SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 16
Higher Education and
Development
Concept of Development
The concept of development is
multifaceted and can be
approached from various
perspectives, including economic,
social, political, and human
development. Different scholars and
theorists have contributed to the
understanding of development over
the years. Here, is a brief overview of
the concept.
1. Economic Development
Rostow (1960) proposed a linear model of economic development with
distinct stages, from traditional society to the age of high mass
consumption.
2.Human Development
A noble laureate in economics Sen (1999) has significantly influenced the
concept of development from a human perspective. His capability
approach emphasizes the importance of enhancing people's
capabilities and freedoms.
3. Social Development
In the field of social development, Erikson (1963) theory of psychosocial
development is noteworthy. While primarily focused on individual
development, its principles can be extended to understanding social
development.
4. Sustainable Development
The concept of sustainable development gained prominence with the
Brundtland Report, titled "Our Common Future," published by the World
Commission on Environment and Development (WCED).
5. Political Development
Almond and Sidney Verba (1963) work on political development explores
the relationship between political systems and socio-economic
development.
Higher education and the process of development
Higher education is crucial for transforming a
knowledge-based economy, achieving social
goals, and building good human beings. It
contributes to nation development, enlightening
individuals with cultural values and national
interests, and serving humanity, benefiting not only
the individual but society as a whole. This
standpoint about higher education has been a
dominant school of thought regarding functions
and role of higher education as a public good, and
it was considered a basic human right in United
Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
(1948).
The primary role of HEC in Pakistan:
To work for the evaluation, improvement and
promotion of higher education, by articulating the
culture of research and development among the
higher education institutions. Moreover, HEC also
formulates rules, policies, principles and priorities for
higher education institutions in Pakistan for
promotion of socio-economic development (HEC
Ordinance, 2002).
Despite HEC regulations, private higher education
institutions in Pakistan are trading education at
various prices, compromising its quality and
transforming into profit-seeking organizations.
The primary Role of HEC in Pakistan:...
This has led to concerns about the disappearance of
higher education as a public good and the
emergence of individualism, selfishness, greed, and
superiority in society. (Ball, 2004; Tilak, 2006).
Khan (2015) highlights how education has been
transformed into a profit-driven commodity, altering
society's perception of knowledge's role in human life
and its acquisition.
Functions of Higher Education
Higher education drives a knowledge-based
economy, contributes to social goals, and builds good
human beings. It provides skilled labor, creates
knowledge, and serves society, promoting sustainable
economic development and social organization (NEP,
2009).
Traditionally education also serves to generate the
moral, ethical, and economic foundation of any
society. From this perspective, Jandhyala, (2008)
demonstrated the following functions of higher
education which were also endorsed by other
mentioned scholars.
Functions of Higher Education...
Basic and crucial objective
of higher education is to
build the builders of the
nation, by giving awareness,
providing contemporary
intellectual thought, and
serve as think tanks to
public and private sector
(NEP, 2009).
Most important function of
higher education is to create,
and disseminate new
knowledge through quality
research, as higher education
institutes are considered to be
scientific, and social labs of
knowledge creation
(Marginson, 2004).
From economy perspective,
higher education should
meet the demands of
industry by providing better
quality human resources
having professional and
technical skills.
By and large, higher education
institutes are supposed to build
moral character, by inculcating
ethical and moral values,
attitudinal traits for
socializations of individuals for
the protection and
development of societal values
01 02
03 04
Functions of Higher Education...
Another important function
of higher education is to
cope with global challenges
(Ali & Tahir, 2009), by
proving viable and
pragmatic solutions to
national and international
issues and problems.
In nutshell, according to
Jandhyala, (2008), higher
education should serve the
public interest from all
perspectives-socially,
economically, culturally, and
politically
05 06
Problems and issues of development and higher
education
The numbers of new entrants is now
more than the total number of
students in higher education prior to
independence” (Iqbal, 1981). “The
demand of higher education has
thus increased by leaps and bonds.
In spite of quality control as well as
consolidation, it will continue to
grow constantly for a long time to
come” (Adeeb, 1996).
Quantity
The philosophy of social justice is
very much akin to the principle of
