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Enterprise Agility
Why is Transformation so Hard?
Teemu Karvonen
Helen Sharp
Leonor Barroca
The Open University
www.open.ac.uk
Presentation contents
Enterprise Agility: Why is Transformation so Hard?
● Introduction
● Agile Research Network
● Research Background Summary
● Enterprise Agility Viewpoints
● Frameworks and Definitions
● Transformation Approaches
● Case study @ Higher Education Domain
● Research context
● Research activities
● Findings
● Conclusions
● Why is Transformation so Hard?
● Transformation challenges
● Q&A
Agile Research Network | http://agileresearchnetwork.org/
Research Team
Helen Sharp Professor of
Software Engineering at the
Open University.
Peggy Gregory Senior
Lecturer in Computing at the
University of Central
Lancashire
Katie Taylor Senior Lecturer in
Computing at the University of
Central Lancashire
Daniel G. Cabrero Postdoc
Research Associate at the
Open University
Teemu Karvonen Postdoc
Research Associate at the
Open University
Leonor Barroca Senior
Lecturer in Computing at The
Open University
Raid AlQaisi Postdoc Research
Associate at the University of
Central Lancashire
The Open University University of Central Lancashire
Enterprise
Agility
Research Background
Why is Transformation so Hard?
Enterprise Agility
VERSIONONE 11th Annual State of Agile Report (http://stateofagile.versionone.com/)
2%
15%
19%
20%
31%
34%
34%
41%
43%
45%
47%
63%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
Don’t know
Regulatory compliance and governance
Ineffective collaboration
Fragmented tooling, data and measurements
Inconsistent agile practices and process
Insufficient training
Pervasiveness of traditional development
Lack of business/customer/product owner
General organisation resistance to change
Lack of management support
Lack of experience with agile methods
Company philosophy or culture at odds with core agile values
Challenges Experienced Adopting & Scaling Agile
What is
Enterprise Agility?
Different viewpoints
“Flexibilities”
Enterprise Agility
Econom
ic
Strategic
O
perational
O
rganisational ENTERPRISE
FLEXIBILITIES
“the speed of shifting from
one business to another”
“characteristic of the interface between
a system and its external environment…
flexibility acts as a filter, buffering the
system from external perturbations.
Flexibility thus functions as an absorber
for uncertainty.”
Toni, D.A., Tonchia, S.: Definitions and linkages between operational and strategic flexibilities. (2005)
“Strategic business management viewpoint”
Enterprise Agility
ENTERPRISE AGILITY
“The Sensing of
Unknown Futures”
Seizing –
Mobilisation of
resources"
Transforming –
Continued
renewal”AGILITY
DYNAMIC CAPABILITIES
ORDINARY CAPABILITIES
Teece, D., Peteraf, M., Leih, S.: Dynamic Capabilities and Organizational Agility: Risk, uncertainty, and Strategy in
the Innovation Economy. (2016)
”Top management viewpoint”
Enterprise Agility
● “many companies fail, not because they do something wrong or mediocre, but
because they keep doing what used to be the right thing for too long”
● “companies now need to transform their business models more rapidly, more
frequently and more far-reachingly than in the past”
ØContinuous Business Model Renewal
● “(Strategic agility is) thoughtful and purposive interplay’ on the part of
top management between three ‘meta-capabilities"
1. Strategic sensitivity
2. Leadership unity
3. Resource fluidity
Doz, Y.L., Kosonen, M.: Embedding Strategic Agility: A Leadership Agenda for Accelerating
Business Model Renewal (2010).
“Information Systems / R&D viewpoint”
Enterprise Agility
RESPONDINGCAPABILITY
SENSING CAPABILITY
The firm lacks both the ability to sense
relevant environmental change and the
ability to respond to it in an agile
manner
Well-developed sensing capabilities
allow the firm to detect environmental
change and identify emerging
opportunities. However, the firm fails to
capitalize on these opportunities
because it responds too slowly, not at
all, or in an inappropriate manner.
Flexible strategic and operating
capabilities permit the firm to rapidly
retool existing products, change
production volumes, customize service
offerings etc. However, the firm
consistently misses emerging
opportunities because it doesn’t know
where to apply its strengths (lost) or it
applies them to the wrong
opportunities (leaping)
Well-developed capabilities in R&D, IT,
government relations, market
intelligence etc. allow the firm to detect
environmental change caused by new
technologies, legal/regulatory change
etc. Strong strategic and operating
capabilities allow the firm to commit
the appropriate resources to seize the
opportunity in a timely manner.
