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Electrical Materials
1. Conducting Material.
2. Magnetic Material
3. Insulating Material
• Electrically Conducting Material :- This materials carry current in an
electrical machine.
• Highly Conducting Material :- Copper, Aluminum, Gold, Silver.
• Highly resistive material:- Alloys (heating elements)
Now, R=Ro(1+αΔT)
Where α= temperature coefficient of resistance
ΔT= Change in temperature of per degree Celsius
R & Ro = Initial and final value of resistance
Properties of Highly Conducting material
• Highest Possible Conductivity
• Less temperature Coefficient of Resistance
• Adequate Mechanical Strength and absence of brittleness
• Rollability and Draw ability.
• Good weldability and solder ability to ensure the low resistance of
joints.
• Adequate resistance to corrosion.
Copper
• Machine Windings
Ϭau>Ϭag>Ϭcu>Ϭal
(Gold)> (Silver)> (Copper) >(Aluminum)
Ϭ= Conductivity of the material
• It is used to construct winding of an electrical machine because the cost is
not very high and it is highly conducting.
• Copper is resistance to oxidation and corrosion.
• Hard drawn copper wires are used in electrical machine because their
mechanical strength is high
αcu =0.00393 per degree Celsius
(high)
Aluminum
• Since copper is getting depleted aluminum is the next best choice for
conducting material it is abundantly available
• Aluminum cannot be drawn into thin wires but it can be used to form
thin sheets.
Parameter Copper (Cu) Aluminum (Al)
Cost 1 0.49
Cross Section Area 1 1.62
Diameter 1 1.27
Volume 1 2.04
Weight 1 0.49
Strength 1 0.64
Comparison of Aluminum(Al) and Copper(Cu)
Why cross sectional area of Aluminum(Al) is higher
then the cross sectional area of the copper(Cu) ?
• As we know that
• Ϭcu > Ϭal
• So, R=∫*l/A = l/Ϭ*A
• Since, Rcu = Ral
• Now, l/Ϭcu*Acu = l/Ϭal*Aal
• Therefore Aal = Ϭcu*Acu/Ϭal > Acu
Where∫ = resistivity of the material and Ϭ = conductivity of the material
and l=length of the material and A= cross sectional area of the material
Hence cross sectional area of Aluminum is higher then the cross sectional
area of Copper.
• For Al wire the size of slot required is higher as compared to Copper.
• For Induction motor above 100KW output Aluminum can be used for cage
rotor.
• Aluminum can be used to form foil type low voltage winding in a
transformer.
• Aluminum can be used to construct tank of a transformer to reduce stray
losses.
• Aluminum easily gets oxidized to form Al2O3 which prevent further
oxidation.

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Electrical material (conducting materials)1

  • 1. Electrical Materials 1. Conducting Material. 2. Magnetic Material 3. Insulating Material • Electrically Conducting Material :- This materials carry current in an electrical machine. • Highly Conducting Material :- Copper, Aluminum, Gold, Silver. • Highly resistive material:- Alloys (heating elements) Now, R=Ro(1+αΔT) Where α= temperature coefficient of resistance ΔT= Change in temperature of per degree Celsius R & Ro = Initial and final value of resistance
  • 2. Properties of Highly Conducting material • Highest Possible Conductivity • Less temperature Coefficient of Resistance • Adequate Mechanical Strength and absence of brittleness • Rollability and Draw ability. • Good weldability and solder ability to ensure the low resistance of joints. • Adequate resistance to corrosion.
  • 3. Copper • Machine Windings Ϭau>Ϭag>Ϭcu>Ϭal (Gold)> (Silver)> (Copper) >(Aluminum) Ϭ= Conductivity of the material • It is used to construct winding of an electrical machine because the cost is not very high and it is highly conducting. • Copper is resistance to oxidation and corrosion. • Hard drawn copper wires are used in electrical machine because their mechanical strength is high αcu =0.00393 per degree Celsius (high)
  • 4. Aluminum • Since copper is getting depleted aluminum is the next best choice for conducting material it is abundantly available • Aluminum cannot be drawn into thin wires but it can be used to form thin sheets.
  • 5. Parameter Copper (Cu) Aluminum (Al) Cost 1 0.49 Cross Section Area 1 1.62 Diameter 1 1.27 Volume 1 2.04 Weight 1 0.49 Strength 1 0.64 Comparison of Aluminum(Al) and Copper(Cu)
  • 6. Why cross sectional area of Aluminum(Al) is higher then the cross sectional area of the copper(Cu) ? • As we know that • Ϭcu > Ϭal • So, R=∫*l/A = l/Ϭ*A • Since, Rcu = Ral • Now, l/Ϭcu*Acu = l/Ϭal*Aal • Therefore Aal = Ϭcu*Acu/Ϭal > Acu Where∫ = resistivity of the material and Ϭ = conductivity of the material and l=length of the material and A= cross sectional area of the material Hence cross sectional area of Aluminum is higher then the cross sectional area of Copper.
  • 7. • For Al wire the size of slot required is higher as compared to Copper. • For Induction motor above 100KW output Aluminum can be used for cage rotor. • Aluminum can be used to form foil type low voltage winding in a transformer. • Aluminum can be used to construct tank of a transformer to reduce stray losses. • Aluminum easily gets oxidized to form Al2O3 which prevent further oxidation.