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Social Psychology ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Overview: Pt 1 (Groups) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Questions about groups ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What is a group? ,[object Object],[object Object]
What is a group? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What is a group? ,[object Object]
What is a group? ,[object Object]
What is a group? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What is a group? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Why groups? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Advantages of animal groups ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Advantages of human groups ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Advantages of human groups ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Studying groups ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Social facilitation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Social facilitation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Facilitation vs. loafing ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Social Facilitation Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Yerkes-Dodson Law Arousal   Performance Optimal arousal: Difficult task Optimal arousal: Easy task
Zajonc’s Drive Theory of Social Facilitation (1965) Presence of others Arousal    in performing dominant responses If correct If incorrect Social facilitation Social inhibition Mere physical presence of others  leads to arousal, motivating performance of dominant response (best learned, most habitual).
Social Facilitation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Fig. 14-2, p. 487
Social Facilitation Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Pool Hall Study (Michaels et al., 1982): Novice 30% Expert 70% % of shots made
Why does this happen? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Evaluation Apprehension Model  (Cottrell, 1972) Experimental Condition   Time taken (seconds) Alone Mere presence Evaluation apprehension 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75        Easy task Difficult task
Distraction-conflict theory  (Baron, 1986; Sanders, 1983) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Distraction-conflict theory Individual performing a task Presence of audience or coactors Tendency to pay attention to task Tendency to pay attention to audience or coactors Attentional conflict  d arousal/drive Social facilitation effects
Distraction: Drive/Conflict Theory of Social Facilitation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Hawthorne Effect People who know that they are being observed modify their behavior not only consciously but also  unconsciously .
Social loafing ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
“ Tug of War” Study (Ringelmann) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Social loafing
Reduction in volume of individual shout in  2-person & 6-person real & pseudo-groups 0  20   40  60  80  100 Group size (persons) Percentage reduction in individual shout 1 2 3 4 5 6        Real groups Pseudo groups ………………………………… .. Potential performance Coordination loss Motivation loss,   d effort, social loafing
Social loafing ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Why does social loafing occur? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Collective Effort Model (CEM)  (Karau & Williams, 1993) ,[object Object]
Collective Effort Model (CEM) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Ways to    social loafing ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Diverse Groups ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Roles ,[object Object],[object Object]
Roles ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Optimal Distinctiveness Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Altruistic Punishment ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Deindividuation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Trick or Treat Study % Who took extra
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Zimbardo “hood” study (1970)
Social cooperation dilemmas ,[object Object],[object Object]
Social dilemmas  & inter-group cooperation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Communal Private
Problems with  private vs. communal ownership ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The tragedy of the commons ,[object Object]
The prisoner’s dilemma 5 years each A free B 10 years A Betrays A 10 years B free 6 months each A Stays Silent B Betrays B Stays Silent
 
