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Presentation on GSM
Network
Represented By
Mohamed Bouhamed
Med.bouhamed@live.fr
Contents
● Gsm Introduction
● Architecture
● Technical Specification
● Channels
● Security
● Characteristics
● Applications
What is GSM ?
Global System for Mobile (GSM) is a second
generation cellular standard developed to
cater voice services and data delivery using
digital modulation.
GSM System Architecture
GSM System Architecture
GSM System Architecture-I
● Mobile Station (MS)
Mobile Equipment (ME)
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
● Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
Base Station Controller (BSC)
● Network Switching Subsystem(NSS)
Mobile Switching Center (MSC)
Home Location Register (HLR)
Visitor Location Register (VLR)
Authentication Center (AUC)
Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
System Architecture
Mobile Station (MS)
The Mobile Station is made up of two entities:
1.Mobile Equipment (ME)
2. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
System Architecture
Mobile Station (MS)
Mobile Equipment :
● Portable,vehicle mounted, hand held device
● Uniquely identified by an IMEI (International Mobile
Equipment Identity)
● Voice and data transmission
● Monitoring power and signal quality of surrounding
cells for optimum handover
● Power level : 0.8W – 20 W
● 160 character long SMS
System Architecture
Mobile Station (MS) contd.
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) :
● Smart card contains the International Mobile
Subscriber Identity (IMSI)
● Allows user to send and receive calls and receive
other subscribed services
● Encoded network identification details
- Key Ki,Kc and A3,A5 and A8 algorithms
● Protected by a password or PIN
● Can be moved from phone to phone – contains key
information to activate the phone
System Architecture
Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
Base Station Subsystem is composed of two
parts that communicate across the standardized
Abis interface allowing operation between
components made by different suppliers
● Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
● Base Station Controller (BSC)
System Architecture
Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
Base Transceiver Station (BTS):
● Encodes,encrypts,multiplexes,modulates and feeds
the RF signals to the antenna.
● Frequency hopping
● Communicates with Mobile station and BSC
● Consists of Transceivers (TRX) units
System Architecture
Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
Base Station Controller (BSC)
● Manages Radio resources for BTS
● Assigns Frequency and time slots for all MS’s in its
area
● Handles call set up
● Transcoding and rate adaptation functionality
● Handover for each MS
● Radio Power control
● It communicates with MSC and BTS
System Architecture
Network Switching Subsystem(NSS)
Mobile Switching Center (MSC)
● Heart of the network
● Manages communication between GSM and other networks
● Call setup function and basic switching
● Call routing
● Billing information and collection
● Mobility management
- Registration
- Location Updating
- Inter BSS and inter MSC call handoff
● MSC does gateway function while its customer roams to
other network by using HLR/VLR.
System Architecture
Network Switching Subsystem
● Home Location Registers (HLR)
- permanent database about mobile subscribers in a large
service area(generally one per GSM network operator)
● database contains IMSI,MSISDN,prepaid/postpaid,roaming
restrictions,supplementary services.
● Visitor Location Registers (VLR)
● Temporary database which updates whenever new MS enters
its area, by HLR database
● Controls those mobiles roaming in its area
● Reduces number of queries to HLR
● Database contains IMSI,TMSI,MSISDN,MSRN,Location
Area,authentication key
System Architecture
Network Switching Subsystem
● Authentication Center (AUC)
● Protects against intruders in air interface
● Maintains authentication keys and algorithms and
provides security triplets ( RAND,SRES,Kc)
● Generally associated with HLR
● Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
- Database that is used to track handsets using the
IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity)
● Made up of three sub-classes: The White List, The
Black List and the Gray List
● Only one EIR per PLMN
GSM Specifications-1
● RF Spectrum
GSM 900
Mobile to BTS (uplink): 890-915 Mhz
BTS to Mobile(downlink):935-960 Mhz
Bandwidth : 2* 25 Mhz
GSM 1800
Mobile to BTS (uplink): 1710-1785 Mhz
BTS to Mobile(downlink) 1805-1880 Mhz
Bandwidth : 2* 75 Mhz
GSM Specification-II
● Carrier Separation : 200 Khz
● Duplex Distance : 45 Mhz
● No. of RF carriers : 124
● Access Method : TDMA/FDMA
● Modulation Method : GMSK
● Modulation data rate : 270.833 Kbps
Call Routing - Outgoing Call
● Call Originating from MS
● Call termination to MS
1.1. MS sends dialled number toMS sends dialled number to
BSSBSS
2.2. BSS sends dialled number toBSS sends dialled number to
MSCMSC
3,4 MSC checks VLR if MS is3,4 MSC checks VLR if MS is
allowed the requestedallowed the requested
service.If so,MSC asks BSS toservice.If so,MSC asks BSS to
allocate resources for call.allocate resources for call.
