SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 13
ERRORS
By
Avinash N. Fulbaria
CONTENT
 Introduction
 Types Of Errors
 Gross Errors
 Systematic Errors
 Constructional Errors
 Determination Errors
 Random Errors
INTRODUCTION
 The difference between the
observed or calculated value and
true value is known as error
TYPES OF ERRORS
 Gross errors or mistakes :
 Blunders
 Computational errors
 Chaotic errors
 Systematic errors :
 Instrument errors
 Environment errors
 Determination errors
 Constructional error
 Random errors
GROSS ERRORS :
 These errors are due to the gross blunder on the part
of the experimenters or observers. These errors are
caused by mistake in using instruments, recording
data and calculating measurement results. For
example: A person may read a pressure gauge
indicating 1.01 N/m2 as 1.10 N/m2. Someone may
have a bad habit of memorizing data at a time of
reading and writing a number of data together at later
time. This may cause error in the data. Errors may be
made in calculating the final results. Another gross
error arises when an experimenter makes use (by
mistake) of an ordinary flow meter having poor
sensitivity to measure low pressure in a system.
SYSTEMATIC ERRORS :
 These are inherent errors of apparatus or
method. These errors always give a constant
deviation. On the basis of the sources of
errors, systematic errors may be divided into
following sub-categories :
 Constructional error
 Determination errors
 Instrument errors
 Environment errors
CONSTRUCTIONAL ERROR :
 None of the apparatus can be constructed to
satisfy all specifications completely. This is
the reason of giving guarantee within a limit.
Therefore, a manufacturers always mention
the minimum possible errors in the
construction of the instruments.
ERRORS IN READING OR OBSERVATION
 Following are some of the reasons of errors in results
of the indicating instruments :
 Construction of the Scale : There is a possibility
of error due to the division of the scale not being
uniform and clear.
 Fitness and Straightness of the Pointer : If the
pointer is not fine and straight, then it always
gives the error in the reading.
 Parallax : Without a mirror under the pointer there
may be parallax error in reading.
 Efficiency or Skills of the Observer : Error in the
reading is largely dependent upon the skills of
the observer by which reading is noted
accurately.
DETERMINATION ERROR :
 It is due to the indefiniteness in final
adjustment of measuring apparatus. For
example, Maxwell Bridge method of
measuring inductances, it is difficult to find
the differences in sound of head phones for
small change in resistance at the time of final
adjustment. The error varies from person to
person.
ERROR DUE TO OTHER FACTORS :
 Temperature Variation
 Variation in temperature not only changes the
values of the parameters but also brings
changes in the reading of the instrument. For a
consistent error, the temperature must be
constant.
 Effect of the Time on Instruments
 There is a possibility of change in calibration
error in the instrument with time. This may be
called ageing of the instrument.
ERROR DUE TO OTHER FACTORS :
 Mechanical Error
 Friction between stationary and rotating parts
and residual torsion in suspension wire
cause errors in instruments. So, checking
should be applied. Generally, these errors
may be checked from time to time.
RANDOM ERROR :
 After corrections have been applied for all the
parameters whose influences are known, there
is left a residue of deviation. These are random
error and their magnitudes are not constant.
Persons performing the experiment have no
control over the origin of these errors. These
errors are due to so many reasons such as
noise and fatigue in the working persons. These
errors may be either positive or negative. To
these errors the law of probability may be
applied. Generally, these errors may be
minimized by taking average of a large number
of readings.
THE END

More Related Content

What's hot

Errors in pharmaceutical analysis
Errors  in  pharmaceutical  analysis Errors  in  pharmaceutical  analysis
Errors in pharmaceutical analysis Bindu Kshtriya
 
Errors and its minimization
Errors and its minimizationErrors and its minimization
Errors and its minimizationSapan Shah
 
Measurements and-sources-of-errors1
Measurements and-sources-of-errors1Measurements and-sources-of-errors1
Measurements and-sources-of-errors1Vikash Kumar
 
errors of measurement and systematic errors
errors of measurement and systematic errorserrors of measurement and systematic errors
errors of measurement and systematic errorsDr. Hament Sharma
 
Minimization of errors, accuracy, precission, significant figures.
Minimization of errors, accuracy, precission, significant figures.Minimization of errors, accuracy, precission, significant figures.
Minimization of errors, accuracy, precission, significant figures.Nidhi Sharma
 
