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Navigating through the ‘patchwork’ university
The critical position of the third space professional
Paper Presentation CHER 2016 Annual conference
The University as a Critical Institution?
Queens’College, University of Cambridge, UK, 5-7 september 2016.
Ton Kallenberg
Advance organizer
I was interested into three questions:
• Is there still talk of the existence of
the interacting spheres?
• do “third space professionals”
differ from Academics and
Administrators regarding their
perceived influence on different
processes within the universities?
• how does third space professionals
navigate throughout the university?
• Universities as hybrid organizations
• The Interacting Spheres Model
• The emergence of the Third Space
Professionals (TSP)
• Results of international survey
• Conclusions of survey
• Position and activities of TSP
• Micro-cultures
• A casus
• Conclusions for further research
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
Universities as hybrid organizations
Universities are seen as hybrid organizations wherein various subsystems operate
independently to each other.
They were divided in two groups of officials:
• academics - engaged with primary tasks: education and research
• administrators (overhead) - management and support of the primary tasks
• pure overhead: human resources, finance control, facility management etc.
• specific educational and research support
relationship between academics and administrators: 

conflictual, competitive, negative (i.e. Birnbaum, 1988; Conway, 1998).
Hanson (1979): interacting spheres model
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
The Interacting Spheres Model
(origin: Hanson, 1979)
Developments in higher education
During the last decades a lot of developments, such as:
• substantial drive towards greater accountability, performance, quality
inspection, target setting (and so on) (Deem & Brehony, 2005; Anderson, 2008;
Kolsaker, 2008; Meek et al, 2010, Hyde et al, 2013)
• trend towards managerialism (Smeenk et al, 2009)
• universities have become more bureaucratic organizations (“There is an
irresistible rise of academic bureaucracy, and where does it stops?”) (Conway,
2012)
emergence of third space professionals / new professionals / blended
professionals (Whitchurch, 2006; Klumpp & Teichler, 2008; Schneijderberg &
Mercator, 2013)
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
Third Space zone
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
The emergence of the Third Space Zone
Third space professionals
they:
• work at the interface between administration, academics and university leadership
(Whitchurch, 2006, 2008, 2013; Mcfarlane, 2011)
• have essential sector-specific expertise (Klücken et al, 2013)
• monitor, regulate and manage the educational processes (Deem & Brehony, 2005)
• work “under the radar”, invisible workforce (Rhoades, 2010)
• can neither been seen as part of the administrators nor do they belong to the
academic staff (Klumpp & Teichler, 2008; Schneijderberg & Merkator, 2012)
• work with both the academic and administrative rhythms, timescales and staff, and
work between the organizational structure of checks and balances (Kallenberg,
2016b)
• by being aware of their binding function, they can use their (tacit) knowledge to
interpret and synthesize this knowledge within the organization (prism-effect)
(Kallenberg, 2013)
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
Academic middle manager
(Hellawell & Hancock, 2001; Kallenberg,
2005; 2013)
umbrella term for the middle manager from
the academic staff who:
...is integrally responsible for program
curricula, from strategy through to
educational management
academic manager (Mercer, 2009)
mid-level academic manager (Inman, 2007;
Whitchurch, 2008; Larsen et al, 2009)
manager academics (Deem & Brehony, 2005)
middle leaders (Branson, Franken & Penney,
2016)
academic middle leaders (Preston & Floyd,
2016)
academic dean (Wolverton et al, 2001; Vieira
da Motta & Bolan, 2008)
vice-dean; head of study; program director;
educational director
Educational Administrator
(Kallenberg, 2015)
umbrella term for the middle manager from
the administrative staff who:
…play their role in developing, supporting,
and advising on educational activities.
… show scientific aspirations
director educational affairs
head quality control
educational advisor
program coordinator
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
Third space professionals can be distinguished into:
My questions
I was interested into three questions:
• Is there still talk of the existence of the interacting spheres?
• do “third space professionals” differ from Academics and Administrators
regarding their perceived influence on different processes within the
universities?
• how does third space professionals navigate throughout the university?
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
The research
1. online survey (SurveyMonkey)
• addresses (adapted from websites) of employees of faculties.
• in questionnaire - three levels: (1) curriculum processes, (2) education
support processes, (3) education conditional processes
2. interviews and observations (Actor Network Theory)
when where addresses respondents dataset
Netherlands spring 2015 6 univ 1.632 548 (31,6%) 490
Belgium spring 2016 5 univ 2.521 768 (30,4%) 611
Denmark spring 2016 4 univ 1.580 453 (28,7%) 309
total 15 univ 5.733 1.769 1.410
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
Academics
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
Model of Educational processes. 

