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Influence of Organizational Factors on
the roles of Academic Middle Managers
                   Ton Kallenberg
      Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam - The Netherlands




         Paper Presentation 34th EAIR annual forum
       The Social Contract of Higher Education
         Stavanger - Norway - September 5-8, 2012
1. Introduction
1. Introduction to the research
2. the Academic Middle Manager
3. Research Methods and
   Results
4. Conclusions
5. Tips, Questions, Dialogue
Higher Education institutes
have to deal with a dynamic
and competitive area.
Changes on regional, national and
international level leads to an increasing
competition for having the best students,
and attract the best teachers and the best
researchers. Universities compete for
subsidies, external funded programs and
the best image / ranking on education
and/or research. This competition changes
the way universities function.
... gives an impulse for strategic
innovation ...
The impulse for strategic innovation sets
requirements for the management of HE-
institutions to
(1) think and act strategically
and also to
(2) translate the organizational strategy to
the operational level (esp. processes of
learning and teaching)
So the problem statement
resulting from this is ...
HE institutions have to innovate.

If not (or insufficient):

they lose the competition (for students,
research-grants, image, etc.), their role
becomes smaller, programs will disappear,
(esp. Masters!) etc.
But: HE institutions are big
organizations with much
clashes of interest ...
• tension of focus: centralization versus
    decentralization
•   tension of interest: education versus
    research
•   tension of functions: administrators
    (managerial efficiency) versus professionals
    (content quality)
•   tension of initiative: top-down versus
    bottom-up
•   tension of control: hierarchy versus
    collegiality
Result: Strategic innovations
are difficult to implement
Innovation in large organizations often
prove viscous and unmanageble, without
real clarity of reasons.

In particular the translation of strategic to
operational level results in many clashes of
interest.
Result: Strategic innovations
are difficult to implement
Innovation in large organizations often
prove viscous and unmanageble, without
real clarity of reasons.

In particular the translation of strategic to
operational level results in many clashes of
interest.

“Innovating universities is like moving a graveyard:
not entire impossible,
but don’t expect any cooperation from within.”
in the centre of the clashes of
interest:
the academic middle manager
academic middle manager holds a crucial
(paradoxal) position in the HE-organization.

Yet it has hardly been researched.
So it’s not clear which influence they have.
Therefore this research!

Research Question:
Which roles does an academic middle manager in   “You’re damned if you do and
HE perform during strategic innovations?         you’re damned if you don’t.”
Secondary questions:
Which factors affect these roles?                 “You’re in the line of fire
                                                 whether you want it or not”
Conceptual Framework
Minor influence on           Major influence on
                                strategic innovations     strategic innovations
                             Organizational variables

Context                         Stable                               Turbulence


Structure                       Fixed                                      Lose


Culture                         Conservative                          Innovative


                           Functional related Variables

Involvement                     Indifferent                              Driven


Autonomy                        Limited                             Independent


Academic leaderschip / authority Manager                                 Leader
Middle management


* in definitions three elements (Livian c.s., 1997):
  a. they constitute the middle of the command
  line (hierarchy)
  b. decisions with regard to time perspective and
  range are between strategic and operational
  routine decisions.
  c. influence in the organization holds the middle
  between crucial and barely visible
Definition
Academic Middle Manager
...is integrally responsible for program
curricula, within the strategy
- including participation in decisions on
institutional strategy and responsibility for
School/faculty strategy -
through to educational management
- including control of education and research
programs and student relations
within the governing board’s parameters.
                                 (Kallenberg, 2007)
Board University

                                                      University
                                                        Staff
                                                     Departments


Faculty X                    Dean Faculty                       Faculty Y




                                                     Head / Director
   Director Research       Director Education
                                                      Department




                             Schools / Educational
 Research Institutes
                                  Programs
     Managers
                                  Managers
 Coordinators / Head
                              Coordinators / Head




                 Professionals:
                  Professors
              Associate Professors                    Administrators
                 Researchers
                   Teachers
Influencing the strategic
innovation

The Academic Middle has the position to
influence strategic innovation because he
has:
• a unique (tacit) knowledge base (of what is
  happening in the organization)
• the opportunity to integrate strategic
  information with operational information
• ...
Expected roles of the (middle) manager
                                  (Quinn & Rohrbauch, 1983)
Human Relations Model                                            Open Systems Model
 Cohesion, morale and                                            Flexibility, Innovation,
  Human Resources                                                       Synergy