equity. It is a welcome
development over the concept
of inherent inequality which was
sought to be explained by
biological differences among
individuals (Bayli, 1987).
Equity Development of society not
only depends upon quantity of
goods and services produced,
but also on their quality. “It
again leads to quality of life of
the people and the quality of
the society in genera (Hayes,
1987). It is rightly said that the
philosophical basis of quality is
the innate characteristics of a
human being to attain a higher
standard and the need of
excellence for attaining a
higher stage in the
development (Quddus, 1990).
Quality
The major challenges in higher education include:
Problems and issues of development and higher
education.....
Among the challenges of higher education is the vital role of
addressing students’ unrest.
Bayli (1987) studied that “The condition of higher education in
universities and colleges is not satisfactory in the eyes of
students. Lack of physical and educational facilities is
bringing much hindrance in the way of development.
Students with arts, humanities, and management
backgrounds often engage in political activities, indicating
that their social or academic background significantly
influences their attitudes towards social, economic, and
political issues. (Allen, 1988).
Student Unrest
Students should be educated in
democracy, its values, and
ideals to foster justice and
national integration, particularly
in developing countries striving
to establish democratic living
structures. (Rao, 2003).
Emotional Integration
Problems and issues of development and higher
education....
Social and cultural factors, which
are often ignored, are as significant
as any of the purely technical
factors in the formulation and
implementation of administration
policy. Barnet (1990) states that “The
linkages between the policy and
these factors are neither casual nor
limited to the contemporary period
so the university administration
clearly demonstrates that the
success or failure of university.
.
Administrative Reform
Many faculty members in most of
universities are just master degree
holders with little or no practical
knowledge and higher education
experiences” (Iqbal, 1981).
Faculty The faculty should be
responsible for determining the
institution's educational
policies, which should be
outlined in the governing
board's legislation, covering
fundamental matters like
subject matter, instruction
methods, research facilities,
and student admission
standards (Aeth, 1975).
Educational Policies
Rao (2003) found that “These
two functions are the essence of
the progress and development
of the higher education and
administrative endeavors.”
Quddus (1990) studied that “The
basic function of a college or
university is to preserve,
augment, criticize, and transmit
knowledge and to foster creative
capacities.These functions are
performed by a community of
scholars who must be free to
exercise independent judgment
in the planning and execution of
their educational
responsibilities” (Varghese,
1980).
Academic Freedom
M The courses and curricula are not
designed in accordance with the
standard of higher education of the
present day. Iqbal (1981) observed
that “There is no continuity of some
of the important courses: there is
also no relationship between the
related courses of common or
similar knowledge
.
Courses and
Curricula
Higher-level budgeting is
crucial for academic planning
and university goals. It ensures
financial solvency, places
responsibility where it can be
most exercised, and prevents
periodic crises. Realistic
planning and decisive action
are essential for continuous
renewal.
Budgeting and
Financing
References:
• Aeth, R. (1975). Education & development in
Third World. Hants, UK: Saxon House Lamington.
• Ali, S., & Tahir, M. S. (2009). Reforming education
in Pakistan-tracing global links. Journal of
Research and Reflections in Education, 3(1), 1-16
• Almond, G. A., & Verba, S. (1963). "The Civic
Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in
Five Nations." Princeton University Press.
• Barnet, R. (1990). The idea of higher education.
Philadelphia, USA: The Society for Research into
Higher Education.
• Erikson, E. H. (1963). "Childhood and Society."
Norton & Company.
• Jandhyala, B. T. (2008). Higher education; A
public good or a commodity for Trade?
Commitment to higher education or
commitment of higher education to trade.
Prospects - Springer, 38, 449-466.
References:
• Marginson, S. (2004). Competition and markets in higher
education: A 'glonacal' analysis. Policy Futuress in
Education, 2(2), 175-244
• NEP. (2009). National education policy, Pakistan. Retrieved
July 2, 2015,
fromhttp://moent.gov.pk/gop/index.php?q=aHR0cDovLzE
5Mi4xNjguNzAuMT
M2L21vcHR0bS9mcm1EZXRhaWxzLmFzcHg%2FaWQ9MiZhb
XA7b3B0PXB vbGljaWVz
• Quddus, N. J. (1990). Problems of education in Pakistan.
Karachi, Pakistan: Royal Book Company.
• Rao, V. K. (2003). Higher education. New Delhi, India: A. P. H.
Public Corporation.
• Rostow, W. W. (1960). "The Stages of Economic Growth: A
Non-Communist Manifesto." Cambridge
• Sen, A. (1999). "Development as Freedom." Oxford
University Press.
• Varghese, A. V. (1980). Higher education and
management. New Delhi, India: S. B. Nangia.
• World Commission on Environment and Development.
(1987). "Our Common Future." Oxford University Press.

