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ELECTRIC VEHICLES
CONTENTS:-
• What is Electric Vehicles
• Types of Electric Vehicles
• Electric Vehicles Industry in India
• Benefits of Electric Vehicles
• Challenges Faced
What is Electric Vehicles
• An electric vehicle (EV) is one that operates on an electric motor, instead of an
internal-combustion engine that generates power by burning a mix of fuel and
gases. Therefore, such as vehicle is seen as a possible replacement for current-
generation automobile, in order to address the issue of rising pollution, global
warming, depleting natural resources, etc. Though the concept of electric vehicles
has been around for a long time, it has drawn a considerable amount of interest in
the past decade amid a rising carbon footprint and other environmental impacts of
fuel-based vehicles.
Types Of Electric Vehicles
• There are three main types of electric vehicles (EVs), classed by the
degree that electricity is used as their energy source. BEVs, or battery
electric vehicles, PHEVs of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and
HEVs, or hybrid electric vehicles. Only BEVs are capable of charging.
Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV)
• Battery Electric Vehicles, also called BEVs, and more frequently
called EVs, are fully-electric vehicles with rechargeable batteries and
no gasoline engine. Battery electric vehicles store electricity onboard
with high-capacity battery packs. Their battery power is used to run
the electric motor and all onboard electronics. BEVs do not emit any
harmful emissions and hazards caused by traditional gasoline-powered
vehicles. BEVs are charged by electricity from an external source.
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
• Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles or PHEVs can recharge the battery
through both regenerative braking and “plugging in” to an external
source of electrical power. While “standard” hybrids can (at low
speed) go about 1-2 miles before the gasoline engine turns on, PHEV
models can go anywhere from 10-40 miles before their gas engines
provide assistance.
Hybrid Electric Vehicles
(HEV)
• HEVs are powered by both gasoline and
electricity. The electric energy is
generated by the car’s own braking
system to recharge the battery. This is
called ‘regenerative braking’, a process
where the electric motor helps to slow
the vehicle and uses some of the energy
normally converted to heat by the
brakes.
• HEVs start off using the electric motor,
then the gasoline engine cuts in as load
or speed rises. The two motors are
controlled by an internal computer,
which ensures the best economy for the
driving conditions.
ELECTRIC VEHICLE INDUSTRY IN
INDIA
• In India, the first concrete decision to incentivize electric vehicles was taken in
2010. According to a Rs 95-crore scheme approved by the Ministry of New and
Renewable Energy (MNRE), the government announced a financial incentive for
manufacturers for electric vehicles sold in India. The scheme, effective from
November 2010, envisaged incentives of up to 20 per cent on ex-factory prices of
vehicles, subject to a maximum limit. However, the subsidy scheme was later
withdrawn by the MNRE in March 2012.
• In 2013, India unveiled the 'National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020' to make a
major shift to electric vehicles and to address the issues of national energy security, vehicular
pollution and growth of domestic manufacturing capabilities. Though the scheme was to offer
subsidies and create supporting infrastructure for e-vehicles, the plan mostly remained on
papers. While presenting the Union Budget for 2015-16 in Parliament, then finance minister
Arun Jaitley announced faster adoption and manufacturing of electric vehicles (FAME), with an
initial outlay of Rs 75 crore. The scheme was announced with an aim to offer incentives for
clean-fuel technology cars to boost their sales to up to 7 million vehicles by 2020.
• In 2017, Transport Minister Nitin Gadkari made a statement showing India’s intent to move to
100 per cent electric cars by 2030. However, the automobile industry raised concerns over the
execution of such a plan. The government subsequently diluted the plan from 100 per cent to 30
per cent.
• In February 2019, the Union Cabinet cleared a Rs 10,000-crore programme under the FAME-II
scheme. This scheme came into force from April 1, 2019. The main objective of the scheme is to
encourage a faster adoption of electric and hybrid vehicles by offering upfront incentives on
purchase of electric vehicles and also by establishing necessary charging infrastructure for EVs.
Benefits of Electric Vehicles
• Cheaper to run because electricity is cheaper then petrol.
• Better for the environment
• Reduce noise pollution
• Less dependency on foreign oil.
• Maintenance cost is low
CHALLENGES FACED
• Lack of charging infrastructure:-
The charging infrastructure for electric vehicles in India has not been
fully developed yet.
• Cost:-
The cost of EVs is very high mainly due to the cost of Li-ion cells. The battery
packs are imported and cost a lot, about $275/KWh in India
• Lack of renewable energy and grid infrastructure:-
In India electricity is mainly produced by burning coal, which produces a
great amount of greenhouse emissions. With the introduction of EVs and
charging infrastructure, the electricity demand will go up a lot and the whole
point of introducing EVs to reduce GHG emissions would be ineffective, if all
this electricity was produced by burning coal.