Gravimetric analysis
Gravimetric analysisGravimetric analysis
Gravimetric analysisUday Deokate
 
Measurement Errors and Standards
Measurement Errors and StandardsMeasurement Errors and Standards
Measurement Errors and StandardsGhansyam Rathod
 
Analytical chemistry lecture 3
Analytical chemistry lecture 3Analytical chemistry lecture 3
Analytical chemistry lecture 3Sunita Jobli
 
Sources of Errors.pptx
Sources of Errors.pptxSources of Errors.pptx
Sources of Errors.pptxhepzijustin
 
1 measurement and error
1 measurement and error 1 measurement and error
1 measurement and error LOHYINNEE
 
Precepitation titration mohrs method
Precepitation titration mohrs methodPrecepitation titration mohrs method
Precepitation titration mohrs methodHemn Gardy
 
Complexometric titration
Complexometric titration  Complexometric titration
Complexometric titration Dr. HN Singh
 
Quality control & Assurance in Analytical Chemistry
Quality control & Assurance in Analytical ChemistryQuality control & Assurance in Analytical Chemistry
Quality control & Assurance in Analytical ChemistryLavakusa Banavatu
 

What's hot (20)

Methods of minimizing errors
Methods of minimizing errorsMethods of minimizing errors
Methods of minimizing errors
 
1. errors ppt
1. errors ppt1. errors ppt
1. errors ppt
 
Errors in pharmaceutical analysis
Errors  in  pharmaceutical  analysis Errors  in  pharmaceutical  analysis
Errors in pharmaceutical analysis
 
Errors and its minimization
Errors and its minimizationErrors and its minimization
Errors and its minimization
 
Priamary & Secondary standard
Priamary & Secondary standardPriamary & Secondary standard
Priamary & Secondary standard
 
Measurements and-sources-of-errors1
Measurements and-sources-of-errors1Measurements and-sources-of-errors1
Measurements and-sources-of-errors1
 
errors of measurement and systematic errors
errors of measurement and systematic errorserrors of measurement and systematic errors
errors of measurement and systematic errors
 
Minimization of errors, accuracy, precission, significant figures.
Minimization of errors, accuracy, precission, significant figures.Minimization of errors, accuracy, precission, significant figures.
Minimization of errors, accuracy, precission, significant figures.
 
Gravimetric analysis
Gravimetric analysisGravimetric analysis
Gravimetric analysis
 
Measurement Errors and Standards
Measurement Errors and StandardsMeasurement Errors and Standards
Measurement Errors and Standards
 
Analytical chemistry lecture 3
Analytical chemistry lecture 3Analytical chemistry lecture 3
Analytical chemistry lecture 3
 
Sources of Errors.pptx
Sources of Errors.pptxSources of Errors.pptx
Sources of Errors.pptx
 
Standard deviation
Standard deviationStandard deviation
Standard deviation
 
Accuracy: Random and Systematic Errors
Accuracy: Random and Systematic ErrorsAccuracy: Random and Systematic Errors
Accuracy: Random and Systematic Errors
 
1 measurement and error
1 measurement and error 1 measurement and error
1 measurement and error
 
Precepitation titration mohrs method
Precepitation titration mohrs methodPrecepitation titration mohrs method
Precepitation titration mohrs method
 
Complexometric titration
Complexometric titration  Complexometric titration
Complexometric titration
 
Iodometry & Iodimetry
Iodometry & IodimetryIodometry & Iodimetry
Iodometry & Iodimetry
 
Potentiometry
PotentiometryPotentiometry
Potentiometry
 
Quality control & Assurance in Analytical Chemistry
Quality control & Assurance in Analytical ChemistryQuality control & Assurance in Analytical Chemistry
Quality control & Assurance in Analytical Chemistry
 

Viewers also liked

Questionaire Analysis
Questionaire AnalysisQuestionaire Analysis
Questionaire AnalysisChloe Parr
 
IB Chemistry on Uncertainty, Error Analysis, Random and Systematic Error
IB Chemistry on Uncertainty, Error Analysis, Random and Systematic ErrorIB Chemistry on Uncertainty, Error Analysis, Random and Systematic Error
IB Chemistry on Uncertainty, Error Analysis, Random and Systematic ErrorLawrence kok
 
