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Differentiation that Makes a
         Difference:

The Enrichment Triad Model 




Angela M. Housand
University of North Carolina, Wilmington
Nova Scotia Summit 2012
angelahousand.com
What is your personal definition
         of success?
What if all of you had a different
    definition of success?
What if you were all in a
classroom with a singular set of
        expectations?
Would you all succeed?
They Are All So Different…
 Children come to us in a variety
   of shapes, sizes, intellectual
 abilities, creative abilities, inter/
intra personal skills, and a myriad
 more characteristics that makes
  each child we deal with unique
             and special.
               Carol Ann Tomlinson
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
The success of education
depends on adapting teaching
to individual differences among
learners.
                                          Yuezheng,
        in 4th century B. C. Chinese treatise, Xue Ji
What	
  cons*tutes	
  
success	
  in	
  the	
  
21st	
  Century?
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
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Enrichment Learning and
             Teaching
The principles of enrichment learning and teaching are:	

     Each learner is unique.	



           Learning is more effective when students enjoy what they are doing.	



     Learning is more meaningful when content and process are learned within the
     context of a real problem.	


            Learning can be enhanced through informal instruction that uses
            applications of students' constructed knowledge and skills.
Knowledge	
  
Knowledge	
  Of	
  	
  
                           =   	
  
                                      Basic	
  Principles	
  &	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
                                      Key	
  Concepts	
  

Knowledge	
  How	
  	
  
                           =   	
  
                                      Methodology	
  


Knowledge	
  About	
  	
  
                           =	
        Applica*on	
  of	
  
                                      Principles	
  &	
  Concepts	
  
TYPE I*                 TYPE II
  GENERAL                  GROUP
EXPLORATORY              TRAINING
 ACTIVITIES              ACTIVITIES




              TYPE III
       INDIVIDUAL & SMALL
      GROUP INVESTIGATIONS
         OF REAL PROBLEMS
Type I:
General Exploratory Experiences
Type	
  I	
  Enrichment
                                       	
  
•  Experiences	
  and	
  ac*vi*es	
  that	
  are	
  
   purposefully	
  designed	
  to	
  expose	
  students	
  to	
  a	
  
   wide	
  variety	
  of	
  topics,	
  issues,	
  and	
  ac*vi*es	
  
   not	
  ordinarily	
  covered	
  in	
  the	
  regular	
  
   curriculum.	
  
+ Gimme Five!




Today’s Five
Assembly           5 Fabulous
TED Talks
Ebook Online
                      Ideas
Field Trips
Skype an Expert
                  4 Your Type 1
TO
Rene
Bibaud
Jumpy Jumpertons

        •  Choreographed a
           “recital”
        •  Introduced Schoolwide
           “Jumpathon”
        •  Raised $1200
ted.com"




           23	
  
Never
Under
Estimate the
Power of a
Book
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
eBooks

           http://www.icdlbooks.org/

            http://books.google.com

http://kids.nypl.org/reading/Childrensebooks.cfm

      http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/
722,000
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
722,000
TYPE I*                 TYPE II
  GENERAL                  GROUP
EXPLORATORY              TRAINING
 ACTIVITIES              ACTIVITIES




              TYPE III
       INDIVIDUAL & SMALL
      GROUP INVESTIGATIONS
         OF REAL PROBLEMS
Type II:
The “HOW TO”
Type	
  II	
  Enrichment
                                       	
  
•  The	
  use	
  of	
  instruc*onal	
  methods	
  and	
  
   materials	
  that	
  are	
  purposefully	
  designed	
  to	
  
   promote	
  the	
  development	
  of	
  thinking	
  skills	
  
   and	
  foster	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  authen*c,	
  inves*ga*ve	
  
   methods	
  in	
  students.	
  	
  
Type II Enrichment:

  Cognitive & Affective Training
  •  Creative Thinking Skills
  •  Creative Problem Solving and Decision
     Making
  •  Critical and Logical Thinking
  •  Affective Skills
Type II Enrichment:

   Learning How to Learn Skills
  •  Listening, Observing, and Perceiving
     Skills
  •  Note taking and Outlining
  •  Interviews and Surveys
  •  Analyzing and Organizing Data
Type II Enrichment:

       Advanced Research Skills
  •    Preparation for Type III Investigations
  •    Research Skills
  •    Community Resources
  •    Internet Research
  •    New Literacies
Type II Enrichment:

       Communication Skills
  •  Visual Communication
  •  Oral Communication
  •  Written Communication
+ Gimme Five!




Today’s Five
How To Books     5 Fabulous
Youtube
eHow
                    Ideas
About.com
Khan Academy
                4 Your Type 2
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
How to Build a Robot?
How to Build a Robot?
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Student Behaviors Suggesting
   that Compacting May Be
          Necessary
•    Finishes tasks quickly
•    Completes homework in class
•    Appears bored during instruction time
•    Brings in outside reading material
•    Creates puzzles, games, or diversions
     in class
•  Tests scores consistently excellent
•  Asks questions that indicate advanced
   familiarity with material
•  Sought after by others for assistance
•  Daydreams
Compacting
Eliminates boredom
resulting from
unnecessary drill
and practice.

Provides challenge
leading to
continuous growth.
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
722,000
TYPE I*                 TYPE II
  GENERAL                  GROUP
EXPLORATORY              TRAINING
 ACTIVITIES              ACTIVITIES




              TYPE III
       INDIVIDUAL & SMALL
      GROUP INVESTIGATIONS
         OF REAL PROBLEMS
Interest and
                          Rigor Lead To
                          Creative
                          Productivity
“We need students to get more deeply interested in
   things, more involved in them, more engaged in
  wanting to know, to have projects that they can get
 excited about and work on over long periods of time,
   to be stimulated to find things out on their own.”
Type III:
Investigating Real Problems
Type	
  III	
  Enrichment
                                         	
  
Inves&ga&ve	
  ac&vi&es	
  and	
  ar&s&c	
  produc&ons	
  
in	
  which	
  the	
  learner	
  assumes	
  the	
  role	
  of	
  a	
  first-­‐
hand	
  inquirer	
  and	
  a	
  prac&cing	
  professional.	
  
Environmental Influences
1.    Choice in and control over activities
2.    Opportunities for help seeking
3.    Student participation in evaluation
4.    Provision of complex tasks

      (Boekaerts & Corno, 2005; DeCorte, Verschaffel, & DeVen, 2001; Folkesson &
      Swalander, 2007; Hadwin et. al., 2001; Perry, 1998; Perry, Hutchinson, & Thauberger,
      2007; Perry, Norby, & VandeKamp, 2003; Perry, Phillips, & Dowler, 2004; Turner, 1995)
Person	
  Environment	
  Fit	
  
•  Person	
  /	
  Environment	
  fit	
  is	
  the	
  degree	
  to	
  which	
  
   a	
  person	
  or	
  their	
  personality	
  is	
  compa*ble	
  with	
  
   their	
  environment	
  
D
              I
              G
              I
              T
              A
              L	
     IMMIGRANTS	
  
              D
              I
              V
              I
              D
              E	
  
NATIVES	
  
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
“From the standpoint of the
child…he is unable to apply in
daily life what he is learning
at school. That is the
isolation of the school - its
isolation from life.”
                       John Dewey
Autonomy

The more autonomous (self-
determined) a person believes their
behavior to be the greater the personal
satisfaction and enjoyment from
engaging in that behavior.
Competence…

     Feelings of competence shape a
  person’s willingness to actively engage
    and persist in different behaviors.