Overby, E., Bharadwaj, A., Sambamurthy, V.: Enterprise agility and the enabling role of information technology. (2006)
“Software Engineering viewpoint”
Enterprise Agility
Business
Strategy
Development Operations
Continuous Improvement
Continuous
Planning
Continuous
Budgeting
Continuous
Use
Continuous
Trust
Continuous
Run-Time
Monitoring
Continuous Experimentation and Innovation
Fitzgerald, B., Stol, K.J.: Continuous software engineering: A roadmap and agenda, (2015)
Continuous
Delivery
Continuous
Integration
Continuous
Security
Continuous
Compliance
Continuous
Evolution
Continuous
Testing
DevOpsBizDev
“The Subtle Art of Enterprise Agility Transformation”
Enterprise Agility
ENTERPRISE AGILITY
Sense
Environmental
Change
CAPABILITIES
Seize,
Respond
Readily and
Appropriately
CAPABILITIES
Transform,
renewal,
shifting
CAPABILITIES
Internal/Operational
aspect
Human development,
communication
practices, commitment,
team empowerment,
self-management,
process efficiency,
consistency,
predictability…
External/Strategic
aspects
Innovation, effectiveness,
new resources, resilience,
customer involvement,
product quality,
experimentation…
ORGANISATIONAL VALUES, LEADERSHIP ETC
“Transformation Approaches”
Enterprise Agility
Scaled frameworks / operational scaling of agility (Scrum, Large Scale
Scrum, SAFe… etc.)
Step A Step B Step C
Sustainable excellence driven transformation (organisational culture, values,
leadership… )
HOLACRACY Management 3.0
Beyond
Budgeting
Business-driven / strategic transformation (continuous business model renewal)
BUSINESS
MODEL A
BUSINESS
MODEL B
BUSINESS
MODEL C
Business Model Canvas
Case Study
Research context
Enterprise Agility
● Large (>9000) and distributed organisation in higher education domain
● New strategy & transformation objectives 2017: Adaptive organisation,
learning material production speed, efficiency (cheaper, faster),
customer orientation etc, etc…
● Organisational structure including researchers, lecturers, IT people,
media production (online learning modules)…
● Qualitative data collected in meetings with managers, interviews with
change agents/coaches, participation to “Agile Discovery” sprints (5
months research period)
● Thematic analysis “What are the challenges related to
transformation?”
Research and data collection activities
Case Study
● Interviews, internal documents, meetings.
● “Agile Discovery” teams:
● Agile Principles -team
● Scrumban -team
● Kanban -team
● AgilePM (DSDM / Agile Project Management) -team
● Agile Teams and Organisation -team
Discovery sprint sessions Nov 2017-April 2018
Discovery
sprint/increment reviews:
Conclusions
Case study findings – Transformation challenges
Enterprise Agility
● Existing organisational cultural traits (Legacy of Hierarchy)
Bureaucracy in processes, organisational silos / tribes, handovers between units… ->
Ø Limited organisational adaptability, innovation and efficiency
Ø Slow customer feedback cycles
Ø Slow and expensive product improvement cycles (planning and budgeting of large projects, activities
spread over multiple organisations)
● Most acute challenges in renewal of production processes
● “Orchestration of transformation activities” - Multiple agile transformation activities were launched in but
top-down management synchronisation and alignment was considered still challenging.
● “Accumulation of bottom-up agile transformation innovations” - Sharing of experiences and best practices
related to team/project level transformation,
● “Establishing of long lasting Agile Team structures” – How to work like an Agile Team in an organisation
with various media production specialist, content editors, academics etc.
● ”Change towards minimum marketable products” – How to change people mindset, quality criteria, and
working practices towards rapid incremental delivery and continuous product improvement.
Summary - Why is Transformation so Hard?
Enterprise Agility
● Shaping of new company philosophy, organisational culture and values
Ø Understanding of existing organisational “actual values” -> Organisational culture diagnosis/assessment
(survey etc.)
Ø Creation of action plan for shifting from Hierarchy culture (control and efficiency) towards Adhocracy
culture (innovation, dynamic capabilities)
Ø Setting of short/ and long-term goals for change of organisational values and behaviours. Agreeing of
what to Try / Keep / Change
● Leveraging of experimental approach for “sustainable transformation”
Ø Alignment of bottom-up (subject matter experts) knowledge and Top-down (senior & middle management)
activities, innovation, support, empowerment
Ø Transformation knowledge management (organisational brain, knowledge repository for transformation,
sharing of best practices)
● Management of multidimensional change (maintaining a right level of control &
seeing the big picture)
Ø Balancing of cost for transformation and existing business activities (revenue)
Ø Operational agility / Strategic agility
Ø Enterprise internal/external stakeholders
Ø Leadership
Ø …
The Subtle Art of Enterprise Agility…
Agile Business Consortium
More information
https://www.agilebusiness.org/
Thank You!
