
term maturities, and low risk of default.
 Financial securities (instruments) traded in the money
market include Treasury bill (T-bill), commercial
papers(short term note), and negotiable Certificate of
Deposits (CDs).
2. Capital market
 Provides long-term funds for long-term investments.
 Financial securities (instruments) traded in the capital
market include, among others, stock and bonds.
B. Based on Nature of transactions( participants)
1. Primary markets
2. Secondary markets
14
Types of financial Market -Based on Nature of
transactions
15
B. In the context of corporate form of business
organizations
16
 Financial management theories have developed in the
context of corporate form (share company) of business
organizations due its to characteristics as listed below:
 Advantages
 Limited liability
 Unlimited life
 Separation of ownership
and management
 Transfer of ownership is
easy
 Easier to raise capital(
financial market)
 Disadvantages
 Separation of ownership
and management
 Double taxation (income
taxed at the corporate rate
and then dividends taxed
at personal rate)
B. In the context of corporate form of business
organizations-
Types of business organization
17
Business Organization
 The new Ethiopian Commercial Code recognizes the
following business organization(forms of business
organizations):
1. General partnership;
2. Limited partnership
3. Limited liability Partnership
4. Joint Venture,
5. Private Limited Company
6. One person private limited company
7. Share Company
Business Organization
A. General partnership: is a business organization consisting of
partners who are each jointly liable with the partnership itself
for the obligations of the business
B. Limited partnership : comprises partners with different types
of liability፡ general partners who are in full liable
for the obligations of the partnership and limited partners who
are liable for the obligations of the partnership only to the
extent of their capital contributions.
C. Limited liability Partnership: is a business organization
formed by two or more persons to render professional
service in which the liability of partners is limited to the
amount of their contributions.
D. Joint Venture: A joint venture is a business organization
established by
an agreement among two or more persons. It has no legal
Business Organization
E. Private Limited Company: a business organization whose
capital is fully paid in advance, divided into shares and whose
members are not liable for the debts of the company provided
that they have paid up their contribution.
 shares of the company shall not be open for
subscription by the public.
F. One person private limited company: is a business
organization incorporated by the unilateral declaration
of a single person
 The Company has its own legal personality separate
and distinct from that of the member
 the member shall not be personally liable for debts due
by the company in so far as he has fully made his
contribution
Business Organization
G. Share Company : A share company is a company whose capital is
fixed in advance and divided in to shares and whose liabilities are
met only by the assets of the company.
 The obligation of the shareholders shall be limited to making the
contribution they pledged to make to the company.
 All business organizations other than joint venture shall acquire
legal personality upon registration in the commercial register.
 With the exception of a share company, a business
organization may not issue transferable securities
C. Basic principles that form the financial management
22
 Are principles that form the foundations of financial
management
1. The Time Value of Money
 A dollar received today is worth more than a dollar received in
the future.
 Because we can earn interest on money received today, it is
better to receive money earlier rather than later.
2. The risk –return trade-off
 In financial decision making, we don’t take additional risk unless
we expect to be compensated with additional return
 Investors demand a high return for taking additional risks.
 The risk– return relationship will be a key concept in the valuation
of stocks and bonds and proposal of new projects for acceptance
 The more risk an investment has, the higher its expected return
will be
3. Don’t Put Your Eggs in One Basket
 Investors can achieve a more favorable trade-off
between risk and return by diversifying their investment
portfolios .
4. Efficient and competitive Capital Markets
 Competition decrease cost of capital
 The markets are quick and the prices are right.
 The values of all assets and securities at any instant in time
fully reflect all available information.
The Core Principles of Finance
6. No Arbitrage
 Arbitrage refers to a trading strategy in which an
investor simultaneously buys and sells the same
asset in different markets at different prices to earn
an instant, risk-free profit.
7. Cash –Not profits –is a king
 In measuring wealth or value , we will consider
cash flows, not accounting profits, because it is
the cash flows, not profits that are actually
received by the firm, relevant for decision making
and can be reinvested .Accounting profits on the
other hand, appear when they are earned rather
than when the money is actually in hand
The Core Principles of Finance
25
8. There is Agency Problem
 There is the separation of ownership and
management(control) in corporations.
 The owners (shareholders) cannot control what the
managers do, except indirectly through the board of directors.