                                     (Bandura 1986, 1997)
Motivation
Diminished perception of competence
       (self-efficacy), autonomy
      (meaningfulness), or control
 (environmental perception) leads to
  lower motivation and a decreased
willingness to pursue goals and persist
   in their attainment, thus limiting
      overall educational growth.
•  Tied to Student’s
   Identity
•  Personally
   Interesting
•  Integral to the
   Student’s Vision
   of the future
•  Viewed as
   Useful

           (Eccles & Wigfield)
Applying the Triad:
Middle School Humanities
                Type I Activities

•  Invited speaker from a local historical society
•  Simulation activity
•  Field trip to related historical site
•  Display of historical memorabilia and old
   newspapers
•  Panel discussion by historians and local experts
•  Videos (fiction and nonfiction)
•  Television special on related area
Applying the Triad:
Middle School Humanities
                 Type II Activities
 •    Locate information sources
 •    Interview skills
 •    Debate controversial historical issues
 •    Research skills
 •    Photography & media skills
 •    Advanced writing & editing
 •    Evaluation of primary sources
 •    Identifying stereotypes & bias in texts
Applying the Triad:
 Middle School Humanities
                 Type III Products

•  Chronicle of a historical walking tour of a city
•  Oral history interviews with past city mayors
•  Development of a simulation war game
•  Media presentation of the music of the 1940s
•  Oral history interviews recording a factory's
   influence on a community
•  A book summarizing local folklore
•  A family tree: A study of genealogy.
Type II ½:
The Illusion of Choice
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
 Start	
  small	
  (2-­‐3	
  choices)	
  
 Organize	
  suppor*ve	
  environment	
  
    Interest	
  Development	
  Centers	
  
    Pre-­‐planned	
  Crea*vity	
  Ac*vi*es	
  
    CD	
  Listening/Reading	
  Center	
  
 Set	
  clear	
  performance	
  standards;	
  
  perceived	
  by	
  students	
  as	
  aainable	
  
Learning Contracts
  An agreement between teacher and
   student
  An opportunity for a student to work
   somewhat independently
  Increases student responsibility for their
   own learning
  Provides some freedom for the student in
   acquiring skills and understandings
Learning Contracts
       Include:
  A skills component
  A content component
  A time line
  Specification of expectations
   •  Behavior
   •  Criteria for successful completion and quality
  Signatures of agreement to terms (Student
   and Teacher)
                                                     ACSD (1997)
                                                  Tomlinson (1995)
Consequences:
 Learning contracts set positive
  consequences
  Example: continued freedom


 They also set negative
  consequences
  Example: teacher sets work parameters
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Independent
                             Projects
•  Build on student interest
•  Encourage independence
•  Allow work with complex and abstract ideas
•  Enable long-term and in-depth work on topics of
   interest
•  Develop task commitment and self-regulation
•  Teach planning and research skills at advanced
   levels
Timeline:
• Start Date
• Completion Date
• Progress Report Dates




Project Description: What do
you hope to find out or learn? "
Intended Project(s):
• What form or format will the final
project take?
• How, when, and where will
you share and communicate the
results of your project with other
people?
• In what ways will you share your
work?

What Format Will Your Project
Take? "
What will your product be?
Getting Started:
• What are the first steps you
should take to begin your work?
• What types of information do you
need to find in order to do your
work?
• Where will you get the
information you need? What
questions do you have that you
need answered in order to start
your work?
• What help do you need from your
teacher or parents?
Project Skills, Resources and
Materials I Will Need:

What are the resources (people,
organizations, businesses, etc.) I
will need to do this project?
Intended Audience(s):
• Who would be most interested in
your work or project?
• What organized groups at the
local, state, regional and national
levels might be interested in my
work?
• Where might I display this work?
• What information will I need to
contact these people and tell
them about my work?
Standards:
• Which standards are being
addressed?
• Does the student have a
metacognitive understanding of
these standards?
• Does the student have a vested
interest in meeting and/or
exceeding these standards?
EMPOWER STUDENTS
Conner Cohen
      AGE: 11
  iSketch App
Ozair Patel
         AGE: 13
Berry School Mate
What Skills Are Required?
    Problem Finding
    Calculating
    Organizing (relevant from irrelevant)
    Planning
    Communication
    Collaboration
    Metacognitive
The Question of Equity
All great
achievements
require time…
      -Maya Angelou
The greater danger for most of us
lies not in setting our aim too high
and falling short;
but in setting our aim too low,
and achieving our mark.
                   -Michelangelo
Questions?
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Enrichment Clusters Are Not
       Mini-Courses!

 Enrichment clusters are groups of students
 who share common interests and come
 together during special time blocks to pursue
 these interests with adults who share their
 interests and want to help students develop
 their talents in this area and produce a product
 or service!
Seven Steps to Implementing Enrichment
    Clusters on a Schoolwide Basis


    1.  Assess the Interests of Students and Staff
    2.  Set Up a Wall Chart
    3.  Create a Schedule
    4.  Locate People and Staff to Facilitate Clusters
    5.  Provide an Orientation for Cluster Facilitators
    6.  Prepare Cluster Descriptions and Register
        Students by Placing Them in Clusters of Interest to
        Them
    7.  Celebrate Your Success
•  What will I need to
   work on my project?
•  Where will I work?
•  Who will I work with?
•  What might hinder my
   process?
•  Am I accomplishing
   what I planned?
•  Is this taking longer
   than I thought?
•  Am I on task or am I
   being distracted?
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
•  Did I accomplish what I
   planned to do?
•  Was I distracted and how
   did I get back to work?
•  Did I plan enough time or
   did it take longer than I
   thought?
•  In which situation did I
   accomplish the most
   work?
Be Prepared to Let Go.
Cyclical and Ongoing
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
3 Ring Conception of Giftedness
OPERATION HOUNDSTOOTH

           OPTIMISM                                  COURAGE                               ROMANCE WITH A TOPIC OR
                                                                                                 DISCIPLINE
               •hope                      •Psychological/intellectual
•positive feelings from hard work               independence                                       •absorption
                                              •moral conviction                                      •passion



    SENSITIVITY TO HUMAN                PHYSICAL/MENTAL ENERGY                                 VISION/SENSE OF
         CONCERNS                                                                                  DESTINY
                                                     •charisma
            •insight                                 •curiosity                        •sense of power to change things
           •empathy                                                                           •sense of direction
                                                                                               •pursuit of goals




                                                                                             diversity
              WISDOM                                                                         balance
       SATISFYING LIFESTYLE
     THE PURSUIT OF HAPPINESS                                                                harmony

                                                                                             proportion

                                               © Operation Houndstooth
                                The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented
                                               University of Connecticut
                               Joseph S. Renzulli, Rachel E. Sytsma, & Kristin B. Berman
                                        November, 2000 www.gifted.uconn.edu
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Gifted Behaviors NOT Gifted People!
Gifted Artist


      Talented Mathematician


Use “defining” terms as adjectives:

                    Talented Musician


          Gifted Writer
722,000
T he Schoolwide Enrichment Model
                    Joseph S. Renzulli & Sally M. Reis

                                    School Structures




       The Total Talent Portfolio
Curriculum Modification Techniques
Enrichment Learning and Teaching
        TYPE I               TYPE II
       GENERAL               GROUP
     EXPLORATORY            TRAINING
      ACTIVITIES           ACTIVITIES

                    TYPE III
           INDIVIDUAL & SMALL GROUP
       INVESTIGATIONS OF REAL PROBLEMS

    Regular
   Classroom                      Environment

 Service Delivery Components
                                                         www.gifted.uconn.edu
Reflect	
  on	
  YOUR	
  teaching	
  experiences….	
  