                               mentor                innovator
               facilitator




                                                                      broker
                                                                      producer
               monitory




                             coordinator              director

Internal Process Model
                                                                  Rational Goal Model
Process Management,
                                                                 Productivity, efficiency
   hierarchy, stability,
                                                                   "The Bottom Line"
         control
Expected roles of the (middle) manager
                                  (Quinn & Rohrbauch, 1983)
Human Relations Model                                            Open Systems Model
 Cohesion, morale and                                            Flexibility, Innovation,
  Human Resources                                                       Synergy



              Monitory - f.i.:
                     mentor                          innovator
              quality education;
              educational work
               facilitator




                                                                      broker
              plan; finance;
              accommodation
              (ICT); controll

                                                 Coordinator - f.i.:




                                                                      producer
               monitory




                                                 time-table
                                                 (students and
                                                 teachers), student
                             coordinator         administration
                                                     director

Internal Process Model
                                                                  Rational Goal Model
Process Management,
                                                                 Productivity, efficiency
   hierarchy, stability,
                                                                   "The Bottom Line"
         control
Expected roles of the (middle) manager
                                (Quinn & Rohrbauch, 1983)
Human Relations Model                                            Open Systems Model
 Cohesion, morale and                                            Flexibility, Innovation,
  Human Resources                                                       Synergy



                             mentor                innovator
                                                Mentor - f.i.:
                                                coaching, training,
               facilitator




                                                                      broker
                                                accompany (new
                                                teachers)


              Facilitator - f.i.:




                                                                      producer
               monitory




              organising meetings,
              knowledge
              dissemination,
              conflictmanagement
                     coordinator                    director

Internal Process Model
                                                                  Rational Goal Model
Process Management,
                                                                 Productivity, efficiency
   hierarchy, stability,
                                                                   "The Bottom Line"
         control
Expected roles of the (middle) manager
                                  (Quinn & Rohrbauch, 1983)
Human Relations Model                                                Open Systems Model
 Cohesion, morale and                                                Flexibility, Innovation,
  Human Resources                                                           Synergy


                     Innovator - f.i.:
                          mentor                     innovator
                     bring in new
                     ideas, maintain
               facilitator




                                                                          broker
                     developments,
                     new methods and
                     concepts

                                                    Broker - f.i.:
                                                    maintain and




                                                                          producer
               monitory




                                                    build contacts (in/
                                                    extern); create
                                                    support;
                             coordinator              director
                                                    represent school
Internal Process Model
                                                                  Rational Goal Model
Process Management,
                                                                 Productivity, efficiency
   hierarchy, stability,
                                                                   "The Bottom Line"
         control
Expected roles of the (middle) manager
                                  (Quinn & Rohrbauch, 1983)
Human Relations Model                                            Open Systems Model
 Cohesion, morale and                                            Flexibility, Innovation,
  Human Resources                                                       Synergy



                               mentor                innovator
                                                   Producer - f.i.:
               facilitator
                                                   focus on results




                                                                      broker
                                                   (quality/quantity);
                                                   timemanagement




                                                                      producer
               monitory




                    Director - f.i.:
                    define vision,
                    strategy, planning
                             coordinator              director

Internal Process Model
                                                                  Rational Goal Model
Process Management,
                                                                 Productivity, efficiency
   hierarchy, stability,
                                                                   "The Bottom Line"
         control
Method
• survey (2009) - HE in the Netherlands:
  14 universities + 44 universities of applied
  sciences
• 750 random selected mail-adresses:
  304 respondents - 246 in dataset (33,37%)
• analyses in SPSS
• constructs: caesura on Cronbach’s alpha
  > ,75
real roles
Human Relations Model                                            Open Systems Model
 Cohesion, morale and                                            Flexibility, Innovation,
  Human Resources                                                       Synergy



