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Designing Structure

Information Architecture
Information Architecture

            Find Me




3
We design for movement
     Data, Information, Knowledge




       From data


                    To information

                                     To Knowledge
The Goal
• To go from fact

    Estimated portion of all U.S. nuclear waste that Nevada's
    Yucca Mountain dumpsite will hold when it is full in 2046 :
                                 3/5
The Goal
• To meaning

    Estimated portion of all U.S. nuclear waste that Nevada's
    Yucca Mountain dumpsite will hold when it is full in 2046 :
                                 3/5

   Richter-scale magnitude of an earthquake last June twelve
                   miles from the Yucca site :
                               4.4
Classification and
         Consequences

• A physician who doesn’t see a new cure
• A poor student who can’t find financial
  aid
• A store where a product isn’t found
From fact to meaning
The right information at the right time in the
 right way

  – Find information
  – Understand information
  – Use information
Special skills
• Information Architecture for Findability
• Information Design for Understandability
• Interaction Design for Usability
Information Architects
            specialize

•   In Information Architecture– duh!
Unfortunate Seperation
Why the separation?




        Little IA     Big IA
Better model
Are they closer?


                         Big IA


                   Little IA
Best model??
A new shape

                      Big IA




                    Little IA
Information Architects
•   What is IA?
•   IAI definition
      1. The art and science of organizing and labeling web sites,
         intranets, online communities and software to support
         usability and findability.
      2. The structural design of shared information environments.
      3. An emerging community of practice focused on bringing
         principles of design and architecture to the digital
         landscape.
Findability
In the physical world

• Things that have
  fixed locations
  – We find with
    maps and signs-
    - wayfinding
• Things that don’t
  – We find with
    organization
    and wayfinding
In the digital world
• Nothing is fixed
• Wayfinding and organization is the two
  keys to findability
• Role of IA is to shape the digital space to
  enable findability.
Make things findable
• Organization
  – Build on Metadata
  – Browse systems
  – Search systems
• Wayfinding
  – Labels
  – Visual cues
Make things appear
• Serendipity systems
  – See also
  – Related
  – Popularity relationships
  – Also built on metadata
Definition




      The structural design of an information
      space to facilitate task completion and
      intuitive access to content.




                       Information Architecture for the World-Wide Web Louis Rosenfeld & Peter Morville
Who cares?
Once there were people with cows
And people without cows
The people with no cows were hungry
They took to the road
And met at the market
And the people with no cows
bought cows
The people with cows had
fewer cows, but money for
other things
Now there are people with information
And people with no information
The road is the computer
And the market is the web
But the market is really big
And the people can’t find each other
So we have ignorant people
And people with no money

The cows are okay with this

Business is not.
The Goal
The players
  – Users, seeking information (cowless)
  – Businesses with information (with cows)
  – Intermediaries such as search engines and
    directories, profiting on the exchange
    (marketplaces)

The goal is to get the users seeking the data
  to the businesses offering the data
Missing information
Lost sales -
Expensive support -
Duplicated effort -
Lost trust -
Lost lives?
Classification has Consequences

 • A physician who doesn’t see a new cure
 • A poor student who can’t find financial aid
 • A store where a product isn’t found
IA has consequences
Information Architecture manages information
to make it findable
  – Tagging with metadata
  – Organizing with CV’s
  – Creating navigation
    systems
  – Optimizing search
And IA can build brands.
Branding in 10 seconds

      Brand
      managers
          create
      brand
      promises
       fullfilled by
      brand
      experiences
                 Brian Collins’ Model of Brand
Brand and the User Experience

  Creating a good customer
  experience is the essence of
  good branding




Hugh Dubberly’s Model of Brand
IA Realizes Brand
Product Quality = Brand Loyalty
             why Apple's customers
    I get asked a lot
    are so loyal. It's not because they belong to the Church of
    Mac! That's ridiculous.
    It's because when you buy our products, and three months later you
    get stuck on something, you quickly figure out [how to get past it].
            "Wow, someone over there at
    And you think,
    Apple actually thought of this!" And then
    three months later you try to do something you hadn't tried before,
    and it works, and you think "Hey, they thought of that, too." And
                          There's almost
    then six months later it happens again.
    no product in the world that you have
    that experience with, but you have it
    with a Mac.
    And you have it with an iPod.
Benabar n’est pas jazz?
What is this?