1.  Think	
  about	
  one	
  or	
  two	
  students	
  who	
  have	
  	
  
    unique	
  learning	
  needs	
  and	
  experiences.	
  
2.  Consider	
  what	
  these	
  learners	
  need	
  to	
  make	
  
    con&nuous	
  progress	
  in	
  learning?	
  
3.  Think	
  about	
  how	
  you	
  can	
  meet	
  the	
  needs	
  of	
  
    students	
  with	
  diverse	
  (a)	
  readiness	
  levels,	
  (b)	
  
    interests,(c)	
  learning	
  styles?	
  
4.  What	
  factors	
  make	
  it	
  easy	
  or	
  difficult	
  to	
  modify	
  
    curriculum	
  and	
  instruc&on	
  for	
  diverse	
  learners?	
  
"First	
  grade	
  would	
  be	
  all	
  right	
  if	
  it	
  weren't	
  for	
  the	
  11	
  sequels."	
  
Individual	
  Educa*onal	
  Programming	
  Guide—The	
  
                     Compactor	
  

                                                           Individual Conference
                                                           Dates and Persons
       Name                       Age     Teacher          Participating in Planning
                                                           of IEP

       School                     Grade   Parent(s)




          Curriculum	
            Procedures	
        Accelera&on	
  
          Areas	
  to	
  Be	
         for	
             and/or	
  
          Considered	
            Compac&ng	
         Enrichment	
  
              for	
                  Basic	
           Ac&vi&es	
  
          Compac&ng	
              Materials	
  
Accelera*on	
  
•  Different	
  books,	
  same	
  subject,	
  different	
  level	
  of	
  
   reading	
  
•  Math:	
  odd	
  problems	
  only,	
  to	
  free	
  up	
  *me	
  for	
  
   independent	
  study	
  of	
  another	
  facet	
  of	
  math	
  that	
  the	
  
   student	
  would	
  not	
  otherwise	
  study	
  
•  Skip	
  a	
  grade	
  
•  Skip	
  a	
  grade	
  in	
  one	
  subject	
  
Ra&onale	
  for	
  Use	
  
•    Builds	
  on	
  student	
  interest	
  
•    Sa*sfies	
  curiosity	
  
•    Teachers	
  planning	
  and	
  research	
  skills	
  
     at	
  advanced	
  levels	
  
•    Encourages	
  independence	
  
•    Allows	
  work	
  with	
  complex	
  &	
  abstract	
  
     ideas	
  
•    Allows	
  long-­‐term	
  and	
  in-­‐depth	
  work	
  
     on	
  topics	
  of	
  interest	
  
•    Taps	
  into	
  high	
  mo*va*on	
  
Guidelines	
  for	
  Use	
  
•  Build	
  on	
  student	
  interest	
  
•  Allow	
  the	
  student	
  maximum	
  freedom	
  to	
  
   plan,	
  based	
  on	
  student	
  readiness	
  for	
  
   freedom	
  
•  Teacher	
  provides	
  the	
  guidance	
  &	
  structure	
  
   to	
  supplement	
  student	
  capacity	
  to	
  plan	
  
   and	
  ensure	
  high	
  standards	
  of	
  produc*on	
  
•  	
  Use	
  present	
  *melines	
  to	
  zap	
  
   procras*na*on	
  
•  Use	
  process	
  logs	
  to	
  document	
  the	
  process	
  
   involved	
  throughout	
  the	
  study	
  
•  Establish	
  criteria	
  for	
  success	
  
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Why Aren’t Some
Students Challenged?
Classroom Practices Study
      Teachers reported that they never had
      any training in meeting the needs of
      gifted students.

                   61% public school teachers
                   54% private school teachers

Archambault, F. X., Jr., Westberg, K. L., Brown, S. W., Hallmark, B. W., Emmons, C. L., & Zhang, W. (1993). Regular
    classroom practices with gifted students: Results of a national survey of classroom teachers (Research Monograph
    93102). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
Classroom Practices
                           Observational Study
      Students experienced no instructional
      or curricular differentiation in 84% of
      the activities in which they
      participated:
                    Reading                                  Language Arts
                    Mathematics                              Social Studies
                    Science
Westberg, K. L., Archambault, F. X., Jr., Dobyns, S. M., & Salvin, T. J. (1993). An observational study of instructional and
    curricular practices used with gifted and talented students in regular classroom (Research Monograph 93104). Storrs,
    CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Your Experience:

   Addressing the needs of
Diverse Learners with Diverse
       Learning Styles#
"   What differentiation techniques have you
  employed?"

"   What are your greatest successes?"

"   How do you think differentiation of learning
  styles might be different from or similar to
  differentiation for readiness level, ability, and
  interests? "
Diversity in students can include:
        Ability (aptitude) differences
        Achievement differences
        Differences in affect
             Enthusiasm level and personality
        Differences in effort
             Effort vs. Ability
Diversity in students can include:
        Academic background differences
             Potentially poor preparation
             Limited exposure
        Cultural differences
             Second language acquisition
             Interaction style differences
        Differences in self-regulation and study skills
100


          80                                                                                                                                           Reading
                                                                                                                                                       Language Arts
                                                                                                                                                       Mathematics
          60
Percent




                                                                                                                                                       Science

          40                                                                                                                                           Social Studies
                                                                                                                                                       All Subject Areas

          20


            0
                No Differentiation	





                                                 Advanced Content	





                                                                           Advanced Process	





                                                                                                        Advanced Product	





                                                                                                                                    Assigned Topic	





                                                                                                                                                                 Self-selected Topic	




                                                                                                                                                                                                 Differentiation	

                                                                                                                                    Indep. Study w/




                                                                                                                                                                    Indep. Study w/



                                                                                                                                                                                                          Other
                            No Differentiation          Advanced Content             Advanced Process          Advanced   Product   Indep. Study w/Assigned       Indep. Study w/Self-selected       OtherDifferentiation
"Congratulations!! He seems very bright."
Sally Reis on Differentiation

“The policy statements of almost
every school district in the nation
reflect a commitment to meeting
students’ individual needs, and yet,
many districts lack a capacity to
put these policies into practice.”
What is differentiation?
Matching the given content area
 with a student’s interests,
 abilities, and learning styles
 through various instructional
 strategies.
What is differentiated instruction?
 It’s teaching with student variance in
mind.