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Factors influencing cooperation in these games
Criticisms of dilemma games ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Rejection by groups ,[object Object],[object Object]
Group decision-making ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Thinking in groups ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Are groups smart? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Are groups smart? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Are groups smart? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Symptoms of groupthink ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],"Where all think alike, no one thinks very much." - Walter Lippmann
Factors that promote groupthink ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Are groups smart? ,[object Object],[object Object]
Brainstorming ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Brainstorming ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
How groups think ,[object Object],[object Object]
Teams ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Transactive memory ,[object Object],[object Object]
Groupthink ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Signs of groupthink ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Factors that encourage groupthink ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Why aren’t committees effective? ,[object Object],[object Object]
What is a camel? ,[object Object]
Why aren’t committees effective? ,[object Object]
The wisdom of crowds ,[object Object],[object Object]
The wisdom of crowds ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Failures of crowd intelligence ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Risky shift ,[object Object]
Group polarisation ,[object Object],[object Object]
Group polarisation ,[object Object]
Persuasive Arguments Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Social Comparison/Value Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Minimal Group Paradigm ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Intergroup Conflict ,[object Object],[object Object]
Intergroup Contact  & Superordinate Goals ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Self-Categorisation Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Intergroup conflict ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Intergroup conflict ,[object Object],[object Object]
Sherif studies:  Important points ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Realistic Conflict Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Conclusions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Conclusions ,[object Object],[object Object]
Overview: Pt 1 (Groups) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Overview: Pt 2 (Leadership) ,[object Object]
Leadership questions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Leadership questions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Social psychology of leadership ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],What is leadership ?
[object Object],[object Object],“ The most powerful kind of leadership is to offer people pathways and permissions to do things they want to do but feel unable to do for themselves. That sort of energy evokes energies within people that far exceed the powers of coercion.” (Palmer 1993)
What is a follower? ,[object Object],[object Object]
Follower characteristics ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Leadership characteristics ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Evolution of Leadership Theory
Modern thought on leadership ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Traditional leadership theories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Trait Approach:  Great Person Theory ,[object Object]
Trait theories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Leadership Traits ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Negative leadership traits that prevent individuals from being leaders ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Criticisms – Trait Theories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Criticisms – Trait theories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Leadership roles ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Leadership styles ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Contingency Leadership Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Task- vs People-Oriented Leadership  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Continuum of Leadership Behavior (Tannenbaum, 1974) AUTOCRAT DEMOCRAT PUSH Tells Sells [Tests] Consults Joins PULL Boss Employee
Task vs. relationship ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Autocractic or Democratic?
Path-Goal Theory ,[object Object],[object Object]
Path-Goal Leadership Styles ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Path-Goal Leadership Styles ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Path-Goal Guidelines to Be Effective Leader ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Transactional  & Transformational Leadership As a  transactional leader,  I use formal rewards & punishments. As a  transformational leader,  I inspire and excite  followers to high levels  of performance.
McGregor’s Theory X & Theory Y   ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Servant Leadership ,[object Object]
Benefits of Leading Without Authority ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Substitutes for leadership ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What is power? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Effects of power on leaders ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Effects of power on followers ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Bad bosses ,[object Object],[object Object]
Bad bosses: Four types ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Dangerous leaders ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Summary & conclusions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Summary & conclusions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Summary & conclusions ,[object Object],[object Object]
References ,[object Object]

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Groups & Leadership

  • 1.
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  • 18.
  • 19. Yerkes-Dodson Law Arousal Performance Optimal arousal: Difficult task Optimal arousal: Easy task
  • 20. Zajonc’s Drive Theory of Social Facilitation (1965) Presence of others Arousal  in performing dominant responses If correct If incorrect Social facilitation Social inhibition Mere physical presence of others leads to arousal, motivating performance of dominant response (best learned, most habitual).
  • 21.
  • 23.
  • 24. Pool Hall Study (Michaels et al., 1982): Novice 30% Expert 70% % of shots made
  • 25.
  • 26. Evaluation Apprehension Model (Cottrell, 1972) Experimental Condition Time taken (seconds) Alone Mere presence Evaluation apprehension 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75        Easy task Difficult task
  • 27.
  • 28. Distraction-conflict theory Individual performing a task Presence of audience or coactors Tendency to pay attention to task Tendency to pay attention to audience or coactors Attentional conflict  d arousal/drive Social facilitation effects
  • 29.
  • 30. The Hawthorne Effect People who know that they are being observed modify their behavior not only consciously but also unconsciously .
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34. Reduction in volume of individual shout in 2-person & 6-person real & pseudo-groups 0 20 40 60 80 100 Group size (persons) Percentage reduction in individual shout 1 2 3 4 5 6        Real groups Pseudo groups ………………………………… .. Potential performance Coordination loss Motivation loss,  d effort, social loafing
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  • 46. Trick or Treat Study % Who took extra
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  • 52. The prisoner’s dilemma 5 years each A free B 10 years A Betrays A 10 years B free 6 months each A Stays Silent B Betrays B Stays Silent
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  • 115.
  • 116.
  • 117. The Continuum of Leadership Behavior (Tannenbaum, 1974) AUTOCRAT DEMOCRAT PUSH Tells Sells [Tests] Consults Joins PULL Boss Employee
  • 118.
  • 119.
  • 120.
  • 121.
  • 122.
  • 123.
  • 124. Transactional & Transformational Leadership As a transactional leader, I use formal rewards & punishments. As a transformational leader, I inspire and excite followers to high levels of performance.
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Editor's Notes

  1. The aim of this social psychology lecture is to introduce and discuss the psychology of groups and leadership. Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Buio_Pesto_2006_B.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2.5 L Author: Autorizzazione Massimo Morini Promotion Laflotta - http://www.laflotta.it/ .