The inner circle shows the educational process (curriculum), the central circle shows the
education support processes and the outermost circle shows the education conditional
processes (Kallenberg, 2016b)
Academics
The Netherlands Belgium Denmark Total
Male / Female 52,0% / 48,0% 42,5% / 57,5% 48,7 % / 51,3% 47,2 % / 52,8 %
Age (median in) 46-50 year 36-40 year 41-45 year
Degree (Ba/Ma/PhD) in %
Other degree
10,7 / 23,9 / 58,7
5,9%
15,7 / 37,1 / 31,8
15,3%
10,3 / 33,3 / 52,3
3,9%
13,1 / 32,6 / 45,6
8,6%
Academic
245
51,1%
290
47,6%
160
51,8%
695
49,7%
Administrator
161
33,6%
246
40,4%
84
27,2%
491
35,1%
Academic Middle
Manager
54
11,3%
43
7,1%
46
14,9%
143
10,2%
Educational
Administrator
19
4,0%
30
4,9%
19
6,1%
68
4,9%
Results
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
Professor 4,06 4,25 3,82 4,01 2,51 1,79 1,91 2,33 2,34 2,25 2,66 2,93 3,03 2,90
Assistant/Associate
Professor
3,80 4,18 3,68 3,81 2,34 1,60 1,64 1,98 2,02 1,39 1,61 2,12 1,83 1,68
Research Assistant/
Researcher in
Training/Researcher
2,42 3,28 2,43 2,80 1,72 1,36 1,38 1,62 1,53 1,16 1,18 1,57 1,29 1,34
Scaffolding 1,63 2,04 1,82 1,46 2,04 1,51 2,23 2,35 4,00 1,25 1,28 2,04 1,63 1,73
Monitoring 1,59 1,59 1,83 1,80 3,67 1,96 2,69 2,41 2,56 1,46 1,43 2,02 1,78 1,55
Administrating 1,18 1,38 1,24 1,31 1,69 1,35 2,73 1,96 1,61 1,59 1,55 1,48 1,49 1,43
Facilitating 1,13 1,36 1,29 1,21 1,29 3,23 1,25 1,42 1,23 1,68 1,48 1,57 1,51 1,42
Communication 1,12 1,10 1,20 1,10 1,12 1,20 1,24 3,75 1,41 1,37 1,29 1,35 1,73 1,90
Finance 1,07 1,14 1,09 1,16 1,20 1,30 1,22 1,36 1,09 3,78 1,87 1,57 1,71 1,56
Human Resources 1,02 1,02 1,02 1,00 1,07 1,26 1,10 1,12 1,05 1,49 3,70 1,33 1,60 1,42
Governance /
Quality Assurance
2,07 2,37 2,61 2,38 2,46 1,89 2,53 2,36 2,53 1,94 2,00 3,57 2,82 3,00
content
provision
developm
ent
testing
logistics
technique
adm
inistration
com
m
unication
st &
st guidance
finance
HRM
quality
governance
strategy
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
Academics
academics
academic middle
managers
educational
administrators
administrators
0
1,25
2,5
3,75
5
educational
process
educational
support process
educational
conditional
process
content
provision
developm
ent
testing
logistics
technique
adm
inistration
com
m
unication
st &
st guidance
finance
HRM
quality
governance
strategy
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
Conclusions
The first two questions can be answered affirmative
1. The Interacting Spheres Model:
• academics don’t experience influence on administrative processes
• administrators don’t experience influence on educational processes
• Loosely Coupled System is still there! 

