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The academic middle manager shaping the
landscape between policy and practice:
The Change Prism
Ton Kallenberg
Leiden University - The Netherlands
Paper Presentation BELMAS 2014
Educational Policy and Practice: Can leaders shape the landscape?
Stratford upon Avon, England, 11-13 july 2014
1. Introduction
1.Introduction to the research
2.the academic middle
manager
3.Research methods and
results
4.Conclusions
5.Questions & dialogue
Higher Education is dynamic and
competitive...
changes on:
regional level
national level
international level
increasing
competition
* for the student
* for the researcher
* for the teacher
changes in:
cooperation with firms, schools and
demographics (aging, cultural variety)
legislation (step down government);
performance-oriented financing; Quality
assurance (not only used to improve but also
for accountability and accreditation)
system change of European HE - BaMa
system
not only in region but also European and
global competitiveness
they expect excellence, high ranking, image,
extras
result = expansion, mergers, formation of (thematic) consortia and other forms of
(administrative) cooperation between HE-institutions.
This gives an impulse for strategic
innovation ...
Not only initial education and research, but
also:
• post-initial education
• applied scientific research
• external financed projects
• extra resources and differentiations
• forms of alliances and coalitions
• more focus in image
Strategic innovation is an intentional
movement to obtain a fortified position of
the institute relative to others.
So the problem statement
resulting from this is ...
HE institutions have to innovate.
If not (or insufficiently):
they lose the competition (for students,
research-grants, image, etc.), their role
becomes smaller, programs will disappear
(esp. Masters!)
But: HE institutions are large
organizations with many clashes
of interest ...
• tension of focus: centralization versus
decentralization (central staff vs faculties)
• tension of functions: administrators
(managerial efficiency) versus professionals
(content quality)
• tension of initiative: top-down versus bottom-
up (and vice-versa)
• tension of interest: education versus research
• tension of control: hierarchy versus
collegiality
Result: Strategic innovations are
difficult to implement
Innovation in large organizations often prove
viscous and unmanageable, without real
clarity of reasons.
In particular the translation of strategic ideas
to operational level results in many clashes of
interest.
“Changing a university is like moving a
graveyard:
not entire impossible,
but don’t expect any cooperation from
within.”
...is integrally responsible for program curricula,
from strategy
- including participation in decisions on
institutional strategy and responsibility for
School/faculty strategy -
through to educational management
- including control of education and research
programs and student relations
within the governing board’s parameters.
(Kallenberg, 2007)
who’s in the centre of the clashes
of interest?
the academic middle manager !
“You’re damned if you do
and you’re damned if you
don’t.”
“You’re in the line of fire
whether you want it or not”
The academic middle manager holds
an paradoxical in-between position
possibilities:
• unique ‘(tacit) knowledge’ basis (he knows what’s
happening in the organization)
• integrates strategic information with operational
information (and vice versa)
• is in position to speak and negotiate with
stakeholders in the organization on strategic,
organizational and operational level.
in short:
the prism effect of the
academic middle manager
is that he select, interprets
and synthesizes
information and uses this
information in a custom
way elsewhere in the
organization.
constraints:
• encapsulated in processes
• imbalance in role expectations and freedom of
action
• accountable, but no authorization
• leadership is expected, but account with reference
to managerial targets, etc.
Yet it’s roles had hardly been
researched.
So it’s not clear which influence they
have.
Therefore this research!
Research Question:
Which roles does an academic
middle manager in HE perform during
strategic innovations?
Secondary questions:
Which factors affect these roles?
Who’s the academic
middle manager?
Conceptual Framework
Method
• literature research
• survey (2009) - HE in the Netherlands:
14 universities + 44 universities of applied
sciences
• 750 random selected mail-addresses:
304 respondents - 246 in dataset (33,37%)
• interviews
Average view of the respondents: mostly man (61,2%) of 50,96 year old and the vast
majority (81,2%) has a fulltime employment. Their education is at academic level (51,4%
MA / 39,6% PhD). They are faithful to their employer (14,48 year on the same institute)
and their salary is about 5.700 Euro (month). They work for about 5 years as AMM (but
80,7% shorter than 7 years in this function). 44,1% did an additional training on
educational management. They are satisfied with their job (7,9 on 10-scale).