Step 2 drafting the research paper
Step 2 drafting the research paperStep 2 drafting the research paper
Step 2 drafting the research paperKarra Shimabukuro
 
Types of Error in Mechanical Measurement & Metrology (MMM)
Types of Error in Mechanical Measurement & Metrology (MMM)Types of Error in Mechanical Measurement & Metrology (MMM)
Types of Error in Mechanical Measurement & Metrology (MMM)Amit Mak
 
Measurement errors, Statistical Analysis, Uncertainty
Measurement errors, Statistical Analysis, UncertaintyMeasurement errors, Statistical Analysis, Uncertainty
Measurement errors, Statistical Analysis, UncertaintyDr Naim R Kidwai
 
Smart note taker
Smart note takerSmart note taker
Smart note takerVivek Jha
 
Linear metrology...2
Linear metrology...2Linear metrology...2
Linear metrology...2Nouman Ali
 
Note taking and note making presentation
Note taking and note making presentationNote taking and note making presentation
Note taking and note making presentationAmmiBermudez
 
What is the difference and similarity between qualitative and quantitative re...
What is the difference and similarity between qualitative and quantitative re...What is the difference and similarity between qualitative and quantitative re...
What is the difference and similarity between qualitative and quantitative re...alirezahajarian
 
Design & Construction Errors- Building Maintenance and Repairs
Design & Construction Errors- Building Maintenance and Repairs Design & Construction Errors- Building Maintenance and Repairs
Design & Construction Errors- Building Maintenance and Repairs Srishti Wakhloo
 
Construction errors and their case studies
Construction errors and their case studiesConstruction errors and their case studies
Construction errors and their case studiesYogi Yogesh
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Questionaire Analysis
Questionaire AnalysisQuestionaire Analysis
Questionaire Analysis
 
IB Chemistry on Uncertainty, Error Analysis, Random and Systematic Error
IB Chemistry on Uncertainty, Error Analysis, Random and Systematic ErrorIB Chemistry on Uncertainty, Error Analysis, Random and Systematic Error
IB Chemistry on Uncertainty, Error Analysis, Random and Systematic Error
 
Step 2 drafting the research paper
Step 2 drafting the research paperStep 2 drafting the research paper
Step 2 drafting the research paper
 
6305 slide show
6305 slide show6305 slide show
6305 slide show
 
Interviewing—owl
Interviewing—owlInterviewing—owl
Interviewing—owl
 
Lectures On Interviewing
Lectures On InterviewingLectures On Interviewing
Lectures On Interviewing
 
Types of Error in Mechanical Measurement & Metrology (MMM)
Types of Error in Mechanical Measurement & Metrology (MMM)Types of Error in Mechanical Measurement & Metrology (MMM)
Types of Error in Mechanical Measurement & Metrology (MMM)
 
Measurement errors, Statistical Analysis, Uncertainty
Measurement errors, Statistical Analysis, UncertaintyMeasurement errors, Statistical Analysis, Uncertainty
Measurement errors, Statistical Analysis, Uncertainty
 
Note making skills
Note making skillsNote making skills
Note making skills
 
Smart note taker
Smart note takerSmart note taker
Smart note taker
 
Linear metrology...2
Linear metrology...2Linear metrology...2
Linear metrology...2
 
Note taking and note making presentation
Note taking and note making presentationNote taking and note making presentation
Note taking and note making presentation
 
Metrology Assignment
Metrology AssignmentMetrology Assignment
Metrology Assignment
 
Metrology Assignment Ppt
Metrology Assignment PptMetrology Assignment Ppt
Metrology Assignment Ppt
 
What is the difference and similarity between qualitative and quantitative re...
What is the difference and similarity between qualitative and quantitative re...What is the difference and similarity between qualitative and quantitative re...
What is the difference and similarity between qualitative and quantitative re...
 