Contact and more information:
http://agileresearchnetwork.org/
Teemu[dot]Karvonen@open.ac.uk
Helen[dot]Sharp@open.ac.uk
Leonor[dot]Barroca@open.ac.uk
The Open University
www.open.ac.uk

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Enterprise Agility

  • 1. Enterprise Agility Why is Transformation so Hard? Teemu Karvonen Helen Sharp Leonor Barroca The Open University www.open.ac.uk
  • 2. Presentation contents Enterprise Agility: Why is Transformation so Hard? ● Introduction ● Agile Research Network ● Research Background Summary ● Enterprise Agility Viewpoints ● Frameworks and Definitions ● Transformation Approaches ● Case study @ Higher Education Domain ● Research context ● Research activities ● Findings ● Conclusions ● Why is Transformation so Hard? ● Transformation challenges ● Q&A
  • 3. Agile Research Network | http://agileresearchnetwork.org/ Research Team Helen Sharp Professor of Software Engineering at the Open University. Peggy Gregory Senior Lecturer in Computing at the University of Central Lancashire Katie Taylor Senior Lecturer in Computing at the University of Central Lancashire Daniel G. Cabrero Postdoc Research Associate at the Open University Teemu Karvonen Postdoc Research Associate at the Open University Leonor Barroca Senior Lecturer in Computing at The Open University Raid AlQaisi Postdoc Research Associate at the University of Central Lancashire The Open University University of Central Lancashire
  • 5. Why is Transformation so Hard? Enterprise Agility VERSIONONE 11th Annual State of Agile Report (http://stateofagile.versionone.com/) 2% 15% 19% 20% 31% 34% 34% 41% 43% 45% 47% 63% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Don’t know Regulatory compliance and governance Ineffective collaboration Fragmented tooling, data and measurements Inconsistent agile practices and process Insufficient training Pervasiveness of traditional development Lack of business/customer/product owner General organisation resistance to change Lack of management support Lack of experience with agile methods Company philosophy or culture at odds with core agile values Challenges Experienced Adopting & Scaling Agile
  • 7. “Flexibilities” Enterprise Agility Econom ic Strategic O perational O rganisational ENTERPRISE FLEXIBILITIES “the speed of shifting from one business to another” “characteristic of the interface between a system and its external environment… flexibility acts as a filter, buffering the system from external perturbations. Flexibility thus functions as an absorber for uncertainty.” Toni, D.A., Tonchia, S.: Definitions and linkages between operational and strategic flexibilities. (2005)
  • 8. “Strategic business management viewpoint” Enterprise Agility ENTERPRISE AGILITY “The Sensing of Unknown Futures” Seizing – Mobilisation of resources" Transforming – Continued renewal”AGILITY DYNAMIC CAPABILITIES ORDINARY CAPABILITIES Teece, D., Peteraf, M., Leih, S.: Dynamic Capabilities and Organizational Agility: Risk, uncertainty, and Strategy in the Innovation Economy. (2016)
  • 9. ”Top management viewpoint” Enterprise Agility ● “many companies fail, not because they do something wrong or mediocre, but because they keep doing what used to be the right thing for too long” ● “companies now need to transform their business models more rapidly, more frequently and more far-reachingly than in the past” ØContinuous Business Model Renewal ● “(Strategic agility is) thoughtful and purposive interplay’ on the part of top management between three ‘meta-capabilities" 1. Strategic sensitivity 2. Leadership unity 3. Resource fluidity Doz, Y.L., Kosonen, M.: Embedding Strategic Agility: A Leadership Agenda for Accelerating Business Model Renewal (2010).