                                mentor            innovator

                                     ,787        ,698
               facilitator




                                                                      broker
                             ,717                           ,818

                             ,580                           ,833




                                                                      producer
               monitory




                                     ,624        ,861
                              coordinator             director

Internal Process Model
                                                                  Rational Goal Model
Process Management,
                                                                 Productivity, efficiency
   hierarchy, stability,
                                                                   "The Bottom Line"
         control
Results 1 - correlation
Organizational Factors with
Roles AMM

                        Mentor                      Broker     Producer   Director


   Context                   ,049                       ,102     ,193**     ,143*


   Structure              -,152*                      -,063       -,042     -,035


   Culture                   ,015                       ,054       ,076      ,042



** = Correlation is significant at the 0,01 level (2-tailed)
* = Correlation is significant at the 0,05 level (2-tailed)
Results 2 - correlation
Organizational factors with
other constructs


                                                                                                    Academic
             Context Structure     Culture            Autonomy Commitment
                                                                                                    Leadership
 Context           1
 Structure      ,142*        1
  Culture      ,345**     ,101                    1
 Autonomy      ,193**     ,089          ,254**                           1
Commitment     ,273**    -,047          ,282**                 ,258**                          1
Academic
                ,131*    -,032             ,122                  ,136*                     ,288**            1
Leadership
                             ** = Correlation is significant at the 0,01 level (2-tailed)
                             * = Correlation is significant at the 0,05 level (2-tailed)
Results 3 - Correlation Organizational
Factors with Roles. (Respondents split in
Director and Manager level)




                                                                 Mentor      Broker     Producer     Director
 Context                    Director/deans                     ,111       ,121        ,244**       ,240**
                            Managers/heads ,026                           ,030        ,087         -,024
 Structure                  Director/deans                     -,074      ,128        ,056         ,060
                            Managers/heads -,137                          ,057        -,034        -,075
 Culture                    Director/deans                     ,068       ,144        ,157         ,140
                            Managers/heads ,065                           ,024        ,175         ,014

 ** = Correlation is significant at the 0,01 level (2-tailed)
 * = Correlation is significant at the 0,05 level (2-tailed)
Results 4 - Correlation Organizational
Factors with Roles. (Respondents split in
University and HBO level)




** = Correlation is significant at the 0,01 level (2-tailed)
* = Correlation is significant at the 0,05 level (2-tailed)


                                                              Mentor     Broker     Producer     Director
 Context                       Univ of Appl Sc                   ,062        ,180        ,160         ,035
                               University                        -,004       ,025        ,172*       ,193*

 Structure                     Univ of Appl Sc                   -,086       ,038        ,026         -,011
                               University                        -,116       ,170        ,113         ,080

 Culture                       Univ of Appl Sc                   ,175        ,113        ,158         ,101
                               University                        -,072      -,013        ,074         ,013
Conclusions
• In a turbulent context Academic Middle
  Managers will perform roles as producer
  and director
• A turbulent context stimulate a more
  innovative culture (,345**)
• The way Universities are structured
  doesn’t influence the way Academic
  Middle Managers perform their roles
• Organizational variables doesn’t influence
  the way Academic Middle Managers at
  Universities op Applied Sciences perform
  their roles.
Thank you for your attention:




You are invited to download the presentation on:
www.slidesharenet.com/tonkallenberg
The paper will be available on:
http://eur.academia.edu/TonKallenberg

