Table of Content
Performance Management System for Teachers 4-5
Creating a Performance Management Process 6-7
Individual Effectiveness 8-9
Table 1 – Accountability Matrix for National Literacy Plan Implementation 10-11
Performance Management System for Teachers
Since the dawn of capitalism, when the factors of production were clearly
defined and combined to maximise profits, the management and motivation
of labour has been a key consideration. Henri Taylor’s Scientific
Management Theory helped to revolutionize how we organise resources in
order to achieve maximum output.
Performance Management is the process of creating a work environment, or
setting, in which people are enabled to perform to the best of their abilities.
Performance Management is an entire work system that begins when a job is
defined, as needed, and when an employee leaves the organization, or in an
educational institution, when the teacher leaves the school (Heathfield,
Management has evolved into a very scientific activity; the modern
paradigm speaks to a balanced scorecard approach. This means that in order
to develop good management and accountability there needs to be clarity in
the critical success factors and key performance indicators (Jones and
George, 2003). These are quantified and measured using various metrics
(Laudon and Laudon, 2004). It is from this data that one can construct an
efficient performance management system.
In the context of a competitive global environment, it is critical that firms
adopt best practices that will allow them to stay ahead of the competition. It
is against this background, that there is significant room for management
consultants to establish performance management systems (Jones and
It must be noted that, “one size does not fit all”. The performance
management system devised for a sugar manufacturing company is
necessarily different from that suitable for a school. In this presentation we
will seek to provide practical examples of how to construct a performance
management system for a school.
An effective performance management system for a school must involve the
Development of clear job descriptions.
Selection of appropriate teachers through a suitable recruitment and
Negotiation of requirements and accomplishment-based performance
standards, outcomes and measures.
Provision of effective orientation, education, and training.
Provision of on-going coaching, in-service training and feedback.
Conducting quarterly performance development discussions.
Designing of effective compensation and recognition systems that reward
teachers for their contributions.
Provision for promotion/career development opportunities for teachers – this
is now very limited in education.
Assisting with exit interviews to understand why valued teachers leave the
Creating a Performance Management Process
The management of employee performance begins before a new teacher
walks through the doors of the school. Applicants and candidates form
opinions of the school throughout the interview process (Heathfield, 2005).
Applicants to a school, who never receive a response, form an opinion about
you, as an employer. This negative experience may colour the interaction
that the ignored applicant goes on to have with other people regarding your
school (Heathfield, 2005).
First impressions are very important; the goal must be to hire and keep the
best teachers. Equipped with the best teachers and support staff, one can
develop and manage performance to focus critical contribution on
accomplishing the given purpose.
Teacher performance must be managed, beginning with the teacher’s first
day on the job. In the private sector, a functioning workstation, a prepared,
positive orientation experience, initial job expectations and a training plan
have a lasting impact on the employee’s attitude about performance
(Heathfield, 2005). Of course, some governments believe that once it is
education anything goes, but at the same time we want to maximise
Clarity about goals (SMART goals) and direction, frequent feedback, the
chance to grow and develop skills create “engaged” employees (Gallup
2001). The most effective way to manage performance and keep employees
engaged, is to hire the candidates with the talent, skills, behavioural
characteristics and drive required because “a person’s talents do not change
much after he or she is hired, and … a person will improve the most in his
areas of greatest talent” (Heathfield, 2005). We must insist that our teachers’
colleges attract the best talent for the teaching profession.
A successful organization selects talented workers, holds them accountable
for performance outcomes, challenges them to realize these outcomes by
capitalizing on their greatest talents, and uproots the Peter Principle by
offering workers an opportunity to build their careers by building on their
greatest talents (Gallup, 2005). This is the challenge for the transformation
of the education system.
While much has been said about infrastructural improvement, not much has
been said about accountability in education.
Based on research, The Gallup Organization suggests that there are four
disciplines necessary for effective performance management:
Hold all employees accountable for their local performance outcomes;
Teach all employees to identify, deploy, and develop their strengths;
Align all performance appraisal and review systems around
identifying, deploying, and developing employee strengths;
Design and build each role to create world class performers in the
There is no doubt that the business of teaching is a labour intensive activity.
