Curriculum approaches


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Curriculum Approaches
(1) Behavioral-Rational Approach
(2) Systems-Managerial Approach

Bago, A. (2008)

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Curriculum approaches

  2. 2. IntroductionO Bago (2008) said that the analysis of an approach provides information about personal and collective commitments to a particular viewpoint and the values deemed important by individuals, school and society.
  3. 3. 2 broad contrasting categories: O Technical-Scientific reflecting the traditional orientation about education and formal methods of schooling O Non-technical-Non-scientific tend to challenge the traditional theories and practices in education, rendering it as a progressive approach in education
  4. 4. A. Technical/ScientificO This type of approach view curriculum development as something similar to engineering or architecture.O use instruments and empirical methods in preparing a blueprint with well – defined elements, orderly sequenced procedures, and quality control measures to increase the probability of success in its implementation
  5. 5. Behavioral-Rational Approach O the oldest and still more preferred approach by many educators (Taba and Tyler models) O defines the why (objectives), what (content), how (method), when (sequence) and how much (scope) O Formulated are goals and objectives content and the evaluation of learning outcomes
  6. 6. Behavioral-Rational Approach means-ends approach MEANS = CURRICULUM ENDS = INSTRUCTION
  7. 7. Behavioral-Rational Approach O This means-end view focuses on the need for behavioural objectives to serve as guides to instruction and to determine whether its desired ends are realized.
  8. 8. Learning Experiences O Taba: “Perhaps the first important consideration in achieving a wider range of objectives is the fact that the learning experiences and not the content as such, are the means for achieving all objectives besides those of knowledge and understanding.”
  9. 9. Learning Experiences O Ornstein and Hunkins consider curriculum experiences as the instructional component of curriculum which indicates the interaction between teacher, learner and instructional materials for the purpose of achieving the goals of the school.
  10. 10. Learning Experiences O Learning does not takes place in a vacuum; it takes place through experiencing content oftentimes mediated by social processes. There will always be variations in the knowledge and understanding of objects, people and events as well as their relationships even when reading the same book.
  11. 11. Learning Experiences O Learning experiences may ensue from teaching methods and activities chosen as the vehicles of instruction.
  12. 12. System-Managerial ApproachO considers the major interconnected elements of inputs, throughputs (process) and outputs that comprise the educational system
  13. 13. Fig. 14. Systems-managerial View of Curriculum Development STRUCTURE ANDINPUTS PROCESSESS OUTPUTS Curriculum Organization Instruction Evaluation Supervision (motivation, communication, leadership styles, decision-making) ENVIRONMENT Public Demands and Expectations FEEDBAC K
  14. 14. System-Managerial ApproachO describe the interaction of: human resources physical resources financial resources throughput or process _____________________ desired outputs
  15. 15. System-Managerial ApproachO This approach emphasizes the managerial/leadership and supervisory aspect of the curriculum especially in the implementation and organization process.O There are certain roles that the leader must exercise which require interpersonal, academic and technical skills.
  16. 16. System-Managerial ApproachO Functions:1. Motivate interest of all stakeholders.2. Encourage participation and involvement of all stakeholders.3. Arbitrate conflicting interests of various groups.4. Synthesize divergent viewpoints.5. Identify common vision and goals.6. Encourage unity of purpose.7. Translate abstract ideas into concrete ones.
  17. 17. System-Managerial ApproachO Functions:8. Clarify big ideas.9. Organize and implement in-service programs.10. Communicate timely and accurate information to all stakeholders.11. Procure needed materials.12. Monitor curriculum implementation.13. Organize and implement a mechanism for periodic evaluation.14. Create a climate of innovation and change.
  18. 18. System-Managerial ApproachO It may be viewed as a never-ending process which requires incremental or even major changes in some elements of the system, as a matter of course.
  19. 19. System-Managerial ApproachO Ornstein and Hunkins grouped the innovations focused on organizations under five categories:1)personnel2)instructional media3)instructional groups4)grading5)schools
  20. 20. System-Managerial ApproachO Ornstein and Hunkins grouped the innovations focused on organizations under five categories:1)personnel2)instructional media3)instructional groups4)grading5)schools
  21. 21. System-Managerial ApproachO The model is a cyclical process. It is an offshoot of the linear behavioral-rational approach.O Curriculum is viewed as the major system and the other processes related to it such as supervision, instruction and evaluation are subsystems.O The success of the system depends on the close monitoring by administrators who provide interventions and corrective measures whenever possible problems are detected.