 Agency Problems is a conflict of interest between the firm’s
owners(shareholders) and managers.
 In most large companies the managers are not the owners
and they might be tempted to act in ways that are not in the
best interests of the owners.
 For example, they might buy luxurious jets for their travel, or
overindulge in expense-account dinners.
 They might shy away from attractive but risky projects
because they are worried more about the safety of their jobs
The Core Principles of Finance
The Agency Problem cont…
26
 Agency problems are mitigated by good systems of corporate
governance
 List of good corporate governance arrangements that help to
ensure that the shareholders and managers are working toward
common goals.
a. Legal and Regulatory Requirements: Managers have a legal
duty to act responsibly and in the interests of investors.( SEC in
US, National bank in Ethiopia)
b. Compensation Plans ( Incentive package based on
performance)
c. The Board of Directors: when company performance starts to
slide, and managers don’t offer a credible recovery plan, boards
do act
d. Takeovers. Poorly performing companies are also more likely to
be taken over by another firm. After the takeover, the old
management team may find itself out on the street.
e. Specialist Monitoring. Finally, managers are subject to the
27
10. Taxes bias business decisions
 The cash flows we consider are the after-tax incremental
cash flows to the firm as a whole.
10. All risk is not equal
 Some risk can be diversified away, and some cannot
 The process of diversification can reduce risk.
10. Ethical Behavior Is Doing the Right Thing, and Ethical
Dilemmas Are Everywhere in Finance
 Each person has his or her own set of values, which forms
the basis for personal judgments about what is the right thing
The Core Principles of Finance
 END
29

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introduction to financial management chapter one

  • 1. Chapter -One Introduction to Financial Management
  • 2. Introduction Finance:  No business activity can be undertaken without finance and hence, finance is the lifeblood of business.  Every business requires money to make more money regardless of its size.  Efficient management of business is only possible with efficient management of finance  Finance can be divided into three main areas: 1. Personal Finance: This focuses on the financial decisions made by individuals or families to manage their money, budgeting, saving, investing, retirement planning, and managing debts. 2
  • 3. 2. Corporate Finance:  involves financial management within organizations and businesses.  It includes making investment decisions, managing capital structure, analyzing financial performance, and determining the optimal allocation of resources to maximize shareholder value 3. Public Finance:  This deals with the financial management of public entities such as governments, municipalities, and other public institutions.  It encompasses budgeting, taxation, public expenditure, and the management of public assets and liabilities 3 Introduction
  • 4. Introduction Financial Management : Is an integral part of overall management decision-making process Can be defined as the art and science of managing money is part of the management activity which is concerned with the planning and controlling of firms financial resources. Deals with the acquisition of funds and their optimum utilization. Financial management is concerned with three types of decisions; namely: 1. Investment, 2. Financing, and 4
  • 5. Financial management decisions: 5 1. The investment decision: decisions have to be made as to where capital is to be invested. It generally answers the question that:  Is it worth acquiring another company?  Is it worth expanding the factory?  is it worth launching a new product?  Is it worth to invest in stock or bond of another firms?  In what mix should investment be made in stock/bond of other firms?  It is the financial manager’s role to decide on which criteria to be used in making these kind of investment decisions. 2. The financing decision(capital structure decisions):  The company needs finance for investment  Finance can be raised from shareholders or from debt  It is the job of the Financial Manager to be aware of the
  • 6. Financial management decisions: 6 3. Dividend decisions : Decisions with respect to :  Whether the firm should distribute all profits, partial profit or no profit from current earnings  Whether dividend should be distributed in cash, stock or other form
  • 7. Goal of Financial Management 7  Is concerned with the goal or objective that is used to evaluate the soundness of financial decisions  Objectives of Financial Management may be broadly divided into two 1. Profit maximization( net income) 2. Wealth maximization( capital gain)
  • 8. Profit maximization goal  Is based on the presumption that the most important financial goal is to “ earn the highest possible profit for the firm.”  It is assumed that profit is the most important measure of economic efficiency or the yardstick for judging the economic performance.  Each financial decision is evaluated on the basis of its overall contribution to the firm’s profit.  Limitations of profit maximization as a goal include: o Ignores the time value of money o Ignores changes in the risk level of the firm o It leads to exploiting workers and consumers. o May encourage immoral practices such as corrupt practice, unfair trade practice, etc. 8