Design & Construction Errors- Building Maintenance and Repairs
Design & Construction Errors- Building Maintenance and Repairs Design & Construction Errors- Building Maintenance and Repairs
Design & Construction Errors- Building Maintenance and Repairs
 
Introduction to Metrology
Introduction to MetrologyIntroduction to Metrology
Introduction to Metrology
 
Metrology
MetrologyMetrology
Metrology
 
Introduction to Metrology
Introduction to Metrology Introduction to Metrology
Introduction to Metrology
 
Construction errors and their case studies
Construction errors and their case studiesConstruction errors and their case studies
Construction errors and their case studies
 

Similar to Error and its types

Measurement erros
Measurement errosMeasurement erros
Measurement erroschakrimvn
 
Quality assurance errors
Quality assurance errorsQuality assurance errors
Quality assurance errorsAliRaza1767
 
Errors and Error Measurements
Errors and Error MeasurementsErrors and Error Measurements
Errors and Error MeasurementsMilind Pelagade
 
Measurements and-sources-of-errors1
Measurements and-sources-of-errors1Measurements and-sources-of-errors1
Measurements and-sources-of-errors1Vikash Kumar
 
Science enginering lab report experiment 1 (physical quantities aand measurem...
Science enginering lab report experiment 1 (physical quantities aand measurem...Science enginering lab report experiment 1 (physical quantities aand measurem...
Science enginering lab report experiment 1 (physical quantities aand measurem...Q Hydar Q Hydar
 
instrumentation electrical engineering Lecture 1.2.pptx
instrumentation electrical engineering Lecture 1.2.pptxinstrumentation electrical engineering Lecture 1.2.pptx
instrumentation electrical engineering Lecture 1.2.pptxmuhammad562811
 
Errors in Measuring Instruments.ppt
Errors in Measuring Instruments.pptErrors in Measuring Instruments.ppt
Errors in Measuring Instruments.ppttadi1padma
 
EM unit 1 part 5.pdf
EM unit 1 part 5.pdfEM unit 1 part 5.pdf
EM unit 1 part 5.pdftadi1padma
 
Lecture 04: Errors During the Measurement Process
Lecture 04: Errors During the Measurement ProcessLecture 04: Errors During the Measurement Process
Lecture 04: Errors During the Measurement ProcessTaimoor Muzaffar Gondal
 
introduction to Mechanical Measurement and Metrology.
introduction to Mechanical Measurement and Metrology.introduction to Mechanical Measurement and Metrology.
introduction to Mechanical Measurement and Metrology.Prof.Mayur Modi
 
MEASUREMENTS-AND-INSTRUMENTATION.pptx
MEASUREMENTS-AND-INSTRUMENTATION.pptxMEASUREMENTS-AND-INSTRUMENTATION.pptx
MEASUREMENTS-AND-INSTRUMENTATION.pptxSarojKumar428897
 
Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements solutions manual Figliola 4th ed
Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements solutions manual Figliola 4th edTheory and Design for Mechanical Measurements solutions manual Figliola 4th ed
Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements solutions manual Figliola 4th edDiego Fung
 
15694598371.Measurment.pdf
15694598371.Measurment.pdf15694598371.Measurment.pdf
15694598371.Measurment.pdfKhalil Alhatab
 
Measurement instruments Static and dynamic characteristics Calibration System...
Measurement instruments Static and dynamic characteristics Calibration System...Measurement instruments Static and dynamic characteristics Calibration System...
Measurement instruments Static and dynamic characteristics Calibration System...AL- AMIN
 

Similar to Error and its types (20)

Measurement erros
Measurement errosMeasurement erros
Measurement erros
 
Assignment on errors
Assignment on errorsAssignment on errors
Assignment on errors
 
Quality assurance errors
Quality assurance errorsQuality assurance errors
Quality assurance errors
 
Error in measurement
Error in measurementError in measurement
Error in measurement
 
Errors and Error Measurements
Errors and Error MeasurementsErrors and Error Measurements
Errors and Error Measurements
 
Measurements and-sources-of-errors1
Measurements and-sources-of-errors1Measurements and-sources-of-errors1
Measurements and-sources-of-errors1
 
Science enginering lab report experiment 1 (physical quantities aand measurem...
Science enginering lab report experiment 1 (physical quantities aand measurem...Science enginering lab report experiment 1 (physical quantities aand measurem...
Science enginering lab report experiment 1 (physical quantities aand measurem...
 
