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Warren
Reeve
Duchac
Financial
Accounting
14e
Introduction to Accounting
and Business
1
C H A P T E R
human/iStock/360/Getty
Images
Nature of Business and Accounting
• A business is an organization in which basic
resources (inputs), such as materials and labor,
are assembled and processed to provide goods
or services (outputs) to customers.
• The objective of most businesses is to earn a
profit.
• Profit is the difference between the amounts
received from customers for goods or services
and the amounts paid for the inputs used to
provide the goods or services.
©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Role of Accounting in Business
• Accounting can be defined as an information
system that provides reports to users about the
economic activities and condition of a business.
• The process by which accounting provides
information to users is as follows:
o Identify users.
o Assess users’ information needs.
o Design the accounting information system to meet
users’ needs.
o Record economic data about business activities and
events.
o Prepare accounting reports for users.
©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Managerial Accounting
• The area of accounting that provides internal
users with information is called managerial
accounting, or management accounting.
• Managerial accountants employed by a
business are employed in private accounting.
©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Financial Accounting
• The area of accounting that provides external
users with information is called financial
accounting.
• The objective of financial accounting is to
provide relevant and timely information for the
decision-making needs of users outside of the
business.
• General-purpose financial statements are one
type of financial accounting report that is
distributed to external users.
©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Role of Ethics in Accounting and Business
• The objective of accounting is to provide
relevant, timely information for user decision
making.
• Accountants must behave in an ethical manner
so that the information they provide users will be
trustworthy and, thus, useful for decision
making.
• Ethics are moral principles that guide the
conduct of individuals.
©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Opportunities for Accountants
• Accountants and their staff who provide services
on a fee basis are said to be employed in public
accounting.
• Accountants employed by a business firm,
government, or a not-for-profit organization are
said to be employed in private accounting.
• Public accountants who have met a state’s
education, experience, and examination
requirements may become Certified Public
Accountants (CPAs).
©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
• Financial accountants follow generally accepted
accounting principles (GAAP) in preparing reports.
• Within the U.S., the Financial Accounting Standards
Board (FASB) has the primary responsibility for
developing accounting principles.
• The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), an
agency of the U.S. government, has authority over the
accounting and financial disclosures for companies
whose shares of ownership (stock) are traded and sold to
the public.
• Many countries outside the U.S. use generally accepted
accounting principles adopted by the International
Accounting Standards Board (IASB).
©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Accounting Concepts
• Under the business entity concept, the
activities of a business are recorded separately
from the activities of its owners, creditors, or
other businesses.
• Under the cost concept, amounts are initially
recorded in the accounting records at their cost
or purchase price.
• The objectivity concept requires that the
amounts recorded in the accounting records be
based on objective evidence.
• The unit of measure concept requires that
economic data be recorded in dollars.
©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
The Accounting Equation
• The resources owned by a business are its
assets.
• The rights of creditors are the debts of the
business and are called liabilities.
• The rights of the owners are called owner’s
equity.
• The equation Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s
Equity is called the accounting equation.
©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Business Transactions and
the Accounting Equation
(slide 1 of 2)
• A business transaction is an economic event
or condition that directly changes an entity’s
financial condition or its results of operations.
• The liability created by a purchase on account is
called an account payable.
• Items such as supplies that will be used in the
business in the future are called prepaid
expenses, which are assets.
• A business earns money by selling goods or
services to its customers. This amount is called
revenue.
©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Business Transactions and
the Accounting Equation
(slide 2 of 2)
• Revenue from providing services is recorded as
fees earned.
• Revenue from the sale of merchandise is
recorded as sales.
• Other examples of revenue include rent, which is
recorded as rent revenue, and interest, which is
recorded as interest revenue.
• An account receivable is a claim against a
customer, which is an asset.
• Assets used in the process of earning revenue
are called expenses.
©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Financial Statements
• After transactions have been recorded and
summarized, reports are prepared for users. The
accounting reports providing this information are
called financial statements.
©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Income Statement
• The income statement reports the revenues
and expenses for a period of time, based on the
matching concept.
• The matching concept is applied by “matching”
the expenses incurred during a period with the
revenue that those expenses generated.
• The excess of the revenue over the expenses is
called net income, net profit, or earnings. If
expenses exceed revenue, the excess is a net
loss.
©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Statement of Owner’s Equity
• The statement of owner’s equity reports the
changes in the owner’s equity for a period of
time.
• It is prepared after the income statement
because the net income or net loss for the
period must be reported in this statement.
©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Balance Sheet
• A balance sheet is a list of the assets, liabilities,
and owner’s equity as of a specific date.
• The account form of a balance sheet lists the
assets on the left and the liabilities and owner’s
equity on the right. It resembles the basic format
of the accounting equation.
©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Statement of Cash Flows
(slide 1 of 2)
• A statement of cash flows is a summary of the
cash receipts and cash payments for a specific
period of time.
o It consists of three sections:
1. operating activities
2. investing activities
3. financing activities
©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Statement of Cash Flows
(slide 2 of 2)
• The cash flows from operating activities section
reports a summary of cash receipts and cash
payments from operations.
• The cash flows from investing activities section
reports the cash transactions for the acquisition
and sale of relatively permanent assets.
• The cash flows from financing activities section
reports the cash transactions related to cash
investments by the owner, borrowings, and
withdrawals by the owner.
©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Financial Analysis and Interpretation:
Ratio of Liabilities to Owner’s Equity
• The ratio of liabilities to owner’s equity is
useful in analyzing the ability of a company to
pay its creditors.