From To
Character Professionalism Managerialism
Focus Intern oriented and control Management of external relations
Ambition Leaders with own academic
career
Leaders with managerial driving
forces
Appointment Temporarily part time position Permanent full time position
Focus on Learning of students
Academic values
Professional autonomy
Efficiency of students
Efficiency / effectivity
Common output
Control Democratic governance model Hierarchic professional model /
integral management
Trends in the perception on the roles
of the academic middle manager
Results (1): Roles of the academic middle manager
(Kallenberg, 2013)
Results (2): Roles of the academic
middle manager
general:
• roles Quinn & Rohrbauch do not fit on the population
academic middle managers in the Netherlands
• academic middle managers fulfill four types of
activities that fit on the quadrants
• the Diplomat role is the strongest completed role
subgroups:
• no difference in role fulfillment between men and
women
• difference in role fulfillment between universities and
universities of applied sciences
• small difference in role fulfillment between directors
(Diplomat) and managers (Constructor, Guide,
Guard)
• Academic middle managers with direct contact with
the board fulfill the role Diplomat in a stronger way
Guard Guide Diplomat Constructor
Complexity (context) ⬆ ⬆ ,16
Dynamic ⬆ ⬆ ,20 ⬆ ,18
Unpredictability ⬇ ⬆ ,18 ⬆ ,22
Decision-making ⬆ ⬆ ,20
Informal structure ⬆ ⬇ ,20 ⬇ ,23 ⬇ ,23
Complexity (structure)
Identity
Unwritten rules
External orientation
Autonomy ⬆ ⬆ ,35 ⬆ ,17
Engagement ⬆ ⬆ ,22 ⬆ ,31 ⬆ ,31
Authority
Vision on education ⬆ ⬆ ,22 ⬆ ,34
contextstructureculture
organizationalvariablesfunction
related
variables
Results (3): Effect of organizational and
position related variables on the
fulfillment of roles
Examples of strategic innovation
starting new
concepts:
f.i. new programs,
merging, formation
of (thematic)
consortia
improving existing
concepts: f.i. better
guidance of
students to improve
the efficiency /
output
fit existing concepts:
renew the dated
educational concept
(f.i. introduction
PBL)
stop existing
concepts: f.i. repel
of differentiations,
specialisations, etc.
0,9%
42,2% 26,5%
30,4%
Results (4) Strategic innovations
AMM’s universities: especially examples of revitalize
AMM’s univ applied sciences: esp. examples of transform
men: steady examples of the three types
women: esp. examples of transform
On the base of logistic regression analysis:
Revitalize Transform Explore
Gender women -,725** man 1,047**
Age ⬆ ,165**
Guard ⬆ ,544** ⬇ -,514*
Diplomat ⬇ -,702** ⬆ 1,503***
Complexity (context) ⬇ -,631**
Informal structure ⬆ ,328** ⬇ -,344*
Identity ⬇ -,364** ⬆ ,373*
External orientation ⬆ ,887**
Educational vision ⬆ ,563*
Conclusions:
• Academic middle managers fulfill four types of roles in (Dutch) higher
education: Guard, Guide, Diplomat, Constructor
• Cultural variables do not have influence on role fulfilling.
(other organizational variables just a small influence)
• The Diplomat role is influenced by autonomy and engagement
• The Constructor role is influenced by engagement and vision on
Education
• The Guard and Guide role are confined influenced
• The prism effect arises for the most in the role of Diplomat
(In this role he selects, interprets and synthesizes information and uses
this information in a custom way elsewhere in the organization.)
• Do you want to have strategic innovation (“explore”)?
Find a Diplomat for the job !
Conclusions:
Meaning of the research
Opportunities in educational organizations (for instance):
• use of the role-instrument in combination with the examples - to determine “the
right man in the right place” (f.i. job interviews).
• accommodate the influencing factors in such a way that the academic middle
manager performs better.
• outline management development programs which are aimed at the enhancing of
the specific tools of academic middle managers
Thanks to this research, knowledge is created:
• who are the academic middle manager, how they are
positioned, and what they do,
• which factors influence the roles of academic middle
managers,
• about the relationship between the rolefulfilling and their
preference for types of strategic innovations (towards
examples).