(esp. Administrators seems to be an archipelago or a Patchwork)
2. Third Space Professionals:
• Yes! TSP’s differ from Academics and Administrators regarding their
perceived influence on different processes within the universities.
• Third Space Professionals are a new specialized buffer zone between
academics and administrators
• Will there be a ‘fourth power’ (educational administrators)? (or: when will
there be a stop on the rise of the bureaucracy?)
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
The university as a patchwork
Why a patchwork?
• there’s no communality -> there is a wide variety of habits, customs, rules
and specialties
• there are different interests all over the university
• lack of collaboration
• all kind of decisions are made in addition to and independently of each
other
• all kind of initiatives are being taken 

(e.g. my university during last year 187 on educational innovations)
• there are a lot of micro cultures
So [third question]: 

How does third space professionals navigate throughout the ‘patchwork’
university?
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
Third Space Professionals has ‘to deal with’: 

HEI’s as large institutions with many clashes of interest
• tension of functions: administrators (managerial efficiency) versus professionals
(content quality)
• tension of focus: centralization versus decentralization (central staff vs faculties)
• tension of initiative: top-down versus bottom-up (and vice-versa)
• tension of interest: education versus research
• tension of control: hierarchy versus collegiality
“organized chaos” (Cohen & March, 1974)
“garbage can model” (March & Olsen, 1976)
“loosely coupled systems” (Weick, 1976)
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
Prismavandeverandering?T
oeten innoveren.
oende innoveren
en continue ver-
un bestaansrecht.
ische innovaties
dt niet altijd tot het
rvoeren van deze
anisatie speelt de
en belangrijke rol.
de academische
innovaties in het
wordt onderzocht
beïnvloedt. Hierbij
iegerelateerde en
eiden.
The third space professional holds an
paradoxical in-between position
possibilities:
• unique ‘(tacit) knowledge’ basis (he knows what’s
happening in the organization)
• integrates strategic information with operational
information (and vice versa)
• is in position to speak and negotiate with stakeholders
in the organization on strategic, organizational and
operational level.
in short:
the prism effect of the academic
middle manager is that he
select, interprets and synthesizes
information and uses this
information in a custom way
elsewhere in the organization.
constraints:
• encapsulated in processes
• imbalance in role expectations and freedom of action
• accountable, but that’s not (always) accomplished with
the same amount of authorization
• leadership is expected, but account with reference to
managerial targets, etc.
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
4 types of activities

(in which third space professionals are involved)
how often do you fulfill the following activities?
1 = almost never /…/ 5 = daily
Academic
middle
managers
Educational
Administrators
administrative activities

managing work of teams or colleagues; planning, administrating,
monitoring and controlling structures and processes; etc. (Tucker, 1992;
Bennett & Figuli, 1990; Gold, 1998; Gunter & Rutherford, 2000; Boyko
& Jones, 2010);
2,45 3,37
relational activities

based on substantive discourse of meetings and building trust among
colleagues (Meek et al, 2010; Boyko & Jones, 2010);
3,84 3,42
intervening activities

diplomacy between and within (central) management and academic
values; negotiating (Meek et al., 2010; Boyko & Jones, 2010);
4,11 3,79
result oriented activities

attending to student performance, efficiency and effectiveness (Clegg
& McAuley, 2005; Wolverton, Ackerman & Holt, 2005; Verhoeven,
2007).
3,58 4,09
N = 143 N = 68
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
Department Department
resistent to policy
neutral to policy
supportive to policy
Diplomats / Hubs
• micro-cultures affect processes
• the more departments are involved: the more difficult
• role of TSP: create people and policy alignment
• TSP has to create networks of ‘hubs’
• TSP must have attention to the power of the process
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
micro-cultures and interaction between them
Actor Network Theory
• ANT methodology - from late 70s - further developed by Latour (1999, 2005) in sociology;
Law (1992, 1999) in organizational sociology; and Mol in health and policy. 