instrumentation electrical engineering Lecture 1.2.pptx
instrumentation electrical engineering Lecture 1.2.pptxinstrumentation electrical engineering Lecture 1.2.pptx
instrumentation electrical engineering Lecture 1.2.pptx
 
class 18.08.2020.pptx
class 18.08.2020.pptxclass 18.08.2020.pptx
class 18.08.2020.pptx
 
Errors in Measuring Instruments.ppt
Errors in Measuring Instruments.pptErrors in Measuring Instruments.ppt
Errors in Measuring Instruments.ppt
 
EM unit 1 part 5.pdf
EM unit 1 part 5.pdfEM unit 1 part 5.pdf
EM unit 1 part 5.pdf
 
Lecture 04: Errors During the Measurement Process
Lecture 04: Errors During the Measurement ProcessLecture 04: Errors During the Measurement Process
Lecture 04: Errors During the Measurement Process
 
introduction to Mechanical Measurement and Metrology.
introduction to Mechanical Measurement and Metrology.introduction to Mechanical Measurement and Metrology.
introduction to Mechanical Measurement and Metrology.
 
MEASUREMENTS-AND-INSTRUMENTATION.pptx
MEASUREMENTS-AND-INSTRUMENTATION.pptxMEASUREMENTS-AND-INSTRUMENTATION.pptx
MEASUREMENTS-AND-INSTRUMENTATION.pptx
 
Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements solutions manual Figliola 4th ed
Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements solutions manual Figliola 4th edTheory and Design for Mechanical Measurements solutions manual Figliola 4th ed
Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements solutions manual Figliola 4th ed
 
15694598371.Measurment.pdf
15694598371.Measurment.pdf15694598371.Measurment.pdf
15694598371.Measurment.pdf
 
Errors in measurement
Errors in measurementErrors in measurement
Errors in measurement
 
Measurement instruments Static and dynamic characteristics Calibration System...
Measurement instruments Static and dynamic characteristics Calibration System...Measurement instruments Static and dynamic characteristics Calibration System...
Measurement instruments Static and dynamic characteristics Calibration System...
 
Lets the accuracy talks
Lets the accuracy talksLets the accuracy talks
Lets the accuracy talks
 
Lets the accuracy talks
Lets the accuracy talksLets the accuracy talks
Lets the accuracy talks
 

More from Avinash Navin

CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamp) Report
CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamp) ReportCFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamp) Report
CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamp) ReportAvinash Navin
 
Shaper, Planer and Slotter
Shaper, Planer and SlotterShaper, Planer and Slotter
Shaper, Planer and SlotterAvinash Navin
 
Mechanical properties of Material
Mechanical properties of MaterialMechanical properties of Material
Mechanical properties of MaterialAvinash Navin
 
Compound Gear train
 Compound Gear train Compound Gear train
Compound Gear trainAvinash Navin
 
CCt Curve (continuos cooling transformation)
CCt Curve (continuos cooling transformation)CCt Curve (continuos cooling transformation)
CCt Curve (continuos cooling transformation)Avinash Navin
 
Measurement and Metrology
Measurement and MetrologyMeasurement and Metrology
Measurement and MetrologyAvinash Navin
 

More from Avinash Navin (11)

Cyber attack
Cyber attackCyber attack
Cyber attack
 
CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamp) Report
CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamp) ReportCFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamp) Report
CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamp) Report
 
Shaper, Planer and Slotter
Shaper, Planer and SlotterShaper, Planer and Slotter
Shaper, Planer and Slotter
 
Nozzle and diffuser
Nozzle and diffuserNozzle and diffuser
Nozzle and diffuser
 
Milling machines
Milling machinesMilling machines
Milling machines
 
Mechanical properties of Material
Mechanical properties of MaterialMechanical properties of Material
Mechanical properties of Material
 
Manometer
ManometerManometer
Manometer
 
Compound Gear train
 Compound Gear train Compound Gear train
Compound Gear train
 
Coining process
Coining processCoining process
Coining process
 
CCt Curve (continuos cooling transformation)
CCt Curve (continuos cooling transformation)CCt Curve (continuos cooling transformation)
CCt Curve (continuos cooling transformation)
 
Measurement and Metrology
Measurement and MetrologyMeasurement and Metrology
Measurement and Metrology
 