36
What is this?




37
What is this?




38
What is this?




39
What are these?




40
They are all birds
                          (ornithologist)




41
The Cassowary is not a bird!

(the Karam)
 42
From “Why the Cassowary is not a bird”, R. Bulmer, Man, Vol. 2, Issue 1, (Mar. 1967)
  43
From “Why the Cassowary is not a bird”, R. Bulmer, Man, Vol. 2, Issue 1, (Mar. 1967)
  44
Who Cares?
     • Ornithologists
     • The Karam
     • Information Architects




45
Dewey Decimal System
• 200-299 – Religion
  Categories
• 40+ categories
  related to
  Christianity
• 1 for Judaism
• 1 for Islam (&
  related)

         46
Who Cares?
     •   Religious Scholars
     •   Librarians
     •   Information Architects
     •   Jews and Muslims



47
Context is King
• Classification reflects social and cultural
  organization
• Information Architect must understand this
  context




48
Get to know your audience…
     1. Who are they?




                         Football Fan




49
Get to know your audience…
     1. Who are they?




                         Football Fan?




50
Get to know your audience…
     1. Who are they?
                                       Show me
     2. What do they care about?       photos!

       Are the Patriots
       going to make the
       playoffs?


                    What happened in
                    the last game?
51
Get to know your audience…
     1. Who are they?
     2. What do they care about?
     3. How do they think of the information
        and content?
        Conference,
        division…

                      Schedules,
                      standings…
52
Get to know your audience…
     1.   Observe others
     2.   Study Competitors and similar sites
     3.   Review your search logs
     4.   Do a card sort



53
Now what?
     • Organize your information so it makes
       sense to your audience
     • Structure your information to help users
       find it
     • …using metadata


54
Metadata: what is it?
     ―metadata is data about data"




56
Metadata: what is it?
     ―Metadata tags are used to describe
     documents, pages, images, software,
     video and audio files, and other content
     objects for the purposes of improved
     navigation and retrieval‖
      ‘Information Architecture for the World Wide Web’, 2nd ed., (2002)
                                             Rosenfeld, L. & Morville, P.



57
Types of Metadata
     • Descriptive: the nature of the thing,
       what is it related to?…
     • Intrinsic: composition of the thing, size,
       shape…
     • Administrative: how can the thing be
       handled? Workflow…

58
Types of Metadata




59
Types of Metadata

           Web Page: New England Patriots

     • Descriptive: Patriots, NFL, AFC
       East…
     • Intrinsic: HTML page, 40k…
     • Administrative: update daily with
       news feeds, update when new game…

60
Types of Metadata




61
Types of Metadata
           Logo: New England Patriots

     • Descriptive: Patriots, NFL, AFC
       East…
     • Intrinsic: jpg file, 4k…
     • Administrative: rights owner-NFL,
       replace when logo changes…

62
Yahoo Travel
               <!-- Meta Data -->    …
                   <META NAME="description"
               CONTENT="Plan your vacation using
               Yahoo! Travel's Paris Vacations and
               tourism …”
               <!-- /Meta Data -->




                http://travel.yahoo.com/p-
                travelguide-191501740-
                paris_vacations-i


63
Yahoo! Travel: Homepage

<meta name='description' content="Yahoo! Travel is a comprehensive online travel destination,
where you can reserve flights, rental cars, hotel rooms, cruises and vacation packages, all in one
place. Research trips from a wealth of planning resources including destination and city guides, user
and expert reviews, local weather and currency information, and much more. Yahoo! Travel has
competitive prices on everything from airfare to lodging, it's easy to find great deals and special
offers">

<meta name='keywords' content='online airfare airfares hotel car reservations travelocity airlines
tickets airplane air line air fares arifares airline low fairs fares cheap tickets flights book information
flight itinerary itineraries online reservations online tickets online travel agents vacations cruise
cruises cruiselines business travel busines corporate hotels discounts car cars rental lasvegas tickets
travel reservations online travel travel bookings online bookings book airfare fare wars discount
fares sales lowest vacation planning information travel agencies travel sites disney world florida
orlando miami atlanta ATL Dallas DFW DCA LAS LAX NYC ORD SFO atl dfw dca las lax nyc ord sfo
Washington D.C. washington dc los angeles Los Angeles new york New York new york city New York
City San Francisco sanfrancisco family trips family vacation family vacations'>


 64
Yahoo! Travel: Successful Meta
                 Data
     • Added Meta Data to page (descriptive
       meta tags, urls, titles in page)
     • Was 2001: result # 300+ in
       Google/Yahoo Search
     • 2002: result # 2
     • Users can find the content!

65
Not all Metadata is equal
• What are users interested in?
• What do you want users to be able to find?
• What metadata makes management
  easy?

• Tag content for findability
• Tag content for management


66
Exercise
• Listen
• Write five descriptive words (or short
  phrases) on your post-it
• One word (or phrase) per post-it

• Don’t share– yet! Hold on!