  • 9. Wealth maximization goal  Wealth maximization is one of the modern approaches of FM goal.  Wealth is the value of the firm as indicated by the share price  Share price today is equal to the present value of all future expected dividends from the shares.  Value creation occurs when we maximize the share price for the shareholders  The strength of value maximization as the goal of financial management is that it addresses the limitation of profit maximization goal as it :  Considers both time and risk of the business  Considers general economic activity  Considers conditions in the stock market, Interest rates 9
  • 10.  Top three US Companies ranked by wealth 1. Apple  Market cap: $3.03 trillion 2. Microsoft  Market cap: $2.43 trillion 3. Alphabet (Google)  Market cap: $1.62 trillion 10
  • 11. Financial management assumptions, contexts and principles 11
  • 12. Financial management assumptions, contexts and principles 12  Financial management is studied: A. Under the assumptions of existence Financial Markets B. In the context of corporate form of business organizations and C. Under the guidance of the basic principles that form the financial management
  • 13. A. Financial Management Assumptions- Existence of Financial Markets 13  Financial management assumes the existence of financial market  Financial markets:  are markets that channel funds (savings) to those individuals and institutions that need more funds for spending .  Are where debt and equity securities are traded(bought and sold)  Participants in the financial markets include individuals, businesses, governments, banks, brokers, insurance companies  The corporation raises capital in the financial markets by selling shares and bonds .  The corporation invests the raised capital in return generating assets or new projects.  And finally, the cash flow from those assets/projects are reinvested in the corporation , given back to the investors(dividend) and paid to government in the form of taxes.
  • 14. Types of financial Market A. Based on maturity of financial instrument traded 1. Money market  Provides short-term funds using securities having short- term maturities, and low risk of default.  Financial securities (instruments) traded in the money market include Treasury bill (T-bill), commercial papers(short term note), and negotiable Certificate of Deposits (CDs). 2. Capital market  Provides long-term funds for long-term investments.  Financial securities (instruments) traded in the capital market include, among others, stock and bonds. B. Based on Nature of transactions( participants) 1. Primary markets 2. Secondary markets 14
  • 15. Types of financial Market -Based on Nature of transactions 15
  • 16. B. In the context of corporate form of business organizations 16  Financial management theories have developed in the context of corporate form (share company) of business organizations due its to characteristics as listed below:  Advantages  Limited liability  Unlimited life  Separation of ownership and management  Transfer of ownership is easy  Easier to raise capital( financial market)  Disadvantages  Separation of ownership and management  Double taxation (income taxed at the corporate rate and then dividends taxed at personal rate)
  • 17. B. In the context of corporate form of business organizations- Types of business organization 17
  • 18. Business Organization  The new Ethiopian Commercial Code recognizes the following business organization(forms of business organizations): 1. General partnership; 2. Limited partnership 3. Limited liability Partnership 4. Joint Venture, 5. Private Limited Company 6. One person private limited company 7. Share Company
  • 19. Business Organization A. General partnership: is a business organization consisting of partners who are each jointly liable with the partnership itself for the obligations of the business B. Limited partnership : comprises partners with different types of liability፡ general partners who are in full liable for the obligations of the partnership and limited partners who are liable for the obligations of the partnership only to the extent of their capital contributions. C. Limited liability Partnership: is a business organization formed by two or more persons to render professional service in which the liability of partners is limited to the amount of their contributions. D. Joint Venture: A joint venture is a business organization established by an agreement among two or more persons. It has no legal
  • 20. Business Organization E. Private Limited Company: a business organization whose capital is fully paid in advance, divided into shares and whose members are not liable for the debts of the company provided that they have paid up their contribution.  shares of the company shall not be open for subscription by the public. F. One person private limited company: is a business organization incorporated by the unilateral declaration of a single person  The Company has its own legal personality separate and distinct from that of the member  the member shall not be personally liable for debts due by the company in so far as he has fully made his contribution