Recently uploaded

Novel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending Actuators
Novel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending ActuatorsNovel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending Actuators
Novel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending ActuatorsResearcher Researcher
 
GSK & SEAMANSHIP-IV LIFE SAVING APPLIANCES .pptx
GSK & SEAMANSHIP-IV LIFE SAVING APPLIANCES .pptxGSK & SEAMANSHIP-IV LIFE SAVING APPLIANCES .pptx
GSK & SEAMANSHIP-IV LIFE SAVING APPLIANCES .pptxshuklamittt0077
 
Main Memory Management in Operating System
Main Memory Management in Operating SystemMain Memory Management in Operating System
Main Memory Management in Operating SystemRashmi Bhat
 
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School CourseKatarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Coursebim.edu.pl
 
Input Output Management in Operating System
Input Output Management in Operating SystemInput Output Management in Operating System
Input Output Management in Operating SystemRashmi Bhat
 
Class 1 | NFPA 72 | Overview Fire Alarm System
Class 1 | NFPA 72 | Overview Fire Alarm SystemClass 1 | NFPA 72 | Overview Fire Alarm System
Class 1 | NFPA 72 | Overview Fire Alarm Systemirfanmechengr
 
CCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdf
CCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdfCCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdf
CCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdfAsst.prof M.Gokilavani
 
CS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdf
CS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdfCS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdf
CS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdfBalamuruganV28
 
"Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ...
"Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ..."Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ...
"Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ...Erbil Polytechnic University
 
Computer Graphics Introduction, Open GL, Line and Circle drawing algorithm
Computer Graphics Introduction, Open GL, Line and Circle drawing algorithmComputer Graphics Introduction, Open GL, Line and Circle drawing algorithm
Computer Graphics Introduction, Open GL, Line and Circle drawing algorithmDeepika Walanjkar
 
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event SchedulingSystem Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event SchedulingBootNeck1
 
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument methodLevelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument methodManicka Mamallan Andavar
 
High Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
High Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMSHigh Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
High Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMSsandhya757531
 
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdfCh10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdfChristianCDAM
 
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionUS Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionMebane Rash
 
Internship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptx
Internship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptxInternship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptx
Internship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptxmalikavita731
 
Robotics Group 10 (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
Robotics Group 10  (Control Schemes) cse.pdfRobotics Group 10  (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
Robotics Group 10 (Control Schemes) cse.pdfsahilsajad201
 
ROBOETHICS-CCS345 ETHICS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE.ppt
ROBOETHICS-CCS345 ETHICS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE.pptROBOETHICS-CCS345 ETHICS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE.ppt
ROBOETHICS-CCS345 ETHICS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE.pptJohnWilliam111370
 
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...Sumanth A
 
Correctly Loading Incremental Data at Scale
Correctly Loading Incremental Data at ScaleCorrectly Loading Incremental Data at Scale
Correctly Loading Incremental Data at ScaleAlluxio, Inc.
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Novel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending Actuators
Novel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending ActuatorsNovel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending Actuators
Novel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending Actuators
 
GSK & SEAMANSHIP-IV LIFE SAVING APPLIANCES .pptx
GSK & SEAMANSHIP-IV LIFE SAVING APPLIANCES .pptxGSK & SEAMANSHIP-IV LIFE SAVING APPLIANCES .pptx
GSK & SEAMANSHIP-IV LIFE SAVING APPLIANCES .pptx
 
Main Memory Management in Operating System
Main Memory Management in Operating SystemMain Memory Management in Operating System
Main Memory Management in Operating System
 
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School CourseKatarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
 
Input Output Management in Operating System
Input Output Management in Operating SystemInput Output Management in Operating System
Input Output Management in Operating System
 
Class 1 | NFPA 72 | Overview Fire Alarm System
Class 1 | NFPA 72 | Overview Fire Alarm SystemClass 1 | NFPA 72 | Overview Fire Alarm System
Class 1 | NFPA 72 | Overview Fire Alarm System
 
CCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdf
CCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdfCCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdf
CCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdf
 
CS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdf
CS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdfCS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdf
CS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdf
 
"Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ...
"Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ..."Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ...
"Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ...
 