More Related Content

Similar to Higher Education and Development.pptx

Maurits Spoelder. The Conceptualisation of Quality Education in Zambia. DRAFT...
Maurits Spoelder. The Conceptualisation of Quality Education in Zambia. DRAFT...Maurits Spoelder. The Conceptualisation of Quality Education in Zambia. DRAFT...
Maurits Spoelder. The Conceptualisation of Quality Education in Zambia. DRAFT...Maurits Spoelder
 
INTRODUCTION TO HIGHER EDUCATION unit 1 Part 2
INTRODUCTION TO HIGHER EDUCATION unit 1 Part 2INTRODUCTION TO HIGHER EDUCATION unit 1 Part 2
INTRODUCTION TO HIGHER EDUCATION unit 1 Part 2R.A Duhdra
 
Final paper.docx Curriculum Development
Final paper.docx Curriculum DevelopmentFinal paper.docx Curriculum Development
Final paper.docx Curriculum DevelopmentXimme Naranjo
 
DO EDUCATION LEVELS MAT TER ON INDONESIAN ECONOM IC GROWTH?
DO EDUCATION LEVELS MAT TER ON INDONESIAN ECONOM IC GROWTH?DO EDUCATION LEVELS MAT TER ON INDONESIAN ECONOM IC GROWTH?
DO EDUCATION LEVELS MAT TER ON INDONESIAN ECONOM IC GROWTH?UniversitasGadjahMada
 
IJ SDR 2021 Shaping the Education to Meet the Global Demands Industrial Incl...
IJ SDR 2021 Shaping the Education to Meet the Global Demands  Industrial Incl...IJ SDR 2021 Shaping the Education to Meet the Global Demands  Industrial Incl...
IJ SDR 2021 Shaping the Education to Meet the Global Demands Industrial Incl...CINEC Campus
 
Epistemic groundings for the role of literacy in
Epistemic groundings for the role of literacy inEpistemic groundings for the role of literacy in
Epistemic groundings for the role of literacy inguestf1fb995e
 
Unit 1, HIGHER EDUCATION CODE 8625
Unit 1, HIGHER EDUCATION CODE 8625Unit 1, HIGHER EDUCATION CODE 8625
Unit 1, HIGHER EDUCATION CODE 8625Zahid Mehmood
 
Uni 1 introduction to higher education
Uni 1 introduction to higher educationUni 1 introduction to higher education
Uni 1 introduction to higher educationAsima shahzadi
 
Learning How to Learn: Information Literacy for Lifelong Meaning
Learning How to Learn: Information Literacy for Lifelong MeaningLearning How to Learn: Information Literacy for Lifelong Meaning
Learning How to Learn: Information Literacy for Lifelong MeaningEmpatic Project
 
Ideologies 2008 09
Ideologies 2008 09Ideologies 2008 09
Ideologies 2008 09gjparton
 
239675418 assignment
239675418 assignment239675418 assignment
239675418 assignmentcarmiabaiju
 
Adult education organizations
Adult education organizationsAdult education organizations
Adult education organizationsjlhindman
 
Foundations of Education 831 - Unit 4 Socio-Economic Foundations of Education...
Foundations of Education 831 - Unit 4 Socio-Economic Foundations of Education...Foundations of Education 831 - Unit 4 Socio-Economic Foundations of Education...
Foundations of Education 831 - Unit 4 Socio-Economic Foundations of Education...HafeezKhan218430
 
INTRODUCTION TO HIGHER EDUCATION 8625 unit 1 Part-1
INTRODUCTION TO HIGHER EDUCATION 8625 unit 1  Part-1INTRODUCTION TO HIGHER EDUCATION 8625 unit 1  Part-1
INTRODUCTION TO HIGHER EDUCATION 8625 unit 1 Part-1R.A Duhdra
 
Comparative educational system
Comparative educational systemComparative educational system
Comparative educational systemJan Ine
 
Role-of-social-work-education-in-teaching-a-case-study-of-karachi.pdf
Role-of-social-work-education-in-teaching-a-case-study-of-karachi.pdfRole-of-social-work-education-in-teaching-a-case-study-of-karachi.pdf
Role-of-social-work-education-in-teaching-a-case-study-of-karachi.pdfAqeelMirza11
 