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Eair 2012 kallenberg

  • 1. Influence of Organizational Factors on the roles of Academic Middle Managers Ton Kallenberg Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam - The Netherlands Paper Presentation 34th EAIR annual forum The Social Contract of Higher Education Stavanger - Norway - September 5-8, 2012
  • 2. 1. Introduction 1. Introduction to the research 2. the Academic Middle Manager 3. Research Methods and Results 4. Conclusions 5. Tips, Questions, Dialogue
  • 3. Higher Education institutes have to deal with a dynamic and competitive area. Changes on regional, national and international level leads to an increasing competition for having the best students, and attract the best teachers and the best researchers. Universities compete for subsidies, external funded programs and the best image / ranking on education and/or research. This competition changes the way universities function.
  • 4. ... gives an impulse for strategic innovation ... The impulse for strategic innovation sets requirements for the management of HE- institutions to (1) think and act strategically and also to (2) translate the organizational strategy to the operational level (esp. processes of learning and teaching)
  • 5. So the problem statement resulting from this is ... HE institutions have to innovate. If not (or insufficient): they lose the competition (for students, research-grants, image, etc.), their role becomes smaller, programs will disappear, (esp. Masters!) etc.
  • 6. But: HE institutions are big organizations with much clashes of interest ... • tension of focus: centralization versus decentralization • tension of interest: education versus research • tension of functions: administrators (managerial efficiency) versus professionals (content quality) • tension of initiative: top-down versus bottom-up • tension of control: hierarchy versus collegiality
  • 7. Result: Strategic innovations are difficult to implement Innovation in large organizations often prove viscous and unmanageble, without real clarity of reasons. In particular the translation of strategic to operational level results in many clashes of interest.
  • 8. Result: Strategic innovations are difficult to implement Innovation in large organizations often prove viscous and unmanageble, without real clarity of reasons. In particular the translation of strategic to operational level results in many clashes of interest. “Innovating universities is like moving a graveyard: not entire impossible, but don’t expect any cooperation from within.”
  • 9. in the centre of the clashes of interest: the academic middle manager academic middle manager holds a crucial (paradoxal) position in the HE-organization. Yet it has hardly been researched. So it’s not clear which influence they have. Therefore this research! Research Question: Which roles does an academic middle manager in “You’re damned if you do and HE perform during strategic innovations? you’re damned if you don’t.” Secondary questions: Which factors affect these roles? “You’re in the line of fire whether you want it or not”
  • 11. Minor influence on Major influence on strategic innovations strategic innovations Organizational variables Context Stable Turbulence Structure Fixed Lose Culture Conservative Innovative Functional related Variables Involvement Indifferent Driven Autonomy Limited Independent Academic leaderschip / authority Manager Leader
  • 12. Middle management * in definitions three elements (Livian c.s., 1997): a. they constitute the middle of the command line (hierarchy) b. decisions with regard to time perspective and range are between strategic and operational routine decisions. c. influence in the organization holds the middle between crucial and barely visible
  • 13. Definition Academic Middle Manager ...is integrally responsible for program curricula, within the strategy - including participation in decisions on institutional strategy and responsibility for School/faculty strategy - through to educational management - including control of education and research programs and student relations within the governing board’s parameters. (Kallenberg, 2007)
  • 14. Board University University Staff Departments Faculty X Dean Faculty Faculty Y Head / Director Director Research Director Education Department Schools / Educational Research Institutes Programs Managers Managers Coordinators / Head Coordinators / Head Professionals: Professors Associate Professors Administrators Researchers Teachers
  • 15. Influencing the strategic innovation The Academic Middle has the position to influence strategic innovation because he has: • a unique (tacit) knowledge base (of what is happening in the organization) • the opportunity to integrate strategic information with operational information • ...
  • 16. Expected roles of the (middle) manager (Quinn & Rohrbauch, 1983) Human Relations Model Open Systems Model Cohesion, morale and Flexibility, Innovation, Human Resources Synergy mentor innovator facilitator broker producer monitory coordinator director Internal Process Model Rational Goal Model Process Management, Productivity, efficiency hierarchy, stability, "The Bottom Line" control
