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Fire Prevention
&
Fire Fighting
Sections
 Fire safety
 Chemistry of Fire
 Spread of Fire & Extinguishment
 Operating Portable Firefighting Equipment
 Breathing Apparatus
Introduction
 The information in this module will assist in developing your knowledge and
skills necessary to be able to apply fire prevention and control techniques on
board a ship.
 This includes pro-active fire prevention techniques, emergency procedures,
personal safety in firefighting and the operation of firefighting equipment.
 The module also introduces you to fixed fire detection and extinguishing
systems used on board ships.
 Your learner’s guide is structured to take you logically through each section.
Read the section ‘Advice to Learner’ to plan and direct your studies.
 If you need more information on the topics covered in the learner’s guide,
refer to the book list under ‘References’ and ask your instructor for advice.
Introduction continue
 Nominal Duration – 18 hours
 Prerequisites – Nil
 Target Audiences - This module has been designed as part of a pre-sea safety
course for persons wishing to be employed on merchant ships. It should be
completed prior to undertaking employment on a ship
Module Objective
Module Purpose
 This module is aimed at developing the knowledge and skills necessary to be able to
apply pro-active fire prevention techniques and be an effective member of a ship
board firefighting team.
Learning Outcomes
On completion of this module the learner will be able to:
 ensure the effectiveness of on board fire safety procedures;
 discuss the chemistry of fire and its relationship to materials carried on board
ship;
 describe the underlying principles affecting spread of fire and extinguishment;
 demonstrate the safe operation of portable firefighting equipment;
 Demonstrate the use of Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus.
Assessment
Assessment Criteria and Conditions
 Assessment criteria and conditions for each of the learning outcomes are given in
the relevant sections of this learner’s guide.
 Learning and assessments will take place in a combination of classroom, simulator,
ship and other suitable study environments.
Assessment Methods
To successfully pass this module, you must complete all events so you can be
assessed: competent / not yet competent.
The learning outcomes may be assessed through a combination of:
 written assessment;
 practical assessment;
 oral assessment.
Causes of Fires on board ships
One way in which we can prevent fires from occurring is to learn from
experience. By studying case histories and conversing with fellow seafarers we
can develop an awareness of the common causes of fires. Some possible causes
include:
 Careless smoking habits
 Poor maintenance of machinery
 Incorrect storage of flammable liquids
 Overloading of electrical components
 Unsafe welding and grinding practices
Fire Prevention Measures
 Developing good housekeeping practices that reduce the amount of
combustible rubbish lying around.
 Regular inspections and audits concentrating on the most vulnerable areas of
the ship.
 Regular maintenance and testing of all fixed and portable fire detection and
extinguishing equipment.
 Ongoing training and education of all personnel in fire prevention and control.
This may be done formally, through firefighting courses such as the one you are
attending, becoming an active participant in ship board drills and training
exercises. It may also be done informally by simply just talking things over with
your fellow crew members or familiarising yourself with equipment and
procedures as part of your every day work routine.
Procedure in Case of Fire
 F ind - upon discovery move to an area of immediate safety
 I nform - raise the alarm
 R estrict - confine the fire to the area of origin, closing doors,
hatches,etc.
 E xtinguish - when and if safe to do so.
 Before attempting to attack a fire you should always ensure that the alarm is
raised. A delay of only one minute may mean the difference between a minor and
major fire. By raising the alarm you give the fire parties time to prepare while you
are using an extinguisher. The fire party can then take over from you if you have
not been able to extinguish the fire. By letting others know of the presence of a
fire you avoid the risk of becoming trapped without anybody knowing of your
presence.
Chemistry of Fire
The Fire Triangle
 For a fire to occur it needs three elements; heat, fuel and oxygen. These are
illustrated by what is known as the Fire Triangle.
 If one of these elements is absent then a fire cannot occur. It is therefore important
to ensure that they are kept separated.
Heat
Oxygen
Fuel
Heat
 Heat sources can be many and varied but as long as there is sufficient heat to
create ignition then the potential is present for a fire to occur.