   It’s starting where the kids are rather
  than with a standardized approach to
  teaching that assumes all kids of a
  given age or grade are essentially
  alike.

     It’s responsive teaching rather
    than one-size fits-all teaching.
What Differentiated Instruction…
           	

IS        IS NOT

• Differentiated instruction is     • Individualized instruction
more QUALITATIVE than               • Chaotic
quantitative.                       • Just another way to provide
• Differentiated instruction        homogeneous instruction
provides MULTIPLE                   (inflexible grouping)
approaches to content,              • Just modifying grading
process, and product.               systems and reducing
• Differentiated instruction is     workloads
STUDENT CENTERED.                   • More work for the “good”
• Differentiated instruction is a   students and less and
BLEND of whole-class, group         different for the “poor”
and individual instruction.         students
• Differentiated instruction is
“ORGANIC.”
The Five Dimensions of Differentiation	


  Content	

                       Process	

(Knowledge)	

                   (Pedagogy)	



                 Yourself	



   Classroom	

                Products	

Organization and	

       (Expression Styles)	

 Management
A Quick Differentiation QUIZ
Did every student do it?                               NO
Should every student do it?                            NO
Could every student do it?                             NO
Would every student want to do it?                     NO
Did the student do it willingly and zestfully?   YES
Did the student use authentic resources          YES
and methodology?
Was it done for an audience other than (or       YES
in addition to) the teacher?
Ways to Differentiate Content
•    Varied Texts
•    Accelerated Coverage of Material
•    Varied Supplementary Materials
•    Independent Study
•    Tiered Assignments
•    Interest Development Centers

•  Compacting
Approximately 40-50% of
              traditional classroom
              material could be eliminated
              for targeted students.



Reis, S. M., Westberg, K.L., Kulikowich, J., Caillard, F., Hébert, T., Plucker, J., Purcell, J.H., Rogers, J.B., & Smist,
J.M. (1993). Why not let high ability students start school in January? The curriculum compacting study (Research
Monograph 93106). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
Compacting

"  Assesses what a student knows and
   what content is not yet mastered
"  Content not yet mastered becomes part
   of learning goals
"  Previously mastered content is not
   required thereby “freeing up” time for
   enriched, accelerated, or interest driven
   activities
                              Renzulli & Reis (1997)
                              Tomlinson (1995)
When teachers eliminated as much as
          50% of the curriculum, no differences
          were found between treatment and
          control groups in most content areas.
          In fact, students whose curriculum was
          compacted scored higher than control
          group students in some areas.



Reis, S. M., Westberg, K.L., Kulikowich, J., Caillard, F., Hébert, T., Plucker, J., Purcell, J.H., Rogers, J.B., & Smist,
J.M. (1993). Why not let high ability students start school in January? The curriculum compacting study (Research
Monograph 93106). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
What is Curriculum Compacting?

"  Modifying or streamlining the regular
   curriculum
"  Eliminating the repetition of previously
   mastered material
"  Upgrading the challenge level of the
   regular curriculum
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
When once the child has
learned that four and two
are six, a thousand
repetitions will give him no
new information, and it is a
waste of time to keep him
employed in that manner.
                                        J.M. Greenwood
       Principles of Education Practically Applied, 1888
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
A        BILIT
                                            GROUPING       Y
                                 RESEARCH-BASED DECISION MAKING SERIES




All	
  youngsters	
  profit	
  from	
  grouping	
  programs	
  
that	
  adjust	
  the	
  curriculum	
  to	
  the	
  ap*tude	
  levels	
  
of	
  the	
  groups.	
  	
  Schools	
  should	
  try	
  to	
  use	
  ability	
  
grouping	
  in	
  this	
  way.	
  
Cluster	
  Grouping:	
  	
  An	
  Inves&ga&on	
  of	
  Student	
  
 Achievement,	
  Iden&fica&on,	
  and	
  Classroom	
  
                           Prac&ces	
  



                      Marcia	
  Gentry	
  
Cluster Grouping




Sample Classroom Configuration
60
58
56
54                                                                                                    Treatment

52                                                                                                    Comparison
50
48
46
44
42
40
                        Grade 3                 Grade 4                Grade 5

                                         Grades



 Figure	
  3.	
  	
  Adjusted	
  NCE	
  total	
  baery	
  means	
  for	
  treatment	
  and	
  comparison	
  
 school	
  students	
  class	
  of	
  2000.	
  
60
58
56
                                                                                                  Treatment
54
52                                                                                                Comparison
50
48
46
44
42
40
                        Grade 3                 Grade 4              Grade 5

                                       Grades



 Figure	
  4. 	
  Adjusted	
  NCE	
  total	
  baery	
  means	
  for	
  treatment	
  and	
  comparison	
  
 school	
  students	
  class	
  of	
  2001.	
  
Flexible Grouping

  Employs several organizational patterns for
   instruction
  Students are grouped and regrouped according
   to:
       Specific goals
       Activities
       Individual needs
       Interests
       Desired outcomes (products)

                      http://www.eduplace.com/science/profdev/articles/valentino.html
Grouping Options

  Teacher-Led Groups
    Whole class
    Small group
    Individual
  Student-Led Groups
    Collaborative
    Performance-based
    Dyad (Pairs)

                   http://www.eduplace.com/science/profdev/articles/valentino.html
More Grouping Options
  Within Class Grouping
       Ability
       Interest
       Question-Based
       Readiness
       Learning Style
  Beyond Class Grouping
     Across-Class
     Multi-Age
     Team Regrouping
                           Renzulli & Reis (1997)
                               Tomlinson (1995)
Ways to Differentiate
 Content in Groups

    Varied Texts
    Varied Supplementary Materials
    Varied Graphic Organizers
    Independent Study
    Tiered Questions/Assignments
    Interest Development Centers
Anchor Activities

   Self-paced, purposeful, content-
    driven activities that students can
    work on independently
   Can be done over the course of a
    unit, grading period, or longer
   Activities that are meaningful,
    ongoing, and appropriate to students’
    learning needs
                     http://wblrd.sk.ca/~bestpractice/anchor/
In Class Enrichment
•  Interest Development Centers
•  Learning Games
•  Special Class Projects
  –  Community Service, Simulations, Class
     Meetings, Field Trips, Videos, Guest Speakers,
     Free Choice Reading Time, Cooking, Art,
     Science, Nature Walks, etc.
How do I make room for
     everybody?
           •  Provide enrichment
              opportunities for the
              whole school
              –  Service Projects
              –  School Olympics
              –  Monster Mansion
              –  Art Show
              –  Family Nights
              –  Science Fairs
Joseph S. Renzulli


   Abilities                   Interests                                          Style Preferences