More recently: Fox (2005), Fenwick & Edwards (2011) and Viczko (2015) pointed out the
relevance of the Actor Network Theory for education related research
• focuses on relationships and connections that develop between social and material
phenomena
• ANT looks at everyday 'things' (objects, memories, intentions, technologies, texts) that
are able to exert force on each other. They can convince each other, force, seduce, resist
and change. ANT is aimed at understanding 'how' these things ('actants') develop
together into networks that can act. These networks (in ANT-language called 'assemblies')
produce forces and other effects such as: knowledge, identities, routines, behaviors,
policies, curricula, innovations, repressions, reforms, diseases, and so on
• The formed networks can continue to expand over wide areas, long distances or time
periods. Of course, networks can also shrink, dissolve, or be abandoned. Thus, a network
is dynamic with changing dimensions and connections and should not be seen as a
technical network (such as a train or subway system or a 3G/4G network)
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
The Schoolyard or playground
It is a melting pot, in which there is continuous cooperation between balls, bikes, swings, lawns,
games, children (and their capabilities), supervisors, safety rules, and so on. The playground is a
composition or a 'network' of things that are composed in a particular way
Casus faculty
academic middle manager: 

>> he pulled away the focus from people by taking
into account objects as sources of equivalent force

>> and made a balanced consideration of people
and processes
results: jointly examine issues; more aware of each
other’s expertise and problems; more acceptance of
the power of a certain process or ‘thing’
AdministratorsAcademics
Actants
academics: 

“the administrative
mafia”, 

“the bureaucracy is
endless”, 

“my time is much too
costly to have to deal
with scheduling and
timetables”
administrators: 

“we never question their
expertise in their
discipline, but they
question ours”, 

“I expected cooperation,
but I got resistance”, 

“I never meet them
during my working hours”
AdministratorsAcademics
Actants
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
Conclusions
• There is still talk of the Interacting Spheres Model, indeed: The university is a
‘patchwork’
• Third Space Professionals are a new specialized buffer zone between academics
and administrators
• Third Space Professional has to do a balancing act between and within the
spheres [and the actants!]
• It’s a critical position: 

“You’re damned if you don’t, and you’re damned if you do”
• the core of their activities are: intervening and relational (AMMs), and result
oriented activities (EAs)
• at least three competing expectations inherent in the TSP’s role towards
people: collegiality, professionality and authority;
• and three competing competences inherent in his role towards the actants:
‘tacit-knowledge’, content-knowledge, educational-management knowledge
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
You are invited to download the presentation on:
www.slidesharenet.com/tonkallenberg
The paper will be available on:
https://leidenuniv.academia.edu/TonKallenberg
Ton Kallenberg
a.j.kallenberg@hum.leidenuniv.nl
Leiden University - The Netherlands
@tonkallenberg
Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7