55 MSC routes the call to GMSCMSC routes the call to GMSC
66 GMSC routes the call to localGMSC routes the call to local
exchange of called userexchange of called user
7, 8,7, 8,
9,10 Answer back(ring back)9,10 Answer back(ring back)
tone is routed from calledtone is routed from called
user to MS viauser to MS via
GMSC,MSC,BSSGMSC,MSC,BSS
Incoming Call
1.Calling a GSM
subscribers
2.Forwarding call to GSMC
3.Signal Setup to HLR
4.5. Request MSRN from
VLR
6.Forward responsible
MSC to GMSC
7.Forward Call to current
MSC
8.9. Get current status of
MS
10.11. Paging of MS
12.13. MS answers
14.15. Security checks
16.17. Set up connection
Handovers
● Between 1 and 2 –
Inter BTS / Intra
BSC
● Between 1 and 3 –
Inter BSC/ Intra
MSC
● Between 1 and 4 –
Inter MSC
Security in GSM
● On air interface, GSM uses encryption and TMSI
instead of IMSI.
● SIM is provided 4-8 digit PIN to validate the
ownership of SIM
● 3 algorithms are specified :
- A3 algorithm for authentication
- A5 algorithm for encryption
- A8 algorithm for key generation
Authentication in GSM
Key generation and Encryption
Characteristics of GSM Standard
● Fully digital system using 900,1800 MHz frequency
band.
● TDMA over radio carriers(200 KHz carrier spacing.
● 8 full rate or 16 half rate TDMA channels per carrier.
● User/terminal authentication for fraud control.
● Encryption of speech and data transmission over the
radio path.
● Full international roaming capability.
● Low speed data services (upto 9.6 Kb/s).
● Compatibility with ISDN.
● Support of Short Message Service (SMS).
Advantages of GSM over Analog system
● Capacity increases
● Reduced RF transmission power and longer battery
life.
● International roaming capability.
● Better security against fraud (through terminal
validation and user authentication).
● Encryption capability for information security and
privacy.
● Compatibility with ISDN,leading to wider range of
services
GSM Applications
● Mobile telephony
● GSM-R
● Telemetry System
- Fleet management
- Automatic meter reading
- Toll Collection
- Remote control and fault reporting of DG sets
● Value Added Services
Thanks !
Source : ftp://ftp.kemt.fei.tuke.sk/.../GSM/RK-3%20GSM%20Network.ppt
med.bouhamed@live.fr

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Gsm presntation

  • 1. Presentation on GSM Network Represented By Mohamed Bouhamed Med.bouhamed@live.fr
  • 2. Contents ● Gsm Introduction ● Architecture ● Technical Specification ● Channels ● Security ● Characteristics ● Applications
  • 3. What is GSM ? Global System for Mobile (GSM) is a second generation cellular standard developed to cater voice services and data delivery using digital modulation.
  • 6. GSM System Architecture-I ● Mobile Station (MS) Mobile Equipment (ME) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) ● Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Base Station Controller (BSC) ● Network Switching Subsystem(NSS) Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Home Location Register (HLR) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Authentication Center (AUC) Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
  • 7. System Architecture Mobile Station (MS) The Mobile Station is made up of two entities: 1.Mobile Equipment (ME) 2. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
  • 8. System Architecture Mobile Station (MS) Mobile Equipment : ● Portable,vehicle mounted, hand held device ● Uniquely identified by an IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) ● Voice and data transmission ● Monitoring power and signal quality of surrounding cells for optimum handover ● Power level : 0.8W – 20 W ● 160 character long SMS
  • 9. System Architecture Mobile Station (MS) contd. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) : ● Smart card contains the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) ● Allows user to send and receive calls and receive other subscribed services ● Encoded network identification details - Key Ki,Kc and A3,A5 and A8 algorithms ● Protected by a password or PIN ● Can be moved from phone to phone – contains key information to activate the phone
  • 10. System Architecture Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Base Station Subsystem is composed of two parts that communicate across the standardized Abis interface allowing operation between components made by different suppliers ● Base Transceiver Station (BTS) ● Base Station Controller (BSC)
  • 11. System Architecture Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Base Transceiver Station (BTS): ● Encodes,encrypts,multiplexes,modulates and feeds the RF signals to the antenna. ● Frequency hopping ● Communicates with Mobile station and BSC ● Consists of Transceivers (TRX) units
  • 12. System Architecture Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Base Station Controller (BSC) ● Manages Radio resources for BTS ● Assigns Frequency and time slots for all MS’s in its area ● Handles call set up ● Transcoding and rate adaptation functionality ● Handover for each MS ● Radio Power control ● It communicates with MSC and BTS
  • 13. System Architecture Network Switching Subsystem(NSS) Mobile Switching Center (MSC) ● Heart of the network ● Manages communication between GSM and other networks ● Call setup function and basic switching ● Call routing ● Billing information and collection ● Mobility management - Registration - Location Updating - Inter BSS and inter MSC call handoff ● MSC does gateway function while its customer roams to other network by using HLR/VLR.