Fuel
 It is important to recognise that in relation to fires, fuel is anything of a
combustible nature. So while many people tend to think of fuel as substances
such as petrol, diesel, etc, it must not be forgotten that items such as wood
panelling, carpet, clothes, plastics, etc are sources of fuel to a fire. However,
only gases and vapours burn. With solids and liquids it is necessary to change
their state, most likely by raising the temperature, so that they produce
flammable vapours.
Oxygen
 Oxygen is normally present in air at a ratio of approximately 21% by volume.
This is sufficient to support the process of combustion. We are limited as to
the extent that we can control the amount of oxygen present. It is therefore
important that we concentrate on keeping the fuel and heat sources
separated.
Extinguishing Principles
Cooling
 This will remove the heat from the fire. Water, having a high capacity to
absorb heat, is very effective when extinguishing a fire by this method.
Smothering
 This will remove the oxygen from the fire. There are two ways of achieving
this. One method is to seal the surface of a flammable liquid thereby
preventing the vapours from escaping and mixing with the surrounding air.
This can be achieved with the aid of a fire blanket or a layer of foam. The
other method is to lower the oxygen concentration to a level that is
insufficient to support combustion. This may be achieved simply by sealing up
the compartment or may involve using carbon dioxide.
Starvation
 This method removes the fuel from the fire. This course of action may be
used to extinguish a fire resulting from a broken fuel line. By isolating the
fuel at a control valve the fuel will be removed from the fire.
Classification of Fires
To assist in selecting the correct extinguishing agent fires are classified into groups
according to the nature of the material that is burning.
 Class A Carbonaceous solids
eg, wood paper, carpet, plastic, rubber
 Class B Flammable liquids
eg, petrol, diesel, thinners, methylated spirits
 Class C Flammable gases
eg, LPG, acetylene, methane
Class D Combustible metals
eg, magnesium, aluminium, sodium
 Class (E) Fires involving live electrical equipment
 Class F Cooking oil fires
Fire Extinguishers
 Portable extinguishers are first aid appliances designed to control and/or extinguish
the fire until further help arrives. They are selected and positioned on a vessel
according to the nature of the fire risk in an area.
Few techniques to use a Portable Fire
Extinguisher
Extinguish type of Fire
A foam extinguisher being used to extinguish a B class fire
Water being used to extinguish an A class fire
Self Contained Breathing Apparatus
(SCBA)
 Alternatively self-contained compressed air operated breathing apparatus may be
provided, providing that the cylinder/s contain at least 1200 litres of air or are
capable of operating for at least thirty minutes.
 The number of breathing apparatus sets required to be carried varies according to
the size of the ship and its purpose. For example, passenger ships are required to
carry significantly more sets than are bulk cargo carriers.
 The above illustration of a Dragger SCBA illustrates the basic layout of the set.
The back plate and harness assembly also contains the pressure gauge and low
pressure warning whistle. The demand regulator (7) connects to the facepiece
(10) and provides air to the wearer on demand. That is, when the wearer
inhales, the demand regulator will activate and allow air to flow into the
facepiece. When inhalation ceases air flow will also stop. However, a bypass
valve is fitted to the demand regulator if a constant flow of air is required.
Facial seal
 Most modern breathing apparatus is of the positive pressure type. This means
that the pressure inside the face mask is maintained slightly above
atmospheric pressure. Therefore if a leak develops in the face seal the
pressure inside should prevent the ingress of contaminants from the
atmosphere. However, some people are of the opinion that this makes this
type of set suitable for wearing with a beard. It does not! Under stressful
conditions, when you are breathing heavily, it is possible to overcome the
positive pressure in the face mask. To ensure correct operation it is important
that a good facial seal is obtained and this can only be confidently achieved in
the absence of facial hair.
Donning Procedure
While the actual donning procedure will vary between manufacturers
the following is a general guide. Note however that you should consult
the instructions supplied with the sets on your ship
 Put on apparatus with shoulder straps and waist belt fully extended.