Free Education Policy and its Emerging Challenges in SL.pdf
Free Education Policy and its Emerging Challenges in SL.pdfFree Education Policy and its Emerging Challenges in SL.pdf
Free Education Policy and its Emerging Challenges in SL.pdfSashikaPrabath1
 

Similar to Higher Education and Development.pptx (20)

Maurits Spoelder. The Conceptualisation of Quality Education in Zambia. DRAFT...
Maurits Spoelder. The Conceptualisation of Quality Education in Zambia. DRAFT...Maurits Spoelder. The Conceptualisation of Quality Education in Zambia. DRAFT...
Maurits Spoelder. The Conceptualisation of Quality Education in Zambia. DRAFT...
 
INTRODUCTION TO HIGHER EDUCATION unit 1 Part 2
INTRODUCTION TO HIGHER EDUCATION unit 1 Part 2INTRODUCTION TO HIGHER EDUCATION unit 1 Part 2
INTRODUCTION TO HIGHER EDUCATION unit 1 Part 2
 
Final paper.docx Curriculum Development
Final paper.docx Curriculum DevelopmentFinal paper.docx Curriculum Development
Final paper.docx Curriculum Development
 
DO EDUCATION LEVELS MAT TER ON INDONESIAN ECONOM IC GROWTH?
DO EDUCATION LEVELS MAT TER ON INDONESIAN ECONOM IC GROWTH?DO EDUCATION LEVELS MAT TER ON INDONESIAN ECONOM IC GROWTH?
DO EDUCATION LEVELS MAT TER ON INDONESIAN ECONOM IC GROWTH?
 
IJ SDR 2021 Shaping the Education to Meet the Global Demands Industrial Incl...
IJ SDR 2021 Shaping the Education to Meet the Global Demands  Industrial Incl...IJ SDR 2021 Shaping the Education to Meet the Global Demands  Industrial Incl...
IJ SDR 2021 Shaping the Education to Meet the Global Demands Industrial Incl...
 
Epistemic groundings for the role of literacy in
Epistemic groundings for the role of literacy inEpistemic groundings for the role of literacy in
Epistemic groundings for the role of literacy in
 
Education System of Pakistan.pdf
Education System of Pakistan.pdfEducation System of Pakistan.pdf
Education System of Pakistan.pdf
 
Unit 1, HIGHER EDUCATION CODE 8625
Unit 1, HIGHER EDUCATION CODE 8625Unit 1, HIGHER EDUCATION CODE 8625
Unit 1, HIGHER EDUCATION CODE 8625
 
Uni 1 introduction to higher education
Uni 1 introduction to higher educationUni 1 introduction to higher education
Uni 1 introduction to higher education
 
Learning How to Learn: Information Literacy for Lifelong Meaning
Learning How to Learn: Information Literacy for Lifelong MeaningLearning How to Learn: Information Literacy for Lifelong Meaning
Learning How to Learn: Information Literacy for Lifelong Meaning
 
Ideologies 2008 09
Ideologies 2008 09Ideologies 2008 09
Ideologies 2008 09
 
239675418 assignment
239675418 assignment239675418 assignment
239675418 assignment
 
Adult education organizations
Adult education organizationsAdult education organizations
Adult education organizations
 
Foundations of Education 831 - Unit 4 Socio-Economic Foundations of Education...
Foundations of Education 831 - Unit 4 Socio-Economic Foundations of Education...Foundations of Education 831 - Unit 4 Socio-Economic Foundations of Education...
Foundations of Education 831 - Unit 4 Socio-Economic Foundations of Education...
 
INTRODUCTION TO HIGHER EDUCATION 8625 unit 1 Part-1
INTRODUCTION TO HIGHER EDUCATION 8625 unit 1  Part-1INTRODUCTION TO HIGHER EDUCATION 8625 unit 1  Part-1
INTRODUCTION TO HIGHER EDUCATION 8625 unit 1 Part-1
 
828 Notes..pdf
828 Notes..pdf828 Notes..pdf
828 Notes..pdf
 
Comparative educational system
Comparative educational systemComparative educational system
Comparative educational system
 