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Cher 2016 kallenberg

  • 1. Navigating through the ‘patchwork’ university The critical position of the third space professional Paper Presentation CHER 2016 Annual conference The University as a Critical Institution? Queens’College, University of Cambridge, UK, 5-7 september 2016. Ton Kallenberg
  • 2.
  • 3. Advance organizer I was interested into three questions: • Is there still talk of the existence of the interacting spheres? • do “third space professionals” differ from Academics and Administrators regarding their perceived influence on different processes within the universities? • how does third space professionals navigate throughout the university? • Universities as hybrid organizations • The Interacting Spheres Model • The emergence of the Third Space Professionals (TSP) • Results of international survey • Conclusions of survey • Position and activities of TSP • Micro-cultures • A casus • Conclusions for further research Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
  • 4. Universities as hybrid organizations Universities are seen as hybrid organizations wherein various subsystems operate independently to each other. They were divided in two groups of officials: • academics - engaged with primary tasks: education and research • administrators (overhead) - management and support of the primary tasks • pure overhead: human resources, finance control, facility management etc. • specific educational and research support relationship between academics and administrators: 
 conflictual, competitive, negative (i.e. Birnbaum, 1988; Conway, 1998). Hanson (1979): interacting spheres model Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
  • 5. Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7 The Interacting Spheres Model (origin: Hanson, 1979)
  • 6. Developments in higher education During the last decades a lot of developments, such as: • substantial drive towards greater accountability, performance, quality inspection, target setting (and so on) (Deem & Brehony, 2005; Anderson, 2008; Kolsaker, 2008; Meek et al, 2010, Hyde et al, 2013) • trend towards managerialism (Smeenk et al, 2009) • universities have become more bureaucratic organizations (“There is an irresistible rise of academic bureaucracy, and where does it stops?”) (Conway, 2012) emergence of third space professionals / new professionals / blended professionals (Whitchurch, 2006; Klumpp & Teichler, 2008; Schneijderberg & Mercator, 2013) Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
  • 7. Third Space zone Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7 The emergence of the Third Space Zone
  • 8. Third space professionals they: • work at the interface between administration, academics and university leadership (Whitchurch, 2006, 2008, 2013; Mcfarlane, 2011) • have essential sector-specific expertise (Klücken et al, 2013) • monitor, regulate and manage the educational processes (Deem & Brehony, 2005) • work “under the radar”, invisible workforce (Rhoades, 2010) • can neither been seen as part of the administrators nor do they belong to the academic staff (Klumpp & Teichler, 2008; Schneijderberg & Merkator, 2012) • work with both the academic and administrative rhythms, timescales and staff, and work between the organizational structure of checks and balances (Kallenberg, 2016b) • by being aware of their binding function, they can use their (tacit) knowledge to interpret and synthesize this knowledge within the organization (prism-effect) (Kallenberg, 2013) Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
  • 9. Academic middle manager (Hellawell & Hancock, 2001; Kallenberg, 2005; 2013) umbrella term for the middle manager from the academic staff who: ...is integrally responsible for program curricula, from strategy through to educational management academic manager (Mercer, 2009) mid-level academic manager (Inman, 2007; Whitchurch, 2008; Larsen et al, 2009) manager academics (Deem & Brehony, 2005) middle leaders (Branson, Franken & Penney, 2016) academic middle leaders (Preston & Floyd, 2016) academic dean (Wolverton et al, 2001; Vieira da Motta & Bolan, 2008) vice-dean; head of study; program director; educational director Educational Administrator (Kallenberg, 2015) umbrella term for the middle manager from the administrative staff who: …play their role in developing, supporting, and advising on educational activities. … show scientific aspirations director educational affairs head quality control educational advisor program coordinator Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7 Third space professionals can be distinguished into:
  • 10. My questions I was interested into three questions: • Is there still talk of the existence of the interacting spheres? • do “third space professionals” differ from Academics and Administrators regarding their perceived influence on different processes within the universities? • how does third space professionals navigate throughout the university? Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
  • 11. The research 1. online survey (SurveyMonkey) • addresses (adapted from websites) of employees of faculties. • in questionnaire - three levels: (1) curriculum processes, (2) education support processes, (3) education conditional processes 2. interviews and observations (Actor Network Theory) when where addresses respondents dataset Netherlands spring 2015 6 univ 1.632 548 (31,6%) 490 Belgium spring 2016 5 univ 2.521 768 (30,4%) 611 Denmark spring 2016 4 univ 1.580 453 (28,7%) 309 total 15 univ 5.733 1.769 1.410 Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