 Pull down on shoulder straps until set is comfortable.
 Connect waist belt and tighten to a comfortable tension. Tuck shoulder straps inside
waist belt.
 Fit neck strap of face piece over the neck.
 Check that the reset button/lever on lung demand valve has been set to the off position.
 Turn cylinder valve on one full turn.
 Note the reading on the pressure gauge. Do not use a cylinder that is less than 80% full.
 Ensure that your hair is swept back and place face into face piece.
 Tighten the straps from the bottom to the top, ensuring that they are pulled straight
back and not outwards.
 Holding the gauge in your left hand, close the cylinder valve with your right hand.
 Once you have exhausted the air from the set the mask should collapse inwards on your
face. This is known as the low pressure test, as you are checking for low pressure air
leaks. You should not be able to breathe. If you can then the seal is not satisfactory.
 If a satisfactory seal is obtained, open the cylinder valve fully.
 After donning the remainder of your protective equipment and checking out at the BA
control board you should be ready to make entry.
After use maintenance
 Fully extend all straps (shoulder, waist and face piece)
 Thoroughly clean and disinfect face piece.
 Ensuring that cylinder valve is closed and there is no pressure in the system,
disconnect and recharge the cylinder.
Fit a fully charged cylinder and perform the
following high pressure test:
 Open cylinder valve one full turn.
 Check cylinder is fully charged.
 If so, close cylinder valve.
 Observe the pressure gauge for one minute. It should not fall by more than 10
bar.
 Check the whistle operation by cupping the lung demand valve in the palm of
your hand. Activate the by pass valve and slowly bleed the air out of the
system. Looking at the pressure gauge, note at what pressure the whistle
activates. Check that this is within the manufacturer’s specifications.
 The manufacturer’s handbook should also be consulted for routine servicing
requirements.
Wrapping up
Did you understand:
 what are the three (3) elements require by a fire?
 How the fire easily spread 0n-board ship?
 How to operate different types of fire extinguishers?
 How to don & use the CABA (Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus) to fight the fire?
Questions!
!We are coming to the end
of our session and thank you
very much with your time!

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Fire Prevention & Fire Fighting Powerpoint (1).pptx

  • 2. Sections  Fire safety  Chemistry of Fire  Spread of Fire & Extinguishment  Operating Portable Firefighting Equipment  Breathing Apparatus
  • 3. Introduction  The information in this module will assist in developing your knowledge and skills necessary to be able to apply fire prevention and control techniques on board a ship.  This includes pro-active fire prevention techniques, emergency procedures, personal safety in firefighting and the operation of firefighting equipment.  The module also introduces you to fixed fire detection and extinguishing systems used on board ships.  Your learner’s guide is structured to take you logically through each section. Read the section ‘Advice to Learner’ to plan and direct your studies.  If you need more information on the topics covered in the learner’s guide, refer to the book list under ‘References’ and ask your instructor for advice.
  • 4. Introduction continue  Nominal Duration – 18 hours  Prerequisites – Nil  Target Audiences - This module has been designed as part of a pre-sea safety course for persons wishing to be employed on merchant ships. It should be completed prior to undertaking employment on a ship
  • 5. Module Objective Module Purpose  This module is aimed at developing the knowledge and skills necessary to be able to apply pro-active fire prevention techniques and be an effective member of a ship board firefighting team.
  • 6. Learning Outcomes On completion of this module the learner will be able to:  ensure the effectiveness of on board fire safety procedures;  discuss the chemistry of fire and its relationship to materials carried on board ship;  describe the underlying principles affecting spread of fire and extinguishment;  demonstrate the safe operation of portable firefighting equipment;  Demonstrate the use of Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus.
  • 7. Assessment Assessment Criteria and Conditions  Assessment criteria and conditions for each of the learning outcomes are given in the relevant sections of this learner’s guide.  Learning and assessments will take place in a combination of classroom, simulator, ship and other suitable study environments.
  • 8. Assessment Methods To successfully pass this module, you must complete all events so you can be assessed: competent / not yet competent. The learning outcomes may be assessed through a combination of:  written assessment;  practical assessment;  oral assessment.