  • 10. “Information Systems / R&D viewpoint” Enterprise Agility RESPONDINGCAPABILITY SENSING CAPABILITY The firm lacks both the ability to sense relevant environmental change and the ability to respond to it in an agile manner Well-developed sensing capabilities allow the firm to detect environmental change and identify emerging opportunities. However, the firm fails to capitalize on these opportunities because it responds too slowly, not at all, or in an inappropriate manner. Flexible strategic and operating capabilities permit the firm to rapidly retool existing products, change production volumes, customize service offerings etc. However, the firm consistently misses emerging opportunities because it doesn’t know where to apply its strengths (lost) or it applies them to the wrong opportunities (leaping) Well-developed capabilities in R&D, IT, government relations, market intelligence etc. allow the firm to detect environmental change caused by new technologies, legal/regulatory change etc. Strong strategic and operating capabilities allow the firm to commit the appropriate resources to seize the opportunity in a timely manner. Overby, E., Bharadwaj, A., Sambamurthy, V.: Enterprise agility and the enabling role of information technology. (2006)
  • 11. “Software Engineering viewpoint” Enterprise Agility Business Strategy Development Operations Continuous Improvement Continuous Planning Continuous Budgeting Continuous Use Continuous Trust Continuous Run-Time Monitoring Continuous Experimentation and Innovation Fitzgerald, B., Stol, K.J.: Continuous software engineering: A roadmap and agenda, (2015) Continuous Delivery Continuous Integration Continuous Security Continuous Compliance Continuous Evolution Continuous Testing DevOpsBizDev
  • 12. “The Subtle Art of Enterprise Agility Transformation” Enterprise Agility ENTERPRISE AGILITY Sense Environmental Change CAPABILITIES Seize, Respond Readily and Appropriately CAPABILITIES Transform, renewal, shifting CAPABILITIES Internal/Operational aspect Human development, communication practices, commitment, team empowerment, self-management, process efficiency, consistency, predictability… External/Strategic aspects Innovation, effectiveness, new resources, resilience, customer involvement, product quality, experimentation… ORGANISATIONAL VALUES, LEADERSHIP ETC
  • 13. “Transformation Approaches” Enterprise Agility Scaled frameworks / operational scaling of agility (Scrum, Large Scale Scrum, SAFe… etc.) Step A Step B Step C Sustainable excellence driven transformation (organisational culture, values, leadership… ) HOLACRACY Management 3.0 Beyond Budgeting Business-driven / strategic transformation (continuous business model renewal) BUSINESS MODEL A BUSINESS MODEL B BUSINESS MODEL C Business Model Canvas
  • 15. Research context Enterprise Agility ● Large (>9000) and distributed organisation in higher education domain ● New strategy & transformation objectives 2017: Adaptive organisation, learning material production speed, efficiency (cheaper, faster), customer orientation etc, etc… ● Organisational structure including researchers, lecturers, IT people, media production (online learning modules)… ● Qualitative data collected in meetings with managers, interviews with change agents/coaches, participation to “Agile Discovery” sprints (5 months research period) ● Thematic analysis “What are the challenges related to transformation?”
  • 16. Research and data collection activities Case Study ● Interviews, internal documents, meetings. ● “Agile Discovery” teams: ● Agile Principles -team ● Scrumban -team ● Kanban -team ● AgilePM (DSDM / Agile Project Management) -team ● Agile Teams and Organisation -team Discovery sprint sessions Nov 2017-April 2018 Discovery sprint/increment reviews:
  • 18. Case study findings – Transformation challenges Enterprise Agility ● Existing organisational cultural traits (Legacy of Hierarchy) Bureaucracy in processes, organisational silos / tribes, handovers between units… -> Ø Limited organisational adaptability, innovation and efficiency Ø Slow customer feedback cycles Ø Slow and expensive product improvement cycles (planning and budgeting of large projects, activities spread over multiple organisations) ● Most acute challenges in renewal of production processes ● “Orchestration of transformation activities” - Multiple agile transformation activities were launched in but top-down management synchronisation and alignment was considered still challenging. ● “Accumulation of bottom-up agile transformation innovations” - Sharing of experiences and best practices related to team/project level transformation, ● “Establishing of long lasting Agile Team structures” – How to work like an Agile Team in an organisation with various media production specialist, content editors, academics etc. ● ”Change towards minimum marketable products” – How to change people mindset, quality criteria, and working practices towards rapid incremental delivery and continuous product improvement.
  • 19. Summary - Why is Transformation so Hard? Enterprise Agility ● Shaping of new company philosophy, organisational culture and values Ø Understanding of existing organisational “actual values” -> Organisational culture diagnosis/assessment (survey etc.) Ø Creation of action plan for shifting from Hierarchy culture (control and efficiency) towards Adhocracy culture (innovation, dynamic capabilities) Ø Setting of short/ and long-term goals for change of organisational values and behaviours. Agreeing of what to Try / Keep / Change ● Leveraging of experimental approach for “sustainable transformation” Ø Alignment of bottom-up (subject matter experts) knowledge and Top-down (senior & middle management) activities, innovation, support, empowerment Ø Transformation knowledge management (organisational brain, knowledge repository for transformation, sharing of best practices) ● Management of multidimensional change (maintaining a right level of control & seeing the big picture) Ø Balancing of cost for transformation and existing business activities (revenue) Ø Operational agility / Strategic agility Ø Enterprise internal/external stakeholders Ø Leadership Ø … The Subtle Art of Enterprise Agility…
  • 20. Agile Business Consortium More information https://www.agilebusiness.org/
  • 21. Thank You! Contact and more information: http://agileresearchnetwork.org/ Teemu[dot]Karvonen@open.ac.uk Helen[dot]Sharp@open.ac.uk Leonor[dot]Barroca@open.ac.uk The Open University www.open.ac.uk