  • 12. Academics Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7 Model of Educational processes. 
 The inner circle shows the educational process (curriculum), the central circle shows the education support processes and the outermost circle shows the education conditional processes (Kallenberg, 2016b)
  • 13. Academics The Netherlands Belgium Denmark Total Male / Female 52,0% / 48,0% 42,5% / 57,5% 48,7 % / 51,3% 47,2 % / 52,8 % Age (median in) 46-50 year 36-40 year 41-45 year Degree (Ba/Ma/PhD) in % Other degree 10,7 / 23,9 / 58,7 5,9% 15,7 / 37,1 / 31,8 15,3% 10,3 / 33,3 / 52,3 3,9% 13,1 / 32,6 / 45,6 8,6% Academic 245 51,1% 290 47,6% 160 51,8% 695 49,7% Administrator 161 33,6% 246 40,4% 84 27,2% 491 35,1% Academic Middle Manager 54 11,3% 43 7,1% 46 14,9% 143 10,2% Educational Administrator 19 4,0% 30 4,9% 19 6,1% 68 4,9% Results Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
  • 14. Professor 4,06 4,25 3,82 4,01 2,51 1,79 1,91 2,33 2,34 2,25 2,66 2,93 3,03 2,90 Assistant/Associate Professor 3,80 4,18 3,68 3,81 2,34 1,60 1,64 1,98 2,02 1,39 1,61 2,12 1,83 1,68 Research Assistant/ Researcher in Training/Researcher 2,42 3,28 2,43 2,80 1,72 1,36 1,38 1,62 1,53 1,16 1,18 1,57 1,29 1,34 Scaffolding 1,63 2,04 1,82 1,46 2,04 1,51 2,23 2,35 4,00 1,25 1,28 2,04 1,63 1,73 Monitoring 1,59 1,59 1,83 1,80 3,67 1,96 2,69 2,41 2,56 1,46 1,43 2,02 1,78 1,55 Administrating 1,18 1,38 1,24 1,31 1,69 1,35 2,73 1,96 1,61 1,59 1,55 1,48 1,49 1,43 Facilitating 1,13 1,36 1,29 1,21 1,29 3,23 1,25 1,42 1,23 1,68 1,48 1,57 1,51 1,42 Communication 1,12 1,10 1,20 1,10 1,12 1,20 1,24 3,75 1,41 1,37 1,29 1,35 1,73 1,90 Finance 1,07 1,14 1,09 1,16 1,20 1,30 1,22 1,36 1,09 3,78 1,87 1,57 1,71 1,56 Human Resources 1,02 1,02 1,02 1,00 1,07 1,26 1,10 1,12 1,05 1,49 3,70 1,33 1,60 1,42 Governance / Quality Assurance 2,07 2,37 2,61 2,38 2,46 1,89 2,53 2,36 2,53 1,94 2,00 3,57 2,82 3,00 content provision developm ent testing logistics technique adm inistration com m unication st & st guidance finance HRM quality governance strategy Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
  • 16. Conclusions The first two questions can be answered affirmative 1. The Interacting Spheres Model: • academics don’t experience influence on administrative processes • administrators don’t experience influence on educational processes • Loosely Coupled System is still there! 
 (esp. Administrators seems to be an archipelago or a Patchwork) 2. Third Space Professionals: • Yes! TSP’s differ from Academics and Administrators regarding their perceived influence on different processes within the universities. • Third Space Professionals are a new specialized buffer zone between academics and administrators • Will there be a ‘fourth power’ (educational administrators)? (or: when will there be a stop on the rise of the bureaucracy?) Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
  • 17. Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
  • 18. The university as a patchwork Why a patchwork? • there’s no communality -> there is a wide variety of habits, customs, rules and specialties • there are different interests all over the university • lack of collaboration • all kind of decisions are made in addition to and independently of each other • all kind of initiatives are being taken 
 (e.g. my university during last year 187 on educational innovations) • there are a lot of micro cultures So [third question]: 
 How does third space professionals navigate throughout the ‘patchwork’ university? Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
  • 19. Third Space Professionals has ‘to deal with’: 
 HEI’s as large institutions with many clashes of interest • tension of functions: administrators (managerial efficiency) versus professionals (content quality) • tension of focus: centralization versus decentralization (central staff vs faculties) • tension of initiative: top-down versus bottom-up (and vice-versa) • tension of interest: education versus research • tension of control: hierarchy versus collegiality “organized chaos” (Cohen & March, 1974) “garbage can model” (March & Olsen, 1976) “loosely coupled systems” (Weick, 1976) Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
  • 20. Prismavandeverandering?T oeten innoveren. oende innoveren en continue ver- un bestaansrecht. ische innovaties dt niet altijd tot het rvoeren van deze anisatie speelt de en belangrijke rol. de academische innovaties in het wordt onderzocht beïnvloedt. Hierbij iegerelateerde en eiden. The third space professional holds an paradoxical in-between position possibilities: • unique ‘(tacit) knowledge’ basis (he knows what’s happening in the organization) • integrates strategic information with operational information (and vice versa) • is in position to speak and negotiate with stakeholders in the organization on strategic, organizational and operational level. in short: the prism effect of the academic middle manager is that he select, interprets and synthesizes information and uses this information in a custom way elsewhere in the organization. constraints: • encapsulated in processes • imbalance in role expectations and freedom of action • accountable, but that’s not (always) accomplished with the same amount of authorization • leadership is expected, but account with reference to managerial targets, etc. Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