  • 9.
  • 10. Causes of Fires on board ships One way in which we can prevent fires from occurring is to learn from experience. By studying case histories and conversing with fellow seafarers we can develop an awareness of the common causes of fires. Some possible causes include:  Careless smoking habits  Poor maintenance of machinery  Incorrect storage of flammable liquids  Overloading of electrical components  Unsafe welding and grinding practices
  • 11. Fire Prevention Measures  Developing good housekeeping practices that reduce the amount of combustible rubbish lying around.  Regular inspections and audits concentrating on the most vulnerable areas of the ship.  Regular maintenance and testing of all fixed and portable fire detection and extinguishing equipment.  Ongoing training and education of all personnel in fire prevention and control. This may be done formally, through firefighting courses such as the one you are attending, becoming an active participant in ship board drills and training exercises. It may also be done informally by simply just talking things over with your fellow crew members or familiarising yourself with equipment and procedures as part of your every day work routine.
  • 12. Procedure in Case of Fire  F ind - upon discovery move to an area of immediate safety  I nform - raise the alarm  R estrict - confine the fire to the area of origin, closing doors, hatches,etc.  E xtinguish - when and if safe to do so.  Before attempting to attack a fire you should always ensure that the alarm is raised. A delay of only one minute may mean the difference between a minor and major fire. By raising the alarm you give the fire parties time to prepare while you are using an extinguisher. The fire party can then take over from you if you have not been able to extinguish the fire. By letting others know of the presence of a fire you avoid the risk of becoming trapped without anybody knowing of your presence.
  • 13. Chemistry of Fire The Fire Triangle  For a fire to occur it needs three elements; heat, fuel and oxygen. These are illustrated by what is known as the Fire Triangle.  If one of these elements is absent then a fire cannot occur. It is therefore important to ensure that they are kept separated. Heat Oxygen Fuel
  • 14. Heat  Heat sources can be many and varied but as long as there is sufficient heat to create ignition then the potential is present for a fire to occur. Fuel  It is important to recognise that in relation to fires, fuel is anything of a combustible nature. So while many people tend to think of fuel as substances such as petrol, diesel, etc, it must not be forgotten that items such as wood panelling, carpet, clothes, plastics, etc are sources of fuel to a fire. However, only gases and vapours burn. With solids and liquids it is necessary to change their state, most likely by raising the temperature, so that they produce flammable vapours.
  • 15. Oxygen  Oxygen is normally present in air at a ratio of approximately 21% by volume. This is sufficient to support the process of combustion. We are limited as to the extent that we can control the amount of oxygen present. It is therefore important that we concentrate on keeping the fuel and heat sources separated.
  • 16. Extinguishing Principles Cooling  This will remove the heat from the fire. Water, having a high capacity to absorb heat, is very effective when extinguishing a fire by this method. Smothering  This will remove the oxygen from the fire. There are two ways of achieving this. One method is to seal the surface of a flammable liquid thereby preventing the vapours from escaping and mixing with the surrounding air. This can be achieved with the aid of a fire blanket or a layer of foam. The other method is to lower the oxygen concentration to a level that is insufficient to support combustion. This may be achieved simply by sealing up the compartment or may involve using carbon dioxide.
  • 17. Starvation  This method removes the fuel from the fire. This course of action may be used to extinguish a fire resulting from a broken fuel line. By isolating the fuel at a control valve the fuel will be removed from the fire.
  • 18. Classification of Fires To assist in selecting the correct extinguishing agent fires are classified into groups according to the nature of the material that is burning.  Class A Carbonaceous solids eg, wood paper, carpet, plastic, rubber  Class B Flammable liquids eg, petrol, diesel, thinners, methylated spirits  Class C Flammable gases eg, LPG, acetylene, methane Class D Combustible metals eg, magnesium, aluminium, sodium  Class (E) Fires involving live electrical equipment  Class F Cooking oil fires
  • 19. Fire Extinguishers  Portable extinguishers are first aid appliances designed to control and/or extinguish the fire until further help arrives. They are selected and positioned on a vessel according to the nature of the fire risk in an area.