Thank you for your attention:
You are invited to download the presentation on:
www.slidesharenet.com/tonkallenberg
The paper will be available on:
https://leidenuniv.academia.edu/TonKallenberg

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Belmas 2014 kallenberg

  • 1. The academic middle manager shaping the landscape between policy and practice: The Change Prism Ton Kallenberg Leiden University - The Netherlands Paper Presentation BELMAS 2014 Educational Policy and Practice: Can leaders shape the landscape? Stratford upon Avon, England, 11-13 july 2014
  • 2. 1. Introduction 1.Introduction to the research 2.the academic middle manager 3.Research methods and results 4.Conclusions 5.Questions & dialogue
  • 3. Higher Education is dynamic and competitive... changes on: regional level national level international level increasing competition * for the student * for the researcher * for the teacher changes in: cooperation with firms, schools and demographics (aging, cultural variety) legislation (step down government); performance-oriented financing; Quality assurance (not only used to improve but also for accountability and accreditation) system change of European HE - BaMa system not only in region but also European and global competitiveness they expect excellence, high ranking, image, extras result = expansion, mergers, formation of (thematic) consortia and other forms of (administrative) cooperation between HE-institutions.
  • 4. This gives an impulse for strategic innovation ... Not only initial education and research, but also: • post-initial education • applied scientific research • external financed projects • extra resources and differentiations • forms of alliances and coalitions • more focus in image Strategic innovation is an intentional movement to obtain a fortified position of the institute relative to others.
  • 5. So the problem statement resulting from this is ... HE institutions have to innovate. If not (or insufficiently): they lose the competition (for students, research-grants, image, etc.), their role becomes smaller, programs will disappear (esp. Masters!)
  • 6. But: HE institutions are large organizations with many clashes of interest ... • tension of focus: centralization versus decentralization (central staff vs faculties) • tension of functions: administrators (managerial efficiency) versus professionals (content quality) • tension of initiative: top-down versus bottom- up (and vice-versa) • tension of interest: education versus research • tension of control: hierarchy versus collegiality
  • 7. Result: Strategic innovations are difficult to implement Innovation in large organizations often prove viscous and unmanageable, without real clarity of reasons. In particular the translation of strategic ideas to operational level results in many clashes of interest. “Changing a university is like moving a graveyard: not entire impossible, but don’t expect any cooperation from within.”
  • 8. ...is integrally responsible for program curricula, from strategy - including participation in decisions on institutional strategy and responsibility for School/faculty strategy - through to educational management - including control of education and research programs and student relations within the governing board’s parameters. (Kallenberg, 2007) who’s in the centre of the clashes of interest? the academic middle manager ! “You’re damned if you do and you’re damned if you don’t.” “You’re in the line of fire whether you want it or not”
  • 9.
  • 10. The academic middle manager holds an paradoxical in-between position possibilities: • unique ‘(tacit) knowledge’ basis (he knows what’s happening in the organization) • integrates strategic information with operational information (and vice versa) • is in position to speak and negotiate with stakeholders in the organization on strategic, organizational and operational level. in short: the prism effect of the academic middle manager is that he select, interprets and synthesizes information and uses this information in a custom way elsewhere in the organization. constraints: • encapsulated in processes • imbalance in role expectations and freedom of action • accountable, but no authorization • leadership is expected, but account with reference to managerial targets, etc.
  • 11. Yet it’s roles had hardly been researched. So it’s not clear which influence they have. Therefore this research! Research Question: Which roles does an academic middle manager in HE perform during strategic innovations? Secondary questions: Which factors affect these roles? Who’s the academic middle manager?
  • 13. Method • literature research • survey (2009) - HE in the Netherlands: 14 universities + 44 universities of applied sciences • 750 random selected mail-addresses: 304 respondents - 246 in dataset (33,37%) • interviews Average view of the respondents: mostly man (61,2%) of 50,96 year old and the vast majority (81,2%) has a fulltime employment. Their education is at academic level (51,4% MA / 39,6% PhD). They are faithful to their employer (14,48 year on the same institute) and their salary is about 5.700 Euro (month). They work for about 5 years as AMM (but 80,7% shorter than 7 years in this function). 44,1% did an additional training on educational management. They are satisfied with their job (7,9 on 10-scale).