Maximum                                             Instructional                  Learning               Thinking              Expression
Performance                  Interest               Styles                         Environment            Styles                Style
Indicators                   Areas                  Preferences                    Preferences            Preferences           Preferences
Tests                        Fine Arts              Recitation & Drill                                                          Written
                                                                                   Inter/Intra            Analytic
  •Standardized                                     Peer Tutoring
                             Crafts                                                Personal               (School Smart)
                                                    Lecture                                                                     Oral
 •Teacher-Made               Literary                                              •Self-Oriented
                                                    Lecture/Discussion
Course Grades                                                                                             Synthetic/
                             Historical             Discussion                     •Peer-Oriented                               Manipulative
Teacher Ratings                                                                                           Creative
                             Mathematical/Logical   Guided Independent             •Adult-Oriented
Product Evaluation                                                                                        (Creative,
                                                     Study *                                              Inventive)            Discussion
 •Written                    Physical Sciences                                     •Combined
                                                    Learning /Interest
 •Oral                       Life Sciences           Center                        Physical                                     Display
                                                                                                          Practical/
 •Visual                     Political/Judicial     Simulation, Role Playing,      •Sound                 Contextual
                             Athletic/Recreation      Dramatization, Guided        •Heat                  (Street Smart)        Dramatization
 •Musical
                                                      Fantasy
 •Constructed                Marketing/Business                                    •Light
                                                    Learning Games                                        Legislative           Artistic
(Note differences between    Drama/Dance            Replicative Reports or         •Design
assigned and self-selected
                             Musical Performance     Projects*                     •Mobility              Executive             Graphic
products)
                             Musical Composition    Investigative Reports or       •Time of Day
Level of Participation
                                                     Projects*                                            Judicial              Commercial
 in Learning                 Managerial/Business                                   •Food Intake
                                                    Unguided Independent
 Activities                  Photography                                           •Seating
                                                     Study*                                               Ref: Sternberg,       Service
Degree of Interaction                                                                                     1984, 1988, 1990
                             Film/Video             Internship*
 With Others                                                                       Ref: Amabile, 1983;
                             Computers              Apprenticeship*                                                             Ref: Kettle, Renzulli,
                                                                                   Dunn, Dunn, & Price,                         & Rizza, 1998;
Ref: General Tests and       Other (Specify)        *With or without a mentor      1977; Gardner, 1983                          Renzulli & Reis, 1985
Measurements Literature
                             Ref: Renzulli, 1997
                                                    Ref: Renzulli & Smith, 1978
Interest-A-Lyzer
Sample Items…
  Imagine that you can spend a week job shadowing any
  person in your community to investigate a career you
  might like to have in the future. List the occupations
  of the persons you would select.

  1st choice ______________________
  2nd choice______________________
  3rd choice ______________________
Sample Items (Secondary Interest-A-Lyzer)…
If you could conduct an interview with a man or
woman you admire, past or present, who would it
be? What 3 questions would you ask him or her?

1. ____________________________________
2. ____________________________________
3. ____________________________________
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Learning Styles Inventory

Sample Items (Renzulli  Smith)…
                                 Really Dislike……..Really Like


Being a member of a panel that       1 2 3 4 5
is discussing current events

Working on your own to prepare 1 2 3 4 5
material you will discuss in class
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference

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Differentiation that Makes a Difference