  • 21. 4 types of activities
 (in which third space professionals are involved) how often do you fulfill the following activities? 1 = almost never /…/ 5 = daily Academic middle managers Educational Administrators administrative activities
 managing work of teams or colleagues; planning, administrating, monitoring and controlling structures and processes; etc. (Tucker, 1992; Bennett & Figuli, 1990; Gold, 1998; Gunter & Rutherford, 2000; Boyko & Jones, 2010); 2,45 3,37 relational activities
 based on substantive discourse of meetings and building trust among colleagues (Meek et al, 2010; Boyko & Jones, 2010); 3,84 3,42 intervening activities
 diplomacy between and within (central) management and academic values; negotiating (Meek et al., 2010; Boyko & Jones, 2010); 4,11 3,79 result oriented activities
 attending to student performance, efficiency and effectiveness (Clegg & McAuley, 2005; Wolverton, Ackerman & Holt, 2005; Verhoeven, 2007). 3,58 4,09 N = 143 N = 68 Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
  • 22. Department Department resistent to policy neutral to policy supportive to policy Diplomats / Hubs • micro-cultures affect processes • the more departments are involved: the more difficult • role of TSP: create people and policy alignment • TSP has to create networks of ‘hubs’ • TSP must have attention to the power of the process Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7 micro-cultures and interaction between them
  • 23. Actor Network Theory • ANT methodology - from late 70s - further developed by Latour (1999, 2005) in sociology; Law (1992, 1999) in organizational sociology; and Mol in health and policy. 
 More recently: Fox (2005), Fenwick & Edwards (2011) and Viczko (2015) pointed out the relevance of the Actor Network Theory for education related research • focuses on relationships and connections that develop between social and material phenomena • ANT looks at everyday 'things' (objects, memories, intentions, technologies, texts) that are able to exert force on each other. They can convince each other, force, seduce, resist and change. ANT is aimed at understanding 'how' these things ('actants') develop together into networks that can act. These networks (in ANT-language called 'assemblies') produce forces and other effects such as: knowledge, identities, routines, behaviors, policies, curricula, innovations, repressions, reforms, diseases, and so on • The formed networks can continue to expand over wide areas, long distances or time periods. Of course, networks can also shrink, dissolve, or be abandoned. Thus, a network is dynamic with changing dimensions and connections and should not be seen as a technical network (such as a train or subway system or a 3G/4G network) Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
  • 24. Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7 The Schoolyard or playground It is a melting pot, in which there is continuous cooperation between balls, bikes, swings, lawns, games, children (and their capabilities), supervisors, safety rules, and so on. The playground is a composition or a 'network' of things that are composed in a particular way
  • 25. Casus faculty academic middle manager: 
 >> he pulled away the focus from people by taking into account objects as sources of equivalent force
 >> and made a balanced consideration of people and processes results: jointly examine issues; more aware of each other’s expertise and problems; more acceptance of the power of a certain process or ‘thing’ AdministratorsAcademics Actants academics: 
 “the administrative mafia”, 
 “the bureaucracy is endless”, 
 “my time is much too costly to have to deal with scheduling and timetables” administrators: 
 “we never question their expertise in their discipline, but they question ours”, 
 “I expected cooperation, but I got resistance”, 
 “I never meet them during my working hours” AdministratorsAcademics Actants Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
  • 26. Conclusions • There is still talk of the Interacting Spheres Model, indeed: The university is a ‘patchwork’ • Third Space Professionals are a new specialized buffer zone between academics and administrators • Third Space Professional has to do a balancing act between and within the spheres [and the actants!] • It’s a critical position: 
 “You’re damned if you don’t, and you’re damned if you do” • the core of their activities are: intervening and relational (AMMs), and result oriented activities (EAs) • at least three competing expectations inherent in the TSP’s role towards people: collegiality, professionality and authority; • and three competing competences inherent in his role towards the actants: ‘tacit-knowledge’, content-knowledge, educational-management knowledge Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7
  • 27. You are invited to download the presentation on: www.slidesharenet.com/tonkallenberg The paper will be available on: https://leidenuniv.academia.edu/TonKallenberg Ton Kallenberg a.j.kallenberg@hum.leidenuniv.nl Leiden University - The Netherlands @tonkallenberg Queens’ College, Cambridge, UK, 2016, September 5-7