67
Next


     Content Architecture Part II



68
Controlled vocabularies
       Master of your domains




70
Cardinal Richelieu




      Grandfather of controlled vocabularies

71
The French Academy
•    Founded in 1635
•    Multiple dialects
•    Goal: purify the French language
•    Goal: unify the nation (ensure that the
     State and all citizens speak the same
     language)



72
The French Academy today




          …but…


73
So what?

     • So what are your goals?
     • How will you ensure that your users and
       your system speak the same language?
     • How will you ensure they continue to do
       so?



74
When humans and computers
             interact
                         I want
          I’ve got       music.
          music




75
Humans are good at figuring
            things out
                           Rap.
           Hip Hop         Rock.
                           Dance.




76
Most of the time

     Jiggy          ?
     tunes




77
But computers are literal

           Acid            ?
           reggae




              No matches
              found


78
And need help

     Acid                               ?
     Reggae?




                                            IA



               Let’s give them “Dance
               and DJ”
79
Of course, the IA can’t always be
                  there…
 Thus Controlled vocabularies (CV)
      Amy Warner defines a controlled vocabulary (CV)
       as “organized lists of words and phrases, or
       notation systems, that are used to initially tag
       content, and then to find it through navigation
       or search.”



80
Controlled Vocabularies

     I define them as

     Documented relationships of words and
      concepts to assist people finding stuff.

     Same dif.


82
Controlled Vocabulary Types

     • Levels of control
                                  (Vocabularies)


       Synonym        Authority           Classification
                                                               Thesauri
         Rings          Files               Schemes



        Simple                                                  Complex



        Equivalence               Hierarchical             Associative

                                  (Relationships)


83
Controlled vocabularies

      • Relationships

                               B
        A=B            A               A        B
     Equivalence
                   Hierarchal          Associative
     Christmas=
                   Winter Holidays >   Christmas |
     Xmas
                   Christmas           Santa Claus



84
Synonym rings

     • Simplest type
     • Helps with search, indexing
     • Simplifies maintenance




85
Synonym rings include

     • Acronyms: BBC, British Broadcasting
       Company; MPG, miles per gallon
     • Variant spellings: cancelled, canceled;
       honor, honour
     • Scientific terms versus popular use
       terms: acetylsalicylic acid, aspirin;
       lilioceris, lily beetle
       – From Synonym Rings and Authority Files
         by Karl Fast, Fred Leise and Mike Steckel



86
Why Bother?
                             I’m tired of typing “Controlled
                             Vocabulary--- CV is shorter.
     • Sometimes on
       intranets, CV’s are
       skipped
     • You think you can
       force people to use
       proper terms
     • But people are lazy



87
Why Bother?
                                       I want a cannon camera.
     • On the internet you want
       to be found
     • You’ve got cows
     • But people can’t spell
       “cows”
     • Plus users use short
       queries
        – Average queries are 2.5
          words– 30% of searches are
          one word queries



88
Bizrate takes good advantage
       It may be the Canon PowerShot S30




89
But what do people call it?
     Canon
     S30                    Cannon
                            S30

                             S30




Powershot
S30

90
A page for each synonym




91
And they can be number one




92
Authority File

     • Addition of preferred terms and variants
     • Preferred terms
       – Protects brand
       – Sensitivities
       – Educates

       Christmas | Xmas, X-mas, Nöel,

93
There is a right spelling




94
Classification schemes

     •   Includes non-equivalent relationships
     •   Includes hierarchal informal
     •   Useful for navigation
     •   Useful for helping people broaden their
         search




95
Classification schemes

     • Types of relationships
     • Sibling:
          Gap.com directories
                »   Men
                »   Women
                »   Maternity
                »   Body
                »   Boys
                »   Girls
                »   Baby boy
                »   Baby girl


96
Classification schemes

     Parent /
       Child
     (amazon.com)




97
Classification Schemes
Other Relationships
Alphabetical (administrative metadata)
Authors, A-Z > ( M ) > Moore, Alan


Chronological (administrative
   metadata)
New for You > New Releases > Books

Topic (descriptive metadata)
Comics > Graphic Novels > Horror

Amazon uses all of these, and more….


                98
Thesauri

      • Cadillac of Controlled Vocabularies
      • Includes associative relationships
     Preferred   Variants    Siblings   Parent     Associated
     term

     Christmas   X-mas,      Hanukah,   Winter     Santa Claus
                 Nöel        Kwanzaa    holidays




99
Associations




100
Associations

      • Amazon uses buying patterns to determine
        associations




101
Associations




102
Exercise
Card sort
Take your keywords
Open your packets
Sort the items into similar piles.
Label the piles with post-its

Discuss

103
Building your own
1.    Understand requirements
2.    Harvest terms
3.    Create groupings
4.    Implement
5.    Test
6.    Maintain


104
What kind of CV do you need?
• What do you want your