  • 1. Differentiation that Makes a Difference:
 The Enrichment Triad Model Angela M. Housand University of North Carolina, Wilmington Nova Scotia Summit 2012
  • 3. What is your personal definition of success?
  • 4. What if all of you had a different definition of success?
  • 5. What if you were all in a classroom with a singular set of expectations?
  • 6. Would you all succeed?
  • 7. They Are All So Different… Children come to us in a variety of shapes, sizes, intellectual abilities, creative abilities, inter/ intra personal skills, and a myriad more characteristics that makes each child we deal with unique and special. Carol Ann Tomlinson
  • 9. The success of education depends on adapting teaching to individual differences among learners. Yuezheng, in 4th century B. C. Chinese treatise, Xue Ji
  • 10. What  cons*tutes   success  in  the   21st  Century?
  •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
  • 14. Enrichment Learning and Teaching The principles of enrichment learning and teaching are: Each learner is unique. Learning is more effective when students enjoy what they are doing. Learning is more meaningful when content and process are learned within the context of a real problem. Learning can be enhanced through informal instruction that uses applications of students' constructed knowledge and skills.
  • 15. Knowledge   Knowledge  Of     =   Basic  Principles  &             Key  Concepts   Knowledge  How     =   Methodology   Knowledge  About     =   Applica*on  of   Principles  &  Concepts  
  • 16. TYPE I* TYPE II GENERAL GROUP EXPLORATORY TRAINING ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES TYPE III INDIVIDUAL & SMALL GROUP INVESTIGATIONS OF REAL PROBLEMS
  • 18. Type  I  Enrichment   •  Experiences  and  ac*vi*es  that  are   purposefully  designed  to  expose  students  to  a   wide  variety  of  topics,  issues,  and  ac*vi*es   not  ordinarily  covered  in  the  regular   curriculum.  
  • 19. + Gimme Five! Today’s Five Assembly 5 Fabulous TED Talks Ebook Online Ideas Field Trips Skype an Expert 4 Your Type 1
  • 20. TO
  • 22. Jumpy Jumpertons •  Choreographed a “recital” •  Introduced Schoolwide “Jumpathon” •  Raised $1200
  • 23. ted.com" 23  
  • 27. eBooks http://www.icdlbooks.org/ http://books.google.com http://kids.nypl.org/reading/Childrensebooks.cfm http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/
  • 34. TYPE I* TYPE II GENERAL GROUP EXPLORATORY TRAINING ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES TYPE III INDIVIDUAL & SMALL GROUP INVESTIGATIONS OF REAL PROBLEMS
  • 36. Type  II  Enrichment   •  The  use  of  instruc*onal  methods  and   materials  that  are  purposefully  designed  to   promote  the  development  of  thinking  skills   and  foster  the  use  of  authen*c,  inves*ga*ve   methods  in  students.    
  • 37. Type II Enrichment: Cognitive & Affective Training •  Creative Thinking Skills •  Creative Problem Solving and Decision Making •  Critical and Logical Thinking •  Affective Skills
  • 38. Type II Enrichment: Learning How to Learn Skills •  Listening, Observing, and Perceiving Skills •  Note taking and Outlining •  Interviews and Surveys •  Analyzing and Organizing Data
  • 39. Type II Enrichment: Advanced Research Skills •  Preparation for Type III Investigations •  Research Skills •  Community Resources •  Internet Research •  New Literacies
  • 40. Type II Enrichment: Communication Skills •  Visual Communication •  Oral Communication •  Written Communication
  • 41. + Gimme Five! Today’s Five How To Books 5 Fabulous Youtube eHow Ideas About.com Khan Academy 4 Your Type 2
  • 44. How to Build a Robot?
  • 45. How to Build a Robot?
  • 58. Student Behaviors Suggesting that Compacting May Be Necessary
  • 59. •  Finishes tasks quickly •  Completes homework in class •  Appears bored during instruction time •  Brings in outside reading material •  Creates puzzles, games, or diversions in class
  • 60. •  Tests scores consistently excellent •  Asks questions that indicate advanced familiarity with material •  Sought after by others for assistance •  Daydreams
  • 61. Compacting Eliminates boredom resulting from unnecessary drill and practice. Provides challenge leading to continuous growth.
  • 64. TYPE I* TYPE II GENERAL GROUP EXPLORATORY TRAINING ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES TYPE III INDIVIDUAL & SMALL GROUP INVESTIGATIONS OF REAL PROBLEMS
  • 65. Interest and Rigor Lead To Creative Productivity “We need students to get more deeply interested in things, more involved in them, more engaged in wanting to know, to have projects that they can get excited about and work on over long periods of time, to be stimulated to find things out on their own.”
  • 67. Type  III  Enrichment   Inves&ga&ve  ac&vi&es  and  ar&s&c  produc&ons   in  which  the  learner  assumes  the  role  of  a  first-­‐ hand  inquirer  and  a  prac&cing  professional.  
  • 68. Environmental Influences 1.  Choice in and control over activities 2.  Opportunities for help seeking 3.  Student participation in evaluation 4.  Provision of complex tasks (Boekaerts & Corno, 2005; DeCorte, Verschaffel, & DeVen, 2001; Folkesson & Swalander, 2007; Hadwin et. al., 2001; Perry, 1998; Perry, Hutchinson, & Thauberger, 2007; Perry, Norby, & VandeKamp, 2003; Perry, Phillips, & Dowler, 2004; Turner, 1995)
  • 69. Person  Environment  Fit   •  Person  /  Environment  fit  is  the  degree  to  which   a  person  or  their  personality  is  compa*ble  with   their  environment  
  • 70. D I G I T A L   IMMIGRANTS   D I V I D E   NATIVES  
  • 73. “From the standpoint of the child…he is unable to apply in daily life what he is learning at school. That is the isolation of the school - its isolation from life.” John Dewey
  • 74. Autonomy The more autonomous (self- determined) a person believes their behavior to be the greater the personal satisfaction and enjoyment from engaging in that behavior.
  • 75. Competence… Feelings of competence shape a person’s willingness to actively engage and persist in different behaviors. (Bandura 1986, 1997)
  • 76. Motivation Diminished perception of competence (self-efficacy), autonomy (meaningfulness), or control (environmental perception) leads to lower motivation and a decreased willingness to pursue goals and persist in their attainment, thus limiting overall educational growth.
  • 77. •  Tied to Student’s Identity •  Personally Interesting •  Integral to the Student’s Vision of the future •  Viewed as Useful (Eccles & Wigfield)
  • 78. Applying the Triad: Middle School Humanities Type I Activities •  Invited speaker from a local historical society •  Simulation activity •  Field trip to related historical site •  Display of historical memorabilia and old newspapers •  Panel discussion by historians and local experts •  Videos (fiction and nonfiction) •  Television special on related area
  • 79. Applying the Triad: Middle School Humanities Type II Activities •  Locate information sources •  Interview skills •  Debate controversial historical issues •  Research skills •  Photography & media skills •  Advanced writing & editing •  Evaluation of primary sources •  Identifying stereotypes & bias in texts
  • 80. Applying the Triad: Middle School Humanities Type III Products •  Chronicle of a historical walking tour of a city •  Oral history interviews with past city mayors •  Development of a simulation war game •  Media presentation of the music of the 1940s •  Oral history interviews recording a factory's influence on a community •  A book summarizing local folklore •  A family tree: A study of genealogy.
  • 82. The Illusion of Choice
  • 84.  Start  small  (2-­‐3  choices)    Organize  suppor*ve  environment    Interest  Development  Centers    Pre-­‐planned  Crea*vity  Ac*vi*es    CD  Listening/Reading  Center    Set  clear  performance  standards;   perceived  by  students  as  aainable  
  • 85. Learning Contracts   An agreement between teacher and student   An opportunity for a student to work somewhat independently   Increases student responsibility for their own learning   Provides some freedom for the student in acquiring skills and understandings
  • 86. Learning Contracts Include:   A skills component   A content component   A time line   Specification of expectations •  Behavior •  Criteria for successful completion and quality   Signatures of agreement to terms (Student and Teacher) ACSD (1997) Tomlinson (1995)
  • 87. Consequences:  Learning contracts set positive consequences Example: continued freedom  They also set negative consequences Example: teacher sets work parameters
  • 89. Independent Projects •  Build on student interest •  Encourage independence •  Allow work with complex and abstract ideas •  Enable long-term and in-depth work on topics of interest •  Develop task commitment and self-regulation •  Teach planning and research skills at advanced levels