Role-of-social-work-education-in-teaching-a-case-study-of-karachi.pdf
Role-of-social-work-education-in-teaching-a-case-study-of-karachi.pdfRole-of-social-work-education-in-teaching-a-case-study-of-karachi.pdf
Role-of-social-work-education-in-teaching-a-case-study-of-karachi.pdf
 
G01044345
G01044345G01044345
G01044345
 
Free Education Policy and its Emerging Challenges in SL.pdf
Free Education Policy and its Emerging Challenges in SL.pdfFree Education Policy and its Emerging Challenges in SL.pdf
Free Education Policy and its Emerging Challenges in SL.pdf
 

More from DrHafizKosar

Pakistan and Global Standards of Education.pptx
Pakistan and Global Standards of Education.pptxPakistan and Global Standards of Education.pptx
Pakistan and Global Standards of Education.pptxDrHafizKosar
 
Concept of Development.pptx
Concept of Development.pptxConcept of Development.pptx
Concept of Development.pptxDrHafizKosar
 
Writing Styles for Educational Materials.pptx
Writing Styles for Educational Materials.pptxWriting Styles for Educational Materials.pptx
Writing Styles for Educational Materials.pptxDrHafizKosar
 
First Educational Conference of Pakistan (1947).pptx
First Educational Conference of Pakistan (1947).pptxFirst Educational Conference of Pakistan (1947).pptx
First Educational Conference of Pakistan (1947).pptxDrHafizKosar
 
Adapting Language for Different Age Groups and Cultural Contexts.pptx
Adapting Language for Different Age Groups and Cultural Contexts.pptxAdapting Language for Different Age Groups and Cultural Contexts.pptx
Adapting Language for Different Age Groups and Cultural Contexts.pptxDrHafizKosar
 
Global Education and Development Process.pptx
Global Education and Development Process.pptxGlobal Education and Development Process.pptx
Global Education and Development Process.pptxDrHafizKosar
 
NATIONAL PARKS AND PROJECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.pptx
NATIONAL PARKS AND PROJECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.pptxNATIONAL PARKS AND PROJECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.pptx
NATIONAL PARKS AND PROJECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.pptxDrHafizKosar
 
Different Spheres of Tthe Earth.pptx
Different Spheres of Tthe Earth.pptxDifferent Spheres of Tthe Earth.pptx
Different Spheres of Tthe Earth.pptxDrHafizKosar
 
Assessment of Future Needs, Costing the Future Needs.pptx
Assessment of Future Needs, Costing the Future Needs.pptxAssessment of Future Needs, Costing the Future Needs.pptx
Assessment of Future Needs, Costing the Future Needs.pptxDrHafizKosar
 
Content Organization and Sequencing.pptx
Content Organization and Sequencing.pptxContent Organization and Sequencing.pptx
Content Organization and Sequencing.pptxDrHafizKosar
 
Climate Biodiversity and Ecosystem.pptx
Climate Biodiversity and Ecosystem.pptxClimate Biodiversity and Ecosystem.pptx
Climate Biodiversity and Ecosystem.pptxDrHafizKosar
 
Jean Piaget’s Theory of Learning Process.pptx
Jean Piaget’s Theory of Learning Process.pptxJean Piaget’s Theory of Learning Process.pptx
Jean Piaget’s Theory of Learning Process.pptxDrHafizKosar
 
Achored Instruction.pptx
Achored Instruction.pptxAchored Instruction.pptx
Achored Instruction.pptxDrHafizKosar
 
Extrapolation & Interpolation.pptx
Extrapolation & Interpolation.pptxExtrapolation & Interpolation.pptx
Extrapolation & Interpolation.pptxDrHafizKosar
 
Rates & Ratios.pptx
Rates & Ratios.pptxRates & Ratios.pptx
Rates & Ratios.pptxDrHafizKosar
 
Writing Learning Material and Textbook Level PhD (1).pptx
Writing Learning Material and Textbook Level PhD (1).pptxWriting Learning Material and Textbook Level PhD (1).pptx
Writing Learning Material and Textbook Level PhD (1).pptxDrHafizKosar
 
Preparation for Policy Formulation, Data on Educational Personnel_20231223_11...
Preparation for Policy Formulation, Data on Educational Personnel_20231223_11...Preparation for Policy Formulation, Data on Educational Personnel_20231223_11...
Preparation for Policy Formulation, Data on Educational Personnel_20231223_11...DrHafizKosar
 