  • 20. Few techniques to use a Portable Fire Extinguisher
  • 21. Extinguish type of Fire A foam extinguisher being used to extinguish a B class fire
  • 22. Water being used to extinguish an A class fire
  • 23.
  • 24. Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)  Alternatively self-contained compressed air operated breathing apparatus may be provided, providing that the cylinder/s contain at least 1200 litres of air or are capable of operating for at least thirty minutes.  The number of breathing apparatus sets required to be carried varies according to the size of the ship and its purpose. For example, passenger ships are required to carry significantly more sets than are bulk cargo carriers.
  • 25.  The above illustration of a Dragger SCBA illustrates the basic layout of the set. The back plate and harness assembly also contains the pressure gauge and low pressure warning whistle. The demand regulator (7) connects to the facepiece (10) and provides air to the wearer on demand. That is, when the wearer inhales, the demand regulator will activate and allow air to flow into the facepiece. When inhalation ceases air flow will also stop. However, a bypass valve is fitted to the demand regulator if a constant flow of air is required.
  • 26. Facial seal  Most modern breathing apparatus is of the positive pressure type. This means that the pressure inside the face mask is maintained slightly above atmospheric pressure. Therefore if a leak develops in the face seal the pressure inside should prevent the ingress of contaminants from the atmosphere. However, some people are of the opinion that this makes this type of set suitable for wearing with a beard. It does not! Under stressful conditions, when you are breathing heavily, it is possible to overcome the positive pressure in the face mask. To ensure correct operation it is important that a good facial seal is obtained and this can only be confidently achieved in the absence of facial hair.
  • 27. Donning Procedure While the actual donning procedure will vary between manufacturers the following is a general guide. Note however that you should consult the instructions supplied with the sets on your ship  Put on apparatus with shoulder straps and waist belt fully extended.  Pull down on shoulder straps until set is comfortable.  Connect waist belt and tighten to a comfortable tension. Tuck shoulder straps inside waist belt.  Fit neck strap of face piece over the neck.  Check that the reset button/lever on lung demand valve has been set to the off position.  Turn cylinder valve on one full turn.  Note the reading on the pressure gauge. Do not use a cylinder that is less than 80% full.  Ensure that your hair is swept back and place face into face piece.  Tighten the straps from the bottom to the top, ensuring that they are pulled straight back and not outwards.  Holding the gauge in your left hand, close the cylinder valve with your right hand.  Once you have exhausted the air from the set the mask should collapse inwards on your face. This is known as the low pressure test, as you are checking for low pressure air leaks. You should not be able to breathe. If you can then the seal is not satisfactory.  If a satisfactory seal is obtained, open the cylinder valve fully.  After donning the remainder of your protective equipment and checking out at the BA control board you should be ready to make entry.
  • 28. After use maintenance  Fully extend all straps (shoulder, waist and face piece)  Thoroughly clean and disinfect face piece.  Ensuring that cylinder valve is closed and there is no pressure in the system, disconnect and recharge the cylinder.
  • 29. Fit a fully charged cylinder and perform the following high pressure test:  Open cylinder valve one full turn.  Check cylinder is fully charged.  If so, close cylinder valve.  Observe the pressure gauge for one minute. It should not fall by more than 10 bar.  Check the whistle operation by cupping the lung demand valve in the palm of your hand. Activate the by pass valve and slowly bleed the air out of the system. Looking at the pressure gauge, note at what pressure the whistle activates. Check that this is within the manufacturer’s specifications.  The manufacturer’s handbook should also be consulted for routine servicing requirements.
  • 30. Wrapping up Did you understand:  what are the three (3) elements require by a fire?  How the fire easily spread 0n-board ship?  How to operate different types of fire extinguishers?  How to don & use the CABA (Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus) to fight the fire?
  • 32. !We are coming to the end of our session and thank you very much with your time!