There is a call, locally, regionally and internationally, for improved
performance of the education system. One of the weaknesses of these
discussions is the lack of consensus on how learning takes place, the
modalities of assessing learning outcomes and whether, or not, teachers are
really responsible for students’ academic achievement.
Since it is the predominant view that teachers are the main factors in
facilitating student learning, empowerment of teachers is critical to the
maximization of performance. Teachers should be facilitated in continuous
upgrading and should have available resource persons and specialist help for
children with special needs. The performance of teachers is limited in a
teaching-learning environment comprising a group of students with too
much diversity in ability or achievement (Asthon-Warner, 1963).
As the saying goes “he who feels it knows it,” principals and supervisors
must engage themselves with teachers, and facilitate them in resolving
learning difficulties; they must provide support for innovation and
unconventional methods of teaching. A society, such as Jamaica, that has a
major deficit in Standard English requires a more organic approach to the
business of formal education at the early stages (Asthon-Warner, 1963).
In this regard, the training and upgrading process in subject specialization
and methodology should be complemented with empowerment training
programs. The introduction of a system-wide standardised appraisal system
is a step in the right direction. The results from the new appraisal system
should be the basis of empirical data used for needs assessment and strategic
interventions to facilitate development and empowerment of our Jamaican
teachers (Harvey and Brown, 2001).
ACCOUNTABILITY MATRIX FOR NATIONAL LITERACY PLAN IMPLEMENTATION
ACTION AUTHORIZATION PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION TEAM TARGET NATIONAL
OWNER LEADER AUDIENCE LITERACY
Development of Minister of Education Chief Education Deputy Chief Education Students in
National Literacy and Permanent Officer (CEO) Officer-Curriculum Support primary and
Policy Secretary Services (DCEO-CSS) and lower 100%
National Literacy Coordinator secondary
(grades 1- 9)
Development of CEO DCEO-CSS, Regional Directors, Regional Education
National Literacy DCEO- Literacy Coordinators, Officers
Plan Operations, Principals (Eos), 100%
National Literacy Curriculum
Professional DCEO-CSS, DCEO- DCEO- Professional Development Principals
Development Operations Operations, Unit for in-service, Teachers Teachers,
Training in Regional Colleges for pre-service, CoreSpecialists 100%
Literacy Directors Curriculum Unit, National
Programme Literacy Coordinator
Lesson Delivery CEO, DCEO- Regional Principals, Teachers, School Students at
Operations Directors, Based Literacy Specialists Grades 1-9
Table 1 (Cont’d)
ACTION AUTHORIZATION PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION TEAM TARGET
OWNER LEADER AUDIENCE
Evaluation and CEO, Chief Inspector, Head Student SBACs, Teachers, Eos, Principals,
Assessment of Regional Directors Assessment Principals, SBLCs, RLCs, Teachers,
performance Unit, PME&U Officers, Inspectors Students
Feedback & CEO, Chief Inspector DCEO- Eos, RLCs, SBLCs, Principals Teachers,
response Operations, Students
Responsibility flows along the lines of action (row) from the level of the action
At each level where the process is authorized, owned and or implemented an accountability matr
developed to track and account for performance of tasks.
Asthon-Warner, Sylvia (1963) Teacher – Sylvia Asthon-Warner:
Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd
Davis, Honourable, Dr. Rae (2004). Task Force on Education Report
Gallup Management Journal (2005).Retrieved on August 31, 2005 at:
Gordon, Winsome. Licensing of Teachers in Jamaica. Draft Procedures for
Heathfield, S. (2005). About: Performance Management.
Retrieved July 19, 2005:
Jones, G. & George, J. (2003). Contemporary Management. New York:
Laudon, K, & Laudon, J. (2004). Management Information Systems:
Managing the Digital Firm. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
The Jamaica Teaching Council. Kingston, Jamaica.