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Electric vehicles

  • 2. CONTENTS:- • What is Electric Vehicles • Types of Electric Vehicles • Electric Vehicles Industry in India • Benefits of Electric Vehicles • Challenges Faced
  • 3. What is Electric Vehicles • An electric vehicle (EV) is one that operates on an electric motor, instead of an internal-combustion engine that generates power by burning a mix of fuel and gases. Therefore, such as vehicle is seen as a possible replacement for current- generation automobile, in order to address the issue of rising pollution, global warming, depleting natural resources, etc. Though the concept of electric vehicles has been around for a long time, it has drawn a considerable amount of interest in the past decade amid a rising carbon footprint and other environmental impacts of fuel-based vehicles.
  • 4. Types Of Electric Vehicles • There are three main types of electric vehicles (EVs), classed by the degree that electricity is used as their energy source. BEVs, or battery electric vehicles, PHEVs of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and HEVs, or hybrid electric vehicles. Only BEVs are capable of charging.
  • 5. Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) • Battery Electric Vehicles, also called BEVs, and more frequently called EVs, are fully-electric vehicles with rechargeable batteries and no gasoline engine. Battery electric vehicles store electricity onboard with high-capacity battery packs. Their battery power is used to run the electric motor and all onboard electronics. BEVs do not emit any harmful emissions and hazards caused by traditional gasoline-powered vehicles. BEVs are charged by electricity from an external source.
  • 6. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) • Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles or PHEVs can recharge the battery through both regenerative braking and “plugging in” to an external source of electrical power. While “standard” hybrids can (at low speed) go about 1-2 miles before the gasoline engine turns on, PHEV models can go anywhere from 10-40 miles before their gas engines provide assistance.
  • 7. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) • HEVs are powered by both gasoline and electricity. The electric energy is generated by the car’s own braking system to recharge the battery. This is called ‘regenerative braking’, a process where the electric motor helps to slow the vehicle and uses some of the energy normally converted to heat by the brakes. • HEVs start off using the electric motor, then the gasoline engine cuts in as load or speed rises. The two motors are controlled by an internal computer, which ensures the best economy for the driving conditions.
  • 8. ELECTRIC VEHICLE INDUSTRY IN INDIA • In India, the first concrete decision to incentivize electric vehicles was taken in 2010. According to a Rs 95-crore scheme approved by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), the government announced a financial incentive for manufacturers for electric vehicles sold in India. The scheme, effective from November 2010, envisaged incentives of up to 20 per cent on ex-factory prices of vehicles, subject to a maximum limit. However, the subsidy scheme was later withdrawn by the MNRE in March 2012.
  • 9. • In 2013, India unveiled the 'National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020' to make a major shift to electric vehicles and to address the issues of national energy security, vehicular pollution and growth of domestic manufacturing capabilities. Though the scheme was to offer subsidies and create supporting infrastructure for e-vehicles, the plan mostly remained on papers. While presenting the Union Budget for 2015-16 in Parliament, then finance minister Arun Jaitley announced faster adoption and manufacturing of electric vehicles (FAME), with an initial outlay of Rs 75 crore. The scheme was announced with an aim to offer incentives for clean-fuel technology cars to boost their sales to up to 7 million vehicles by 2020. • In 2017, Transport Minister Nitin Gadkari made a statement showing India’s intent to move to 100 per cent electric cars by 2030. However, the automobile industry raised concerns over the execution of such a plan. The government subsequently diluted the plan from 100 per cent to 30 per cent. • In February 2019, the Union Cabinet cleared a Rs 10,000-crore programme under the FAME-II scheme. This scheme came into force from April 1, 2019. The main objective of the scheme is to encourage a faster adoption of electric and hybrid vehicles by offering upfront incentives on purchase of electric vehicles and also by establishing necessary charging infrastructure for EVs.
  • 10. Benefits of Electric Vehicles • Cheaper to run because electricity is cheaper then petrol. • Better for the environment • Reduce noise pollution • Less dependency on foreign oil. • Maintenance cost is low
  • 11. CHALLENGES FACED • Lack of charging infrastructure:- The charging infrastructure for electric vehicles in India has not been fully developed yet. • Cost:- The cost of EVs is very high mainly due to the cost of Li-ion cells. The battery packs are imported and cost a lot, about $275/KWh in India • Lack of renewable energy and grid infrastructure:- In India electricity is mainly produced by burning coal, which produces a great amount of greenhouse emissions. With the introduction of EVs and charging infrastructure, the electricity demand will go up a lot and the whole point of introducing EVs to reduce GHG emissions would be ineffective, if all this electricity was produced by burning coal.