  • 90. Timeline: • Start Date • Completion Date • Progress Report Dates Project Description: What do you hope to find out or learn? "
  • 91. Intended Project(s): • What form or format will the final project take? • How, when, and where will you share and communicate the results of your project with other people? • In what ways will you share your work? What Format Will Your Project Take? " What will your product be?
  • 92. Getting Started: • What are the first steps you should take to begin your work? • What types of information do you need to find in order to do your work? • Where will you get the information you need? What questions do you have that you need answered in order to start your work? • What help do you need from your teacher or parents?
  • 93. Project Skills, Resources and Materials I Will Need: What are the resources (people, organizations, businesses, etc.) I will need to do this project?
  • 94. Intended Audience(s): • Who would be most interested in your work or project? • What organized groups at the local, state, regional and national levels might be interested in my work? • Where might I display this work? • What information will I need to contact these people and tell them about my work?
  • 95. Standards: • Which standards are being addressed? • Does the student have a metacognitive understanding of these standards? • Does the student have a vested interest in meeting and/or exceeding these standards?
  • 97. Conner Cohen AGE: 11 iSketch App
  • 98. Ozair Patel AGE: 13 Berry School Mate
  • 99. What Skills Are Required?   Problem Finding   Calculating   Organizing (relevant from irrelevant)   Planning   Communication   Collaboration   Metacognitive
  • 100. The Question of Equity
  • 102. The greater danger for most of us lies not in setting our aim too high and falling short; but in setting our aim too low, and achieving our mark. -Michelangelo
  • 105. Enrichment Clusters Are Not Mini-Courses! Enrichment clusters are groups of students who share common interests and come together during special time blocks to pursue these interests with adults who share their interests and want to help students develop their talents in this area and produce a product or service!
  • 106. Seven Steps to Implementing Enrichment Clusters on a Schoolwide Basis 1.  Assess the Interests of Students and Staff 2.  Set Up a Wall Chart 3.  Create a Schedule 4.  Locate People and Staff to Facilitate Clusters 5.  Provide an Orientation for Cluster Facilitators 6.  Prepare Cluster Descriptions and Register Students by Placing Them in Clusters of Interest to Them 7.  Celebrate Your Success
  • 107. •  What will I need to work on my project? •  Where will I work? •  Who will I work with? •  What might hinder my process?
  • 108. •  Am I accomplishing what I planned? •  Is this taking longer than I thought? •  Am I on task or am I being distracted?
  • 110. •  Did I accomplish what I planned to do? •  Was I distracted and how did I get back to work? •  Did I plan enough time or did it take longer than I thought? •  In which situation did I accomplish the most work?
  • 111. Be Prepared to Let Go.
  • 118. 3 Ring Conception of Giftedness
  • 119. OPERATION HOUNDSTOOTH OPTIMISM COURAGE ROMANCE WITH A TOPIC OR DISCIPLINE •hope •Psychological/intellectual •positive feelings from hard work independence •absorption •moral conviction •passion SENSITIVITY TO HUMAN PHYSICAL/MENTAL ENERGY VISION/SENSE OF CONCERNS DESTINY •charisma •insight •curiosity •sense of power to change things •empathy •sense of direction •pursuit of goals diversity WISDOM balance SATISFYING LIFESTYLE THE PURSUIT OF HAPPINESS harmony proportion © Operation Houndstooth The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented University of Connecticut Joseph S. Renzulli, Rachel E. Sytsma, & Kristin B. Berman November, 2000 www.gifted.uconn.edu
  • 122. Gifted Behaviors NOT Gifted People!
  • 123. Gifted Artist Talented Mathematician Use “defining” terms as adjectives: Talented Musician Gifted Writer
  • 125. T he Schoolwide Enrichment Model Joseph S. Renzulli & Sally M. Reis School Structures The Total Talent Portfolio Curriculum Modification Techniques Enrichment Learning and Teaching TYPE I TYPE II GENERAL GROUP EXPLORATORY TRAINING ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES TYPE III INDIVIDUAL & SMALL GROUP INVESTIGATIONS OF REAL PROBLEMS Regular Classroom Environment Service Delivery Components www.gifted.uconn.edu
  • 126. Reflect  on  YOUR  teaching  experiences….   1.  Think  about  one  or  two  students  who  have     unique  learning  needs  and  experiences.   2.  Consider  what  these  learners  need  to  make   con&nuous  progress  in  learning?   3.  Think  about  how  you  can  meet  the  needs  of   students  with  diverse  (a)  readiness  levels,  (b)   interests,(c)  learning  styles?   4.  What  factors  make  it  easy  or  difficult  to  modify   curriculum  and  instruc&on  for  diverse  learners?  
  • 127. "First  grade  would  be  all  right  if  it  weren't  for  the  11  sequels."  
  • 128. Individual  Educa*onal  Programming  Guide—The   Compactor   Individual Conference Dates and Persons Name Age Teacher Participating in Planning of IEP School Grade Parent(s) Curriculum   Procedures   Accelera&on   Areas  to  Be   for   and/or   Considered   Compac&ng   Enrichment   for   Basic   Ac&vi&es   Compac&ng   Materials  
  • 129. Accelera*on   •  Different  books,  same  subject,  different  level  of   reading   •  Math:  odd  problems  only,  to  free  up  *me  for   independent  study  of  another  facet  of  math  that  the   student  would  not  otherwise  study   •  Skip  a  grade   •  Skip  a  grade  in  one  subject  
  • 130. Ra&onale  for  Use   •  Builds  on  student  interest   •  Sa*sfies  curiosity   •  Teachers  planning  and  research  skills   at  advanced  levels   •  Encourages  independence   •  Allows  work  with  complex  &  abstract   ideas   •  Allows  long-­‐term  and  in-­‐depth  work   on  topics  of  interest   •  Taps  into  high  mo*va*on  
  • 131. Guidelines  for  Use   •  Build  on  student  interest   •  Allow  the  student  maximum  freedom  to   plan,  based  on  student  readiness  for   freedom   •  Teacher  provides  the  guidance  &  structure   to  supplement  student  capacity  to  plan   and  ensure  high  standards  of  produc*on   •   Use  present  *melines  to  zap   procras*na*on   •  Use  process  logs  to  document  the  process   involved  throughout  the  study   •  Establish  criteria  for  success  
  • 134. Classroom Practices Study Teachers reported that they never had any training in meeting the needs of gifted students. 61% public school teachers 54% private school teachers Archambault, F. X., Jr., Westberg, K. L., Brown, S. W., Hallmark, B. W., Emmons, C. L., & Zhang, W. (1993). Regular classroom practices with gifted students: Results of a national survey of classroom teachers (Research Monograph 93102). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
  • 135. Classroom Practices Observational Study Students experienced no instructional or curricular differentiation in 84% of the activities in which they participated: Reading Language Arts Mathematics Social Studies Science Westberg, K. L., Archambault, F. X., Jr., Dobyns, S. M., & Salvin, T. J. (1993). An observational study of instructional and curricular practices used with gifted and talented students in regular classroom (Research Monograph 93104). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
  • 138. Your Experience:
 Addressing the needs of Diverse Learners with Diverse Learning Styles# "   What differentiation techniques have you employed?" "   What are your greatest successes?" "   How do you think differentiation of learning styles might be different from or similar to differentiation for readiness level, ability, and interests? "
  • 139. Diversity in students can include:   Ability (aptitude) differences   Achievement differences   Differences in affect   Enthusiasm level and personality   Differences in effort   Effort vs. Ability
  • 140. Diversity in students can include:   Academic background differences   Potentially poor preparation   Limited exposure   Cultural differences   Second language acquisition   Interaction style differences   Differences in self-regulation and study skills
  • 141. 100 80 Reading Language Arts Mathematics 60 Percent Science 40 Social Studies All Subject Areas 20 0 No Differentiation Advanced Content Advanced Process Advanced Product Assigned Topic Self-selected Topic Differentiation Indep. Study w/ Indep. Study w/ Other No Differentiation Advanced Content Advanced Process Advanced Product Indep. Study w/Assigned Indep. Study w/Self-selected OtherDifferentiation
  • 142. "Congratulations!! He seems very bright."
  • 143. Sally Reis on Differentiation “The policy statements of almost every school district in the nation reflect a commitment to meeting students’ individual needs, and yet, many districts lack a capacity to put these policies into practice.”