Action Verbs to write research objectives.pptx
Action Verbs to write research objectives.pptxAction Verbs to write research objectives.pptx
Action Verbs to write research objectives.pptxDrHafizKosar
 
Identifying learning outcomes and objectives.pptx
Identifying learning outcomes and objectives.pptxIdentifying learning outcomes and objectives.pptx
Identifying learning outcomes and objectives.pptxDrHafizKosar
 

More from DrHafizKosar (20)

Pakistan and Global Standards of Education.pptx
Pakistan and Global Standards of Education.pptxPakistan and Global Standards of Education.pptx
Pakistan and Global Standards of Education.pptx
 
Concept of Development.pptx
Concept of Development.pptxConcept of Development.pptx
Concept of Development.pptx
 
Writing Styles for Educational Materials.pptx
Writing Styles for Educational Materials.pptxWriting Styles for Educational Materials.pptx
Writing Styles for Educational Materials.pptx
 
First Educational Conference of Pakistan (1947).pptx
First Educational Conference of Pakistan (1947).pptxFirst Educational Conference of Pakistan (1947).pptx
First Educational Conference of Pakistan (1947).pptx
 
Adapting Language for Different Age Groups and Cultural Contexts.pptx
Adapting Language for Different Age Groups and Cultural Contexts.pptxAdapting Language for Different Age Groups and Cultural Contexts.pptx
Adapting Language for Different Age Groups and Cultural Contexts.pptx
 
Global Education and Development Process.pptx
Global Education and Development Process.pptxGlobal Education and Development Process.pptx
Global Education and Development Process.pptx
 
NATIONAL PARKS AND PROJECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.pptx
NATIONAL PARKS AND PROJECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.pptxNATIONAL PARKS AND PROJECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.pptx
NATIONAL PARKS AND PROJECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.pptx
 
Different Spheres of Tthe Earth.pptx
Different Spheres of Tthe Earth.pptxDifferent Spheres of Tthe Earth.pptx
Different Spheres of Tthe Earth.pptx
 
Assessment of Future Needs, Costing the Future Needs.pptx
Assessment of Future Needs, Costing the Future Needs.pptxAssessment of Future Needs, Costing the Future Needs.pptx
Assessment of Future Needs, Costing the Future Needs.pptx
 
Content Organization and Sequencing.pptx
Content Organization and Sequencing.pptxContent Organization and Sequencing.pptx
Content Organization and Sequencing.pptx
 
Climate Biodiversity and Ecosystem.pptx
Climate Biodiversity and Ecosystem.pptxClimate Biodiversity and Ecosystem.pptx
Climate Biodiversity and Ecosystem.pptx
 
Jean Piaget’s Theory of Learning Process.pptx
Jean Piaget’s Theory of Learning Process.pptxJean Piaget’s Theory of Learning Process.pptx
Jean Piaget’s Theory of Learning Process.pptx
 
Achored Instruction.pptx
Achored Instruction.pptxAchored Instruction.pptx
Achored Instruction.pptx
 
Extrapolation & Interpolation.pptx
Extrapolation & Interpolation.pptxExtrapolation & Interpolation.pptx
Extrapolation & Interpolation.pptx
 
Rates & Ratios.pptx
Rates & Ratios.pptxRates & Ratios.pptx
Rates & Ratios.pptx
 
Index Number.pptx
Index Number.pptxIndex Number.pptx
Index Number.pptx
 
Writing Learning Material and Textbook Level PhD (1).pptx
Writing Learning Material and Textbook Level PhD (1).pptxWriting Learning Material and Textbook Level PhD (1).pptx
Writing Learning Material and Textbook Level PhD (1).pptx
 
Preparation for Policy Formulation, Data on Educational Personnel_20231223_11...
Preparation for Policy Formulation, Data on Educational Personnel_20231223_11...Preparation for Policy Formulation, Data on Educational Personnel_20231223_11...
Preparation for Policy Formulation, Data on Educational Personnel_20231223_11...
 