  • 21. Business Organization G. Share Company : A share company is a company whose capital is fixed in advance and divided in to shares and whose liabilities are met only by the assets of the company.  The obligation of the shareholders shall be limited to making the contribution they pledged to make to the company.  All business organizations other than joint venture shall acquire legal personality upon registration in the commercial register.  With the exception of a share company, a business organization may not issue transferable securities
  • 22. C. Basic principles that form the financial management 22  Are principles that form the foundations of financial management 1. The Time Value of Money  A dollar received today is worth more than a dollar received in the future.  Because we can earn interest on money received today, it is better to receive money earlier rather than later. 2. The risk –return trade-off  In financial decision making, we don’t take additional risk unless we expect to be compensated with additional return  Investors demand a high return for taking additional risks.  The risk– return relationship will be a key concept in the valuation of stocks and bonds and proposal of new projects for acceptance  The more risk an investment has, the higher its expected return will be
  • 23. 3. Don’t Put Your Eggs in One Basket  Investors can achieve a more favorable trade-off between risk and return by diversifying their investment portfolios . 4. Efficient and competitive Capital Markets  Competition decrease cost of capital  The markets are quick and the prices are right.  The values of all assets and securities at any instant in time fully reflect all available information. The Core Principles of Finance
  • 24. 6. No Arbitrage  Arbitrage refers to a trading strategy in which an investor simultaneously buys and sells the same asset in different markets at different prices to earn an instant, risk-free profit. 7. Cash –Not profits –is a king  In measuring wealth or value , we will consider cash flows, not accounting profits, because it is the cash flows, not profits that are actually received by the firm, relevant for decision making and can be reinvested .Accounting profits on the other hand, appear when they are earned rather than when the money is actually in hand The Core Principles of Finance
  • 25. 25 8. There is Agency Problem  There is the separation of ownership and management(control) in corporations.  The owners (shareholders) cannot control what the managers do, except indirectly through the board of directors.  Agency Problems is a conflict of interest between the firm’s owners(shareholders) and managers.  In most large companies the managers are not the owners and they might be tempted to act in ways that are not in the best interests of the owners.  For example, they might buy luxurious jets for their travel, or overindulge in expense-account dinners.  They might shy away from attractive but risky projects because they are worried more about the safety of their jobs The Core Principles of Finance
  • 26. The Agency Problem cont… 26  Agency problems are mitigated by good systems of corporate governance  List of good corporate governance arrangements that help to ensure that the shareholders and managers are working toward common goals. a. Legal and Regulatory Requirements: Managers have a legal duty to act responsibly and in the interests of investors.( SEC in US, National bank in Ethiopia) b. Compensation Plans ( Incentive package based on performance) c. The Board of Directors: when company performance starts to slide, and managers don’t offer a credible recovery plan, boards do act d. Takeovers. Poorly performing companies are also more likely to be taken over by another firm. After the takeover, the old management team may find itself out on the street. e. Specialist Monitoring. Finally, managers are subject to the
  • 27. 27 10. Taxes bias business decisions  The cash flows we consider are the after-tax incremental cash flows to the firm as a whole. 10. All risk is not equal  Some risk can be diversified away, and some cannot  The process of diversification can reduce risk. 10. Ethical Behavior Is Doing the Right Thing, and Ethical Dilemmas Are Everywhere in Finance  Each person has his or her own set of values, which forms the basis for personal judgments about what is the right thing The Core Principles of Finance

Editor's Notes

  1. www: This is a good place to show the students the web site that accompanies the book, including the various features that they can access for study purposes (study guide, quizzes, web links, etc.). Click on the “web surfer” icon to go directly to the site.
  2. www: This is a good place to show the students the web site that accompanies the book, including the various features that they can access for study purposes (study guide, quizzes, web links, etc.). Click on the “web surfer” icon to go directly to the site.