  • 17. Expected roles of the (middle) manager (Quinn & Rohrbauch, 1983) Human Relations Model Open Systems Model Cohesion, morale and Flexibility, Innovation, Human Resources Synergy Monitory - f.i.: mentor innovator quality education; educational work facilitator broker plan; finance; accommodation (ICT); controll Coordinator - f.i.: producer monitory time-table (students and teachers), student coordinator administration director Internal Process Model Rational Goal Model Process Management, Productivity, efficiency hierarchy, stability, "The Bottom Line" control
  • 18. Expected roles of the (middle) manager (Quinn & Rohrbauch, 1983) Human Relations Model Open Systems Model Cohesion, morale and Flexibility, Innovation, Human Resources Synergy mentor innovator Mentor - f.i.: coaching, training, facilitator broker accompany (new teachers) Facilitator - f.i.: producer monitory organising meetings, knowledge dissemination, conflictmanagement coordinator director Internal Process Model Rational Goal Model Process Management, Productivity, efficiency hierarchy, stability, "The Bottom Line" control
  • 19. Expected roles of the (middle) manager (Quinn & Rohrbauch, 1983) Human Relations Model Open Systems Model Cohesion, morale and Flexibility, Innovation, Human Resources Synergy Innovator - f.i.: mentor innovator bring in new ideas, maintain facilitator broker developments, new methods and concepts Broker - f.i.: maintain and producer monitory build contacts (in/ extern); create support; coordinator director represent school Internal Process Model Rational Goal Model Process Management, Productivity, efficiency hierarchy, stability, "The Bottom Line" control
  • 20. Expected roles of the (middle) manager (Quinn & Rohrbauch, 1983) Human Relations Model Open Systems Model Cohesion, morale and Flexibility, Innovation, Human Resources Synergy mentor innovator Producer - f.i.: facilitator focus on results broker (quality/quantity); timemanagement producer monitory Director - f.i.: define vision, strategy, planning coordinator director Internal Process Model Rational Goal Model Process Management, Productivity, efficiency hierarchy, stability, "The Bottom Line" control
  • 21. Method • survey (2009) - HE in the Netherlands: 14 universities + 44 universities of applied sciences • 750 random selected mail-adresses: 304 respondents - 246 in dataset (33,37%) • analyses in SPSS • constructs: caesura on Cronbach’s alpha > ,75
  • 22. real roles Human Relations Model Open Systems Model Cohesion, morale and Flexibility, Innovation, Human Resources Synergy mentor innovator ,787 ,698 facilitator broker ,717 ,818 ,580 ,833 producer monitory ,624 ,861 coordinator director Internal Process Model Rational Goal Model Process Management, Productivity, efficiency hierarchy, stability, "The Bottom Line" control
  • 23. Results 1 - correlation Organizational Factors with Roles AMM Mentor Broker Producer Director Context ,049 ,102 ,193** ,143* Structure -,152* -,063 -,042 -,035 Culture ,015 ,054 ,076 ,042 ** = Correlation is significant at the 0,01 level (2-tailed) * = Correlation is significant at the 0,05 level (2-tailed)
  • 24. Results 2 - correlation Organizational factors with other constructs Academic Context Structure Culture Autonomy Commitment Leadership Context 1 Structure ,142* 1 Culture ,345** ,101 1 Autonomy ,193** ,089 ,254** 1 Commitment ,273** -,047 ,282** ,258** 1 Academic ,131* -,032 ,122 ,136* ,288** 1 Leadership ** = Correlation is significant at the 0,01 level (2-tailed) * = Correlation is significant at the 0,05 level (2-tailed)
  • 25. Results 3 - Correlation Organizational Factors with Roles. (Respondents split in Director and Manager level) Mentor Broker Producer Director Context Director/deans ,111 ,121 ,244** ,240** Managers/heads ,026 ,030 ,087 -,024 Structure Director/deans -,074 ,128 ,056 ,060 Managers/heads -,137 ,057 -,034 -,075 Culture Director/deans ,068 ,144 ,157 ,140 Managers/heads ,065 ,024 ,175 ,014 ** = Correlation is significant at the 0,01 level (2-tailed) * = Correlation is significant at the 0,05 level (2-tailed)
  • 26. Results 4 - Correlation Organizational Factors with Roles. (Respondents split in University and HBO level) ** = Correlation is significant at the 0,01 level (2-tailed) * = Correlation is significant at the 0,05 level (2-tailed) Mentor Broker Producer Director Context Univ of Appl Sc ,062 ,180 ,160 ,035 University -,004 ,025 ,172* ,193* Structure Univ of Appl Sc -,086 ,038 ,026 -,011 University -,116 ,170 ,113 ,080 Culture Univ of Appl Sc ,175 ,113 ,158 ,101 University -,072 -,013 ,074 ,013
  • 27. Conclusions • In a turbulent context Academic Middle Managers will perform roles as producer and director • A turbulent context stimulate a more innovative culture (,345**) • The way Universities are structured doesn’t influence the way Academic Middle Managers perform their roles • Organizational variables doesn’t influence the way Academic Middle Managers at Universities op Applied Sciences perform their roles.
  • 28. Thank you for your attention: You are invited to download the presentation on: www.slidesharenet.com/tonkallenberg The paper will be available on: http://eur.academia.edu/TonKallenberg

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