  • 14. From To Character Professionalism Managerialism Focus Intern oriented and control Management of external relations Ambition Leaders with own academic career Leaders with managerial driving forces Appointment Temporarily part time position Permanent full time position Focus on Learning of students Academic values Professional autonomy Efficiency of students Efficiency / effectivity Common output Control Democratic governance model Hierarchic professional model / integral management Trends in the perception on the roles of the academic middle manager
  • 15. Results (1): Roles of the academic middle manager (Kallenberg, 2013)
  • 16. Results (2): Roles of the academic middle manager general: • roles Quinn & Rohrbauch do not fit on the population academic middle managers in the Netherlands • academic middle managers fulfill four types of activities that fit on the quadrants • the Diplomat role is the strongest completed role subgroups: • no difference in role fulfillment between men and women • difference in role fulfillment between universities and universities of applied sciences • small difference in role fulfillment between directors (Diplomat) and managers (Constructor, Guide, Guard) • Academic middle managers with direct contact with the board fulfill the role Diplomat in a stronger way
  • 17. Guard Guide Diplomat Constructor Complexity (context) ⬆ ⬆ ,16 Dynamic ⬆ ⬆ ,20 ⬆ ,18 Unpredictability ⬇ ⬆ ,18 ⬆ ,22 Decision-making ⬆ ⬆ ,20 Informal structure ⬆ ⬇ ,20 ⬇ ,23 ⬇ ,23 Complexity (structure) Identity Unwritten rules External orientation Autonomy ⬆ ⬆ ,35 ⬆ ,17 Engagement ⬆ ⬆ ,22 ⬆ ,31 ⬆ ,31 Authority Vision on education ⬆ ⬆ ,22 ⬆ ,34 contextstructureculture organizationalvariablesfunction related variables Results (3): Effect of organizational and position related variables on the fulfillment of roles
  • 18. Examples of strategic innovation starting new concepts: f.i. new programs, merging, formation of (thematic) consortia improving existing concepts: f.i. better guidance of students to improve the efficiency / output fit existing concepts: renew the dated educational concept (f.i. introduction PBL) stop existing concepts: f.i. repel of differentiations, specialisations, etc. 0,9% 42,2% 26,5% 30,4%
  • 19. Results (4) Strategic innovations AMM’s universities: especially examples of revitalize AMM’s univ applied sciences: esp. examples of transform men: steady examples of the three types women: esp. examples of transform On the base of logistic regression analysis: Revitalize Transform Explore Gender women -,725** man 1,047** Age ⬆ ,165** Guard ⬆ ,544** ⬇ -,514* Diplomat ⬇ -,702** ⬆ 1,503*** Complexity (context) ⬇ -,631** Informal structure ⬆ ,328** ⬇ -,344* Identity ⬇ -,364** ⬆ ,373* External orientation ⬆ ,887** Educational vision ⬆ ,563*
  • 20. Conclusions: • Academic middle managers fulfill four types of roles in (Dutch) higher education: Guard, Guide, Diplomat, Constructor • Cultural variables do not have influence on role fulfilling. (other organizational variables just a small influence) • The Diplomat role is influenced by autonomy and engagement • The Constructor role is influenced by engagement and vision on Education • The Guard and Guide role are confined influenced • The prism effect arises for the most in the role of Diplomat (In this role he selects, interprets and synthesizes information and uses this information in a custom way elsewhere in the organization.) • Do you want to have strategic innovation (“explore”)? Find a Diplomat for the job !
  • 21. Conclusions: Meaning of the research Opportunities in educational organizations (for instance): • use of the role-instrument in combination with the examples - to determine “the right man in the right place” (f.i. job interviews). • accommodate the influencing factors in such a way that the academic middle manager performs better. • outline management development programs which are aimed at the enhancing of the specific tools of academic middle managers Thanks to this research, knowledge is created: • who are the academic middle manager, how they are positioned, and what they do, • which factors influence the roles of academic middle managers, • about the relationship between the rolefulfilling and their preference for types of strategic innovations (towards examples).
  • 22. Thank you for your attention: You are invited to download the presentation on: www.slidesharenet.com/tonkallenberg The paper will be available on: https://leidenuniv.academia.edu/TonKallenberg

Editor's Notes

  1. De academische middenmanager zit ingeklemd tussen allerlei krachtenvelden, gepositioneerd in het midden van de organisatie en dat brengt hem een aantal beperkingen (bijvoorbeeld dat hij voor veel zaken wel verantwoordelijk is, maar niet bevoegd), doch daarnaast ook veel mogelijkheden. Onder meer omdat hij juist beschikt over een enorme dossierkennis en zich door de organisatie kan begeven. In het bijzonder kan hij de vele informatiestromen beïnvloeden en daarin zien we de prisma werking van de academische middenmanager.
  2. The Guard focuses on keeping the organisation running. The Guide focuses on introducing and maintaining cohesion and the development of the employees in the organisation. The Diplomat focuses on searching in a creative manner for opportunities and means to realise his vision. The Constructor focuses on achieving goals.