  • 14. System Architecture Network Switching Subsystem ● Home Location Registers (HLR) - permanent database about mobile subscribers in a large service area(generally one per GSM network operator) ● database contains IMSI,MSISDN,prepaid/postpaid,roaming restrictions,supplementary services. ● Visitor Location Registers (VLR) ● Temporary database which updates whenever new MS enters its area, by HLR database ● Controls those mobiles roaming in its area ● Reduces number of queries to HLR ● Database contains IMSI,TMSI,MSISDN,MSRN,Location Area,authentication key
  • 15. System Architecture Network Switching Subsystem ● Authentication Center (AUC) ● Protects against intruders in air interface ● Maintains authentication keys and algorithms and provides security triplets ( RAND,SRES,Kc) ● Generally associated with HLR ● Equipment Identity Register (EIR) - Database that is used to track handsets using the IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) ● Made up of three sub-classes: The White List, The Black List and the Gray List ● Only one EIR per PLMN
  • 16. GSM Specifications-1 ● RF Spectrum GSM 900 Mobile to BTS (uplink): 890-915 Mhz BTS to Mobile(downlink):935-960 Mhz Bandwidth : 2* 25 Mhz GSM 1800 Mobile to BTS (uplink): 1710-1785 Mhz BTS to Mobile(downlink) 1805-1880 Mhz Bandwidth : 2* 75 Mhz
  • 17. GSM Specification-II ● Carrier Separation : 200 Khz ● Duplex Distance : 45 Mhz ● No. of RF carriers : 124 ● Access Method : TDMA/FDMA ● Modulation Method : GMSK ● Modulation data rate : 270.833 Kbps
  • 18. Call Routing - Outgoing Call ● Call Originating from MS ● Call termination to MS 1.1. MS sends dialled number toMS sends dialled number to BSSBSS 2.2. BSS sends dialled number toBSS sends dialled number to MSCMSC 3,4 MSC checks VLR if MS is3,4 MSC checks VLR if MS is allowed the requestedallowed the requested service.If so,MSC asks BSS toservice.If so,MSC asks BSS to allocate resources for call.allocate resources for call. 55 MSC routes the call to GMSCMSC routes the call to GMSC 66 GMSC routes the call to localGMSC routes the call to local exchange of called userexchange of called user 7, 8,7, 8, 9,10 Answer back(ring back)9,10 Answer back(ring back) tone is routed from calledtone is routed from called user to MS viauser to MS via GMSC,MSC,BSSGMSC,MSC,BSS
  • 19. Incoming Call 1.Calling a GSM subscribers 2.Forwarding call to GSMC 3.Signal Setup to HLR 4.5. Request MSRN from VLR 6.Forward responsible MSC to GMSC 7.Forward Call to current MSC 8.9. Get current status of MS 10.11. Paging of MS 12.13. MS answers 14.15. Security checks 16.17. Set up connection
  • 20. Handovers ● Between 1 and 2 – Inter BTS / Intra BSC ● Between 1 and 3 – Inter BSC/ Intra MSC ● Between 1 and 4 – Inter MSC
  • 21. Security in GSM ● On air interface, GSM uses encryption and TMSI instead of IMSI. ● SIM is provided 4-8 digit PIN to validate the ownership of SIM ● 3 algorithms are specified : - A3 algorithm for authentication - A5 algorithm for encryption - A8 algorithm for key generation
  • 23. Key generation and Encryption
  • 24. Characteristics of GSM Standard ● Fully digital system using 900,1800 MHz frequency band. ● TDMA over radio carriers(200 KHz carrier spacing. ● 8 full rate or 16 half rate TDMA channels per carrier. ● User/terminal authentication for fraud control. ● Encryption of speech and data transmission over the radio path. ● Full international roaming capability. ● Low speed data services (upto 9.6 Kb/s). ● Compatibility with ISDN. ● Support of Short Message Service (SMS).
  • 25. Advantages of GSM over Analog system ● Capacity increases ● Reduced RF transmission power and longer battery life. ● International roaming capability. ● Better security against fraud (through terminal validation and user authentication). ● Encryption capability for information security and privacy. ● Compatibility with ISDN,leading to wider range of services
  • 26. GSM Applications ● Mobile telephony ● GSM-R ● Telemetry System - Fleet management - Automatic meter reading - Toll Collection - Remote control and fault reporting of DG sets ● Value Added Services
  • 27. Thanks ! Source : ftp://ftp.kemt.fei.tuke.sk/.../GSM/RK-3%20GSM%20Network.ppt med.bouhamed@live.fr