Action Verbs to write research objectives.pptx
Action Verbs to write research objectives.pptxAction Verbs to write research objectives.pptx
Action Verbs to write research objectives.pptx
 
Identifying learning outcomes and objectives.pptx
Identifying learning outcomes and objectives.pptxIdentifying learning outcomes and objectives.pptx
Identifying learning outcomes and objectives.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptxmary850239
 
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroomSamsung Business USA
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Association for Project Management
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptxmary850239
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemChristalin Nelson
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxMadhavi Dharankar
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesVijayaLaxmi84
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Celine George
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmOppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmStan Meyer
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxAnupam32727
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research DiscourseAnita GoswamiGiri
 
Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...
Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...
Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...HetalPathak10
 

Recently uploaded (20)

4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
 
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
 
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical VariableChi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management System
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
 
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmOppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
 
Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...
Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...
Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...
 

Higher Education and Development.pptx

  • 2. Concept of Development The concept of development is multifaceted and can be approached from various perspectives, including economic, social, political, and human development. Different scholars and theorists have contributed to the understanding of development over the years. Here, is a brief overview of the concept.
  • 3. 1. Economic Development Rostow (1960) proposed a linear model of economic development with distinct stages, from traditional society to the age of high mass consumption. 2.Human Development A noble laureate in economics Sen (1999) has significantly influenced the concept of development from a human perspective. His capability approach emphasizes the importance of enhancing people's capabilities and freedoms.
  • 4. 3. Social Development In the field of social development, Erikson (1963) theory of psychosocial development is noteworthy. While primarily focused on individual development, its principles can be extended to understanding social development. 4. Sustainable Development The concept of sustainable development gained prominence with the Brundtland Report, titled "Our Common Future," published by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). 5. Political Development Almond and Sidney Verba (1963) work on political development explores the relationship between political systems and socio-economic development.
  • 5. Higher education and the process of development Higher education is crucial for transforming a knowledge-based economy, achieving social goals, and building good human beings. It contributes to nation development, enlightening individuals with cultural values and national interests, and serving humanity, benefiting not only the individual but society as a whole. This standpoint about higher education has been a dominant school of thought regarding functions and role of higher education as a public good, and it was considered a basic human right in United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (1948).
  • 6. The primary role of HEC in Pakistan: To work for the evaluation, improvement and promotion of higher education, by articulating the culture of research and development among the higher education institutions. Moreover, HEC also formulates rules, policies, principles and priorities for higher education institutions in Pakistan for promotion of socio-economic development (HEC Ordinance, 2002). Despite HEC regulations, private higher education institutions in Pakistan are trading education at various prices, compromising its quality and transforming into profit-seeking organizations.
  • 7. The primary Role of HEC in Pakistan:... This has led to concerns about the disappearance of higher education as a public good and the emergence of individualism, selfishness, greed, and superiority in society. (Ball, 2004; Tilak, 2006). Khan (2015) highlights how education has been transformed into a profit-driven commodity, altering society's perception of knowledge's role in human life and its acquisition.
  • 8. Functions of Higher Education Higher education drives a knowledge-based economy, contributes to social goals, and builds good human beings. It provides skilled labor, creates knowledge, and serves society, promoting sustainable economic development and social organization (NEP, 2009). Traditionally education also serves to generate the moral, ethical, and economic foundation of any society. From this perspective, Jandhyala, (2008) demonstrated the following functions of higher education which were also endorsed by other mentioned scholars.
  • 9. Functions of Higher Education... Basic and crucial objective of higher education is to build the builders of the nation, by giving awareness, providing contemporary intellectual thought, and serve as think tanks to public and private sector (NEP, 2009). Most important function of higher education is to create, and disseminate new knowledge through quality research, as higher education institutes are considered to be scientific, and social labs of knowledge creation (Marginson, 2004). From economy perspective, higher education should meet the demands of industry by providing better quality human resources having professional and technical skills. By and large, higher education institutes are supposed to build moral character, by inculcating ethical and moral values, attitudinal traits for socializations of individuals for the protection and development of societal values 01 02 03 04