Computer Graphics Introduction, Open GL, Line and Circle drawing algorithm
Computer Graphics Introduction, Open GL, Line and Circle drawing algorithmComputer Graphics Introduction, Open GL, Line and Circle drawing algorithm
Computer Graphics Introduction, Open GL, Line and Circle drawing algorithm
 
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event SchedulingSystem Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
 
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument methodLevelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
 
High Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
High Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMSHigh Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
High Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
 
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdfCh10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
 
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionUS Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
 
Internship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptx
Internship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptxInternship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptx
Internship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptx
 
Robotics Group 10 (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
Robotics Group 10  (Control Schemes) cse.pdfRobotics Group 10  (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
Robotics Group 10 (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
 
ROBOETHICS-CCS345 ETHICS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE.ppt
ROBOETHICS-CCS345 ETHICS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE.pptROBOETHICS-CCS345 ETHICS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE.ppt
ROBOETHICS-CCS345 ETHICS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE.ppt
 
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
 
Correctly Loading Incremental Data at Scale
Correctly Loading Incremental Data at ScaleCorrectly Loading Incremental Data at Scale
Correctly Loading Incremental Data at Scale
 

Error and its types

  • 2. CONTENT  Introduction  Types Of Errors  Gross Errors  Systematic Errors  Constructional Errors  Determination Errors  Random Errors
  • 3. INTRODUCTION  The difference between the observed or calculated value and true value is known as error
  • 4. TYPES OF ERRORS  Gross errors or mistakes :  Blunders  Computational errors  Chaotic errors  Systematic errors :  Instrument errors  Environment errors  Determination errors  Constructional error  Random errors
  • 5. GROSS ERRORS :  These errors are due to the gross blunder on the part of the experimenters or observers. These errors are caused by mistake in using instruments, recording data and calculating measurement results. For example: A person may read a pressure gauge indicating 1.01 N/m2 as 1.10 N/m2. Someone may have a bad habit of memorizing data at a time of reading and writing a number of data together at later time. This may cause error in the data. Errors may be made in calculating the final results. Another gross error arises when an experimenter makes use (by mistake) of an ordinary flow meter having poor sensitivity to measure low pressure in a system.
  • 6. SYSTEMATIC ERRORS :  These are inherent errors of apparatus or method. These errors always give a constant deviation. On the basis of the sources of errors, systematic errors may be divided into following sub-categories :  Constructional error  Determination errors  Instrument errors  Environment errors
  • 7. CONSTRUCTIONAL ERROR :  None of the apparatus can be constructed to satisfy all specifications completely. This is the reason of giving guarantee within a limit. Therefore, a manufacturers always mention the minimum possible errors in the construction of the instruments.
  • 8. ERRORS IN READING OR OBSERVATION  Following are some of the reasons of errors in results of the indicating instruments :  Construction of the Scale : There is a possibility of error due to the division of the scale not being uniform and clear.  Fitness and Straightness of the Pointer : If the pointer is not fine and straight, then it always gives the error in the reading.  Parallax : Without a mirror under the pointer there may be parallax error in reading.  Efficiency or Skills of the Observer : Error in the reading is largely dependent upon the skills of the observer by which reading is noted accurately.
  • 9. DETERMINATION ERROR :  It is due to the indefiniteness in final adjustment of measuring apparatus. For example, Maxwell Bridge method of measuring inductances, it is difficult to find the differences in sound of head phones for small change in resistance at the time of final adjustment. The error varies from person to person.
  • 10. ERROR DUE TO OTHER FACTORS :  Temperature Variation  Variation in temperature not only changes the values of the parameters but also brings changes in the reading of the instrument. For a consistent error, the temperature must be constant.  Effect of the Time on Instruments  There is a possibility of change in calibration error in the instrument with time. This may be called ageing of the instrument.
  • 11. ERROR DUE TO OTHER FACTORS :  Mechanical Error  Friction between stationary and rotating parts and residual torsion in suspension wire cause errors in instruments. So, checking should be applied. Generally, these errors may be checked from time to time.
  • 12. RANDOM ERROR :  After corrections have been applied for all the parameters whose influences are known, there is left a residue of deviation. These are random error and their magnitudes are not constant. Persons performing the experiment have no control over the origin of these errors. These errors are due to so many reasons such as noise and fatigue in the working persons. These errors may be either positive or negative. To these errors the law of probability may be applied. Generally, these errors may be minimized by taking average of a large number of readings.