  3. Conclusie van de rollen van Quinn & Rohrbauch dat zij niet goed passen, maar dat het wel mogelijk is het instrument zo aan te passen dat de vier typen activiteiten in tact blijven. Uitgesplitst naar verschillende deelgroepen is het bijvoorbeeld wel interessant dat er geen verschil in vervulling tussen mannen en vrouwen te zien is. Wel vervullen hogeschool AMM’s sterker hun rol dan universitaire AMM’s (voor deze laatste groep is het vaak een ‘bijbaan’ - letterlijk en figuurlijk). Daarnaast zijn er kleine verschillen tussen AMM’s in de functie als directeur en in de functie als manager.
  4. Wanneer we gaan kijken naar de invloed van de verschillende factoren op de vervulling van de rollen ontstaat het volgende beeld. Wanneer het pijltje omhoog staat betekent het dat wanneer de betreffende variabele sterker ervaren wordt dit samengaat met een sterkere vervulling van de betreffende rol. Bijvoorbeeld rechts onderin in het grijze vakje: een sterkere ervaren autonomie leidt ook tot een sterkere invulling van de rol van Diplomat. De grijze vakjes zijn de effecten met een score die groter is dan 30 en dit betekent dat dit effect groot te noemen is. Voor de anderen geldt dat er wel effect is, maar dat dit gemiddeld of klein te noemen is. Opvallend is natuurlijk ook dat er verschillende variabelen zijn die helemaal geen effect sorteren op de rolvervulling. Dit geldt bijvoorbeeld voor alle cultuurvariabelen en dit kan geïnterpreteerd worden dat AMM’s gewoon hun gang gaan in de organisatie en zich niets aantrekken van de cultuur.
  5. Om te beoordelen in hoeverre er een samenhang is tussen de rolvervulling van academische middenmanagers en strategische innovatie heb ik de respondenten gevraagd om een voorbeeld te geven van een strategische innovatie waaraan zij gewerkt hadden of die bij hen gespeeld had. Om deze keuzes te kunnen indelen heb ik gebruik gemaakt van een vrij overzichtelijk raamwerk waarbij vier typen zijn te onderscheiden. Opvallend is dat het type saneren niet of nauwelijks genoemd is, terwijl de andere drie typen redelijk verdeeld zijn.
  6. Iets verder uitgespit blijkt overigens dat universitaire AMM’s vooral voorbeelden geven van revitaliseren (daar is men momenteel sterk gericht op de verbetering van rendementen), terwijl hogeschool AMM’s vooral transformeren noemen. Een ander opvallend verschil in de deelgroepen is dat mannen van alles wat noemen, terwijl vrouwen vooral transformeren noemen. De typen strategische innovaties heb ik vervolgens met behulp van logistische regressie analyses in een “grote bak” gegooid om op die manier te onderzoeken wat wel en wat geen effect heeft op het noemen van een bepaalde strategische innovatie en in dit overzicht heb ik de belangrijkste scores daarvan bij elkaar gebracht. Opvallend hierin is bijvoorbeeld dat naarmate iemand een sterkere Guard vervulling heeft, hij ook vaker een voorbeeld van revitalisering geeft, terwijl dit voor een sterkere Diplomat juist leidt tot het noemen van een voorbeeld van exploreren. Kijkt u even rustig naar andere effecten ...
  7. Tot slot kun je natuurlijk de vraag stellen wat dit onderzoek ons heeft opgeleverd? En of het het waard is geweest om al die uren en avonden door te werken? Over dat laatste zullen we vanmiddag en vanavond verder spreken. De inzet voor dit onderzoek was ontstaan vanuit de behoefte om op een explorerende manier kennis te vergaren over de academische middenmanager. Voor de wetenschap is de opbrengst dat er meer kennis is ontstaan over de vraag wie de academische middenmanager is, etc. Daarnaast is de meerwaarde voor de praktijk, onder meer dat je op basis van het ontworpen instrument op een vrij eenvoudige manier de juiste man op de juiste plaats kunt zetten. Immers wanneer je als organisatie een bepaald type strategische innovatie wilt realiseren hebt je de juiste man opde juiste plaats nodig. In sommige gevallen heb je een uitgesproken Diplomat nodig, terwijl je in andere gevallen bijvoorbeeld een Guard nodig hebt. Daarnaast biedt de nieuwe kennis ook toepassingsmogelijkheden door academische middenmanagers beter in hun rol tot hun recht te laten komen door aanpassing van een aantal factoren en tenslotte kun je gerichte trainingen ontwerpen om het handelingsrepertoire van academische middenmanagers te vergroten.