  • 10. Functions of Higher Education... Another important function of higher education is to cope with global challenges (Ali & Tahir, 2009), by proving viable and pragmatic solutions to national and international issues and problems. In nutshell, according to Jandhyala, (2008), higher education should serve the public interest from all perspectives-socially, economically, culturally, and politically 05 06
  • 11. Problems and issues of development and higher education The numbers of new entrants is now more than the total number of students in higher education prior to independence” (Iqbal, 1981). “The demand of higher education has thus increased by leaps and bonds. In spite of quality control as well as consolidation, it will continue to grow constantly for a long time to come” (Adeeb, 1996). Quantity The philosophy of social justice is very much akin to the principle of equity. It is a welcome development over the concept of inherent inequality which was sought to be explained by biological differences among individuals (Bayli, 1987). Equity Development of society not only depends upon quantity of goods and services produced, but also on their quality. “It again leads to quality of life of the people and the quality of the society in genera (Hayes, 1987). It is rightly said that the philosophical basis of quality is the innate characteristics of a human being to attain a higher standard and the need of excellence for attaining a higher stage in the development (Quddus, 1990). Quality The major challenges in higher education include:
  • 12. Problems and issues of development and higher education..... Among the challenges of higher education is the vital role of addressing students’ unrest. Bayli (1987) studied that “The condition of higher education in universities and colleges is not satisfactory in the eyes of students. Lack of physical and educational facilities is bringing much hindrance in the way of development. Students with arts, humanities, and management backgrounds often engage in political activities, indicating that their social or academic background significantly influences their attitudes towards social, economic, and political issues. (Allen, 1988). Student Unrest Students should be educated in democracy, its values, and ideals to foster justice and national integration, particularly in developing countries striving to establish democratic living structures. (Rao, 2003). Emotional Integration
  • 13. Problems and issues of development and higher education.... Social and cultural factors, which are often ignored, are as significant as any of the purely technical factors in the formulation and implementation of administration policy. Barnet (1990) states that “The linkages between the policy and these factors are neither casual nor limited to the contemporary period so the university administration clearly demonstrates that the success or failure of university. . Administrative Reform Many faculty members in most of universities are just master degree holders with little or no practical knowledge and higher education experiences” (Iqbal, 1981). Faculty The faculty should be responsible for determining the institution's educational policies, which should be outlined in the governing board's legislation, covering fundamental matters like subject matter, instruction methods, research facilities, and student admission standards (Aeth, 1975). Educational Policies
  • 14. Rao (2003) found that “These two functions are the essence of the progress and development of the higher education and administrative endeavors.” Quddus (1990) studied that “The basic function of a college or university is to preserve, augment, criticize, and transmit knowledge and to foster creative capacities.These functions are performed by a community of scholars who must be free to exercise independent judgment in the planning and execution of their educational responsibilities” (Varghese, 1980). Academic Freedom M The courses and curricula are not designed in accordance with the standard of higher education of the present day. Iqbal (1981) observed that “There is no continuity of some of the important courses: there is also no relationship between the related courses of common or similar knowledge . Courses and Curricula Higher-level budgeting is crucial for academic planning and university goals. It ensures financial solvency, places responsibility where it can be most exercised, and prevents periodic crises. Realistic planning and decisive action are essential for continuous renewal. Budgeting and Financing
  • 15. References: • Aeth, R. (1975). Education & development in Third World. Hants, UK: Saxon House Lamington. • Ali, S., & Tahir, M. S. (2009). Reforming education in Pakistan-tracing global links. Journal of Research and Reflections in Education, 3(1), 1-16 • Almond, G. A., & Verba, S. (1963). "The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations." Princeton University Press. • Barnet, R. (1990). The idea of higher education. Philadelphia, USA: The Society for Research into Higher Education. • Erikson, E. H. (1963). "Childhood and Society." Norton & Company. • Jandhyala, B. T. (2008). Higher education; A public good or a commodity for Trade? Commitment to higher education or commitment of higher education to trade. Prospects - Springer, 38, 449-466.
  • 16. References: • Marginson, S. (2004). Competition and markets in higher education: A 'glonacal' analysis. Policy Futuress in Education, 2(2), 175-244 • NEP. (2009). National education policy, Pakistan. Retrieved July 2, 2015, fromhttp://moent.gov.pk/gop/index.php?q=aHR0cDovLzE 5Mi4xNjguNzAuMT M2L21vcHR0bS9mcm1EZXRhaWxzLmFzcHg%2FaWQ9MiZhb XA7b3B0PXB vbGljaWVz • Quddus, N. J. (1990). Problems of education in Pakistan. Karachi, Pakistan: Royal Book Company. • Rao, V. K. (2003). Higher education. New Delhi, India: A. P. H. Public Corporation. • Rostow, W. W. (1960). "The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto." Cambridge • Sen, A. (1999). "Development as Freedom." Oxford University Press. • Varghese, A. V. (1980). Higher education and management. New Delhi, India: S. B. Nangia. • World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). "Our Common Future." Oxford University Press.