• The ratio of liabilities to owner’s equity is
computed as follows:
©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Ratio of Liabilities
to Owner’s
Equity
Total Liabilities
Total Owner’s Equity (or Total
Stockholders’ Equity)
=

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financial statment anaysis training slide

  • 1. Warren Reeve Duchac Financial Accounting 14e Introduction to Accounting and Business 1 C H A P T E R human/iStock/360/Getty Images
  • 2. Nature of Business and Accounting • A business is an organization in which basic resources (inputs), such as materials and labor, are assembled and processed to provide goods or services (outputs) to customers. • The objective of most businesses is to earn a profit. • Profit is the difference between the amounts received from customers for goods or services and the amounts paid for the inputs used to provide the goods or services. ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • 3. Role of Accounting in Business • Accounting can be defined as an information system that provides reports to users about the economic activities and condition of a business. • The process by which accounting provides information to users is as follows: o Identify users. o Assess users’ information needs. o Design the accounting information system to meet users’ needs. o Record economic data about business activities and events. o Prepare accounting reports for users. ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • 4. Managerial Accounting • The area of accounting that provides internal users with information is called managerial accounting, or management accounting. • Managerial accountants employed by a business are employed in private accounting. ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • 5. Financial Accounting • The area of accounting that provides external users with information is called financial accounting. • The objective of financial accounting is to provide relevant and timely information for the decision-making needs of users outside of the business. • General-purpose financial statements are one type of financial accounting report that is distributed to external users. ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • 6. Role of Ethics in Accounting and Business • The objective of accounting is to provide relevant, timely information for user decision making. • Accountants must behave in an ethical manner so that the information they provide users will be trustworthy and, thus, useful for decision making. • Ethics are moral principles that guide the conduct of individuals. ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • 7. Opportunities for Accountants • Accountants and their staff who provide services on a fee basis are said to be employed in public accounting. • Accountants employed by a business firm, government, or a not-for-profit organization are said to be employed in private accounting. • Public accountants who have met a state’s education, experience, and examination requirements may become Certified Public Accountants (CPAs). ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • 8. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles • Financial accountants follow generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in preparing reports. • Within the U.S., the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has the primary responsibility for developing accounting principles. • The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), an agency of the U.S. government, has authority over the accounting and financial disclosures for companies whose shares of ownership (stock) are traded and sold to the public. • Many countries outside the U.S. use generally accepted accounting principles adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • 9. Accounting Concepts • Under the business entity concept, the activities of a business are recorded separately from the activities of its owners, creditors, or other businesses. • Under the cost concept, amounts are initially recorded in the accounting records at their cost or purchase price. • The objectivity concept requires that the amounts recorded in the accounting records be based on objective evidence. • The unit of measure concept requires that economic data be recorded in dollars. ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • 10. The Accounting Equation • The resources owned by a business are its assets. • The rights of creditors are the debts of the business and are called liabilities. • The rights of the owners are called owner’s equity. • The equation Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity is called the accounting equation. ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • 11. Business Transactions and the Accounting Equation (slide 1 of 2) • A business transaction is an economic event or condition that directly changes an entity’s financial condition or its results of operations. • The liability created by a purchase on account is called an account payable. • Items such as supplies that will be used in the business in the future are called prepaid expenses, which are assets. • A business earns money by selling goods or services to its customers. This amount is called revenue. ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • 12. Business Transactions and the Accounting Equation (slide 2 of 2) • Revenue from providing services is recorded as fees earned. • Revenue from the sale of merchandise is recorded as sales. • Other examples of revenue include rent, which is recorded as rent revenue, and interest, which is recorded as interest revenue. • An account receivable is a claim against a customer, which is an asset. • Assets used in the process of earning revenue are called expenses. ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • 13. Financial Statements • After transactions have been recorded and summarized, reports are prepared for users. The accounting reports providing this information are called financial statements. ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • 14. Income Statement • The income statement reports the revenues and expenses for a period of time, based on the matching concept. • The matching concept is applied by “matching” the expenses incurred during a period with the revenue that those expenses generated. • The excess of the revenue over the expenses is called net income, net profit, or earnings. If expenses exceed revenue, the excess is a net loss. ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • 15. Statement of Owner’s Equity • The statement of owner’s equity reports the changes in the owner’s equity for a period of time. • It is prepared after the income statement because the net income or net loss for the period must be reported in this statement. ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • 16. Balance Sheet • A balance sheet is a list of the assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity as of a specific date. • The account form of a balance sheet lists the assets on the left and the liabilities and owner’s equity on the right. It resembles the basic format of the accounting equation. ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • 17. Statement of Cash Flows (slide 1 of 2) • A statement of cash flows is a summary of the cash receipts and cash payments for a specific period of time. o It consists of three sections: 1. operating activities 2. investing activities 3. financing activities ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • 18. Statement of Cash Flows (slide 2 of 2) • The cash flows from operating activities section reports a summary of cash receipts and cash payments from operations. • The cash flows from investing activities section reports the cash transactions for the acquisition and sale of relatively permanent assets. • The cash flows from financing activities section reports the cash transactions related to cash investments by the owner, borrowings, and withdrawals by the owner. ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • 19. Financial Analysis and Interpretation: Ratio of Liabilities to Owner’s Equity • The ratio of liabilities to owner’s equity is useful in analyzing the ability of a company to pay its creditors. • The ratio of liabilities to owner’s equity is computed as follows: ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ratio of Liabilities to Owner’s Equity Total Liabilities Total Owner’s Equity (or Total Stockholders’ Equity) =