  • 144. What is differentiation? Matching the given content area with a student’s interests, abilities, and learning styles through various instructional strategies.
  • 145. What is differentiated instruction?  It’s teaching with student variance in mind.  It’s starting where the kids are rather than with a standardized approach to teaching that assumes all kids of a given age or grade are essentially alike.  It’s responsive teaching rather than one-size fits-all teaching.
  • 146. What Differentiated Instruction… IS IS NOT • Differentiated instruction is • Individualized instruction more QUALITATIVE than • Chaotic quantitative. • Just another way to provide • Differentiated instruction homogeneous instruction provides MULTIPLE (inflexible grouping) approaches to content, • Just modifying grading process, and product. systems and reducing • Differentiated instruction is workloads STUDENT CENTERED. • More work for the “good” • Differentiated instruction is a students and less and BLEND of whole-class, group different for the “poor” and individual instruction. students • Differentiated instruction is “ORGANIC.”
  • 147. The Five Dimensions of Differentiation Content Process (Knowledge) (Pedagogy) Yourself Classroom Products Organization and (Expression Styles) Management
  • 148. A Quick Differentiation QUIZ Did every student do it? NO Should every student do it? NO Could every student do it? NO Would every student want to do it? NO Did the student do it willingly and zestfully? YES Did the student use authentic resources YES and methodology? Was it done for an audience other than (or YES in addition to) the teacher?
  • 149. Ways to Differentiate Content •  Varied Texts •  Accelerated Coverage of Material •  Varied Supplementary Materials •  Independent Study •  Tiered Assignments •  Interest Development Centers •  Compacting
  • 150. Approximately 40-50% of traditional classroom material could be eliminated for targeted students. Reis, S. M., Westberg, K.L., Kulikowich, J., Caillard, F., Hébert, T., Plucker, J., Purcell, J.H., Rogers, J.B., & Smist, J.M. (1993). Why not let high ability students start school in January? The curriculum compacting study (Research Monograph 93106). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
  • 151. Compacting "  Assesses what a student knows and what content is not yet mastered "  Content not yet mastered becomes part of learning goals "  Previously mastered content is not required thereby “freeing up” time for enriched, accelerated, or interest driven activities Renzulli & Reis (1997) Tomlinson (1995)
  • 152. When teachers eliminated as much as 50% of the curriculum, no differences were found between treatment and control groups in most content areas. In fact, students whose curriculum was compacted scored higher than control group students in some areas. Reis, S. M., Westberg, K.L., Kulikowich, J., Caillard, F., Hébert, T., Plucker, J., Purcell, J.H., Rogers, J.B., & Smist, J.M. (1993). Why not let high ability students start school in January? The curriculum compacting study (Research Monograph 93106). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
  • 153. What is Curriculum Compacting? "  Modifying or streamlining the regular curriculum "  Eliminating the repetition of previously mastered material "  Upgrading the challenge level of the regular curriculum
  • 155. When once the child has learned that four and two are six, a thousand repetitions will give him no new information, and it is a waste of time to keep him employed in that manner. J.M. Greenwood Principles of Education Practically Applied, 1888
  • 157. A BILIT GROUPING Y RESEARCH-BASED DECISION MAKING SERIES All  youngsters  profit  from  grouping  programs   that  adjust  the  curriculum  to  the  ap*tude  levels   of  the  groups.    Schools  should  try  to  use  ability   grouping  in  this  way.  
  • 158. Cluster  Grouping:    An  Inves&ga&on  of  Student   Achievement,  Iden&fica&on,  and  Classroom   Prac&ces   Marcia  Gentry  
  • 160. 60 58 56 54 Treatment 52 Comparison 50 48 46 44 42 40 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grades Figure  3.    Adjusted  NCE  total  baery  means  for  treatment  and  comparison   school  students  class  of  2000.  
  • 161. 60 58 56 Treatment 54 52 Comparison 50 48 46 44 42 40 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grades Figure  4.  Adjusted  NCE  total  baery  means  for  treatment  and  comparison   school  students  class  of  2001.  
  • 162. Flexible Grouping   Employs several organizational patterns for instruction   Students are grouped and regrouped according to:   Specific goals   Activities   Individual needs   Interests   Desired outcomes (products) http://www.eduplace.com/science/profdev/articles/valentino.html
  • 163. Grouping Options   Teacher-Led Groups   Whole class   Small group   Individual   Student-Led Groups   Collaborative   Performance-based   Dyad (Pairs) http://www.eduplace.com/science/profdev/articles/valentino.html
  • 164. More Grouping Options   Within Class Grouping   Ability   Interest   Question-Based   Readiness   Learning Style   Beyond Class Grouping   Across-Class   Multi-Age   Team Regrouping Renzulli & Reis (1997) Tomlinson (1995)
  • 165. Ways to Differentiate Content in Groups   Varied Texts   Varied Supplementary Materials   Varied Graphic Organizers   Independent Study   Tiered Questions/Assignments   Interest Development Centers
  • 166. Anchor Activities   Self-paced, purposeful, content- driven activities that students can work on independently   Can be done over the course of a unit, grading period, or longer   Activities that are meaningful, ongoing, and appropriate to students’ learning needs http://wblrd.sk.ca/~bestpractice/anchor/
  • 167. In Class Enrichment •  Interest Development Centers •  Learning Games •  Special Class Projects –  Community Service, Simulations, Class Meetings, Field Trips, Videos, Guest Speakers, Free Choice Reading Time, Cooking, Art, Science, Nature Walks, etc.
  • 168. How do I make room for everybody? •  Provide enrichment opportunities for the whole school –  Service Projects –  School Olympics –  Monster Mansion –  Art Show –  Family Nights –  Science Fairs
  • 169. Joseph S. Renzulli Abilities Interests Style Preferences Maximum Instructional Learning Thinking Expression Performance Interest Styles Environment Styles Style Indicators Areas Preferences Preferences Preferences Preferences Tests Fine Arts Recitation & Drill Written Inter/Intra Analytic •Standardized Peer Tutoring Crafts Personal (School Smart) Lecture Oral •Teacher-Made Literary •Self-Oriented Lecture/Discussion Course Grades Synthetic/ Historical Discussion •Peer-Oriented Manipulative Teacher Ratings Creative Mathematical/Logical Guided Independent •Adult-Oriented Product Evaluation (Creative, Study * Inventive) Discussion •Written Physical Sciences •Combined Learning /Interest •Oral Life Sciences Center Physical Display Practical/ •Visual Political/Judicial Simulation, Role Playing, •Sound Contextual Athletic/Recreation Dramatization, Guided •Heat (Street Smart) Dramatization •Musical Fantasy •Constructed Marketing/Business •Light Learning Games Legislative Artistic (Note differences between Drama/Dance Replicative Reports or •Design assigned and self-selected Musical Performance Projects* •Mobility Executive Graphic products) Musical Composition Investigative Reports or •Time of Day Level of Participation Projects* Judicial Commercial in Learning Managerial/Business •Food Intake Unguided Independent Activities Photography •Seating Study* Ref: Sternberg, Service Degree of Interaction 1984, 1988, 1990 Film/Video Internship* With Others Ref: Amabile, 1983; Computers Apprenticeship* Ref: Kettle, Renzulli, Dunn, Dunn, & Price, & Rizza, 1998; Ref: General Tests and Other (Specify) *With or without a mentor 1977; Gardner, 1983 Renzulli & Reis, 1985 Measurements Literature Ref: Renzulli, 1997 Ref: Renzulli & Smith, 1978
  • 171. Sample Items… Imagine that you can spend a week job shadowing any person in your community to investigate a career you might like to have in the future. List the occupations of the persons you would select. 1st choice ______________________ 2nd choice______________________ 3rd choice ______________________
  • 172. Sample Items (Secondary Interest-A-Lyzer)… If you could conduct an interview with a man or woman you admire, past or present, who would it be? What 3 questions would you ask him or her? 1. ____________________________________ 2. ____________________________________ 3. ____________________________________
  • 184. Learning Styles Inventory Sample Items (Renzulli Smith)… Really Dislike……..Really Like Being a member of a panel that 1 2 3 4 5 is discussing current events Working on your own to prepare 1 2 3 4 5 material you will discuss in class