  3. Try and have the students discuss each of the goals above and the inherent problems of the first three goals: Maximize profit – Are we talking about long-run or short-run profits? Do we mean accounting profits or some measure of cash flow? Minimize costs – We can minimize costs today by not purchasing new equipment or delaying maintenance, but this may not be in the best interest of the firm or its owners. Maximize market share – This has been a strategy of many of the dot.com companies. They issued stock and then used it primarily for advertising to increase the number of “hits” to their web sites. Even though many of the companies have a huge market share (I.e. Amazon) they still do not have positive earnings and their owners are not happy. Maximize the current value of the company’s stock There is no short run vs. long run here. The stock price should incorporate expectations about the future of the company and consider the trade-off between short-run profits and long-run profits. The purpose of a for-profit business should be to make money for its owners. Maximizing the current stock price increases the wealth of the owners of the firm. This is analogous to maximizing owners’ equity for firms that do not have publicly traded stock. Non-profits can also follow the same principle, but their “owners” are the constituencies that they were created to help. The instructors manual provides a letter to stockholders that was written by former Coca-Cola CEO Roberto Goizueta. There is also a brief discussion of an article that appeared in Fortune magazine that discusses Coke vs. Pepsi and their different philosophies on business in the early 1990’s. Ethics Note: See the instructor’s manual for a discussion of Dow-Corning, silicone breast implants and the ethics involved with pursuing owners’ wealth at all costs.
  4. www: This is a good place to show the students the web site that accompanies the book, including the various features that they can access for study purposes (study guide, quizzes, web links, etc.). Click on the “web surfer” icon to go directly to the site.
  5. www: This is a good place to show the students the web site that accompanies the book, including the various features that they can access for study purposes (study guide, quizzes, web links, etc.). Click on the “web surfer” icon to go directly to the site.
  6. www: This is a good place to show the students the web site that accompanies the book, including the various features that they can access for study purposes (study guide, quizzes, web links, etc.). Click on the “web surfer” icon to go directly to the site.
  7. A limited liability partnership is a business organization formed by two or more persons to render professional service and services complementary thereto in which the liability of partners is limited to the amount of their contributions
  8. A limited liability partnership is a business organization formed by two or more persons to render professional service and services complementary thereto in which the liability of partners is limited to the amount of their contributions
  9. A limited liability partnership is a business organization formed by two or more persons to render professional service and services complementary thereto in which the liability of partners is limited to the amount of their contributions
  10. A limited liability partnership is a business organization formed by two or more persons to render professional service and services complementary thereto in which the liability of partners is limited to the amount of their contributions
  11. Video Note: This video focuses on how one company handled the tough decision to cut jobs and managed to successfully increase shareholder value. It features ABT Co. in Canada. A common example of an agency relationship is a real estate broker – in particular if you break it down between a buyers agent and a sellers agent. A classic conflict of interest is when the agent is paid on commission, so they may be less willing to let the buyer know that a lower price might be accepted or they may elect to only show the buyer homes that are listed at the high end of the buyers price range. Ethics Note: The instructor’s manual provides a discussion of Gillette and the apparent agency problems that existed prior to the introduction of the sensor razor. Direct agency costs – the purchase of something for management that can’t be justified from a risk-return standpoint, monitoring costs. Indirect agency costs – management’s tendency to forgo risky or expensive projects that could be justified from a risk-return standpoint.
  12. Video Note: This video focuses on how one company handled the tough decision to cut jobs and managed to successfully increase shareholder value. It features ABT Co. in Canada. A common example of an agency relationship is a real estate broker – in particular if you break it down between a buyers agent and a sellers agent. A classic conflict of interest is when the agent is paid on commission, so they may be less willing to let the buyer know that a lower price might be accepted or they may elect to only show the buyer homes that are listed at the high end of the buyers price range. Ethics Note: The instructor’s manual provides a discussion of Gillette and the apparent agency problems that existed prior to the introduction of the sensor razor. Direct agency costs – the purchase of something for management that can’t be justified from a risk-return standpoint, monitoring costs. Indirect agency costs – management’s tendency to forgo risky or expensive projects that could be justified from a risk-return standpoint.
  13. Video Note: This video focuses on how one company handled the tough decision to cut jobs and managed to successfully increase shareholder value. It features ABT Co. in Canada. A common example of an agency relationship is a real estate broker – in particular if you break it down between a buyers agent and a sellers agent. A classic conflict of interest is when the agent is paid on commission, so they may be less willing to let the buyer know that a lower price might be accepted or they may elect to only show the buyer homes that are listed at the high end of the buyers price range. Ethics Note: The instructor’s manual provides a discussion of Gillette and the apparent agency problems that existed prior to the introduction of the sensor razor. Direct agency costs – the purchase of something for management that can’t be justified from a risk-return standpoint, monitoring costs. Indirect agency costs – management’s tendency to forgo risky or expensive projects that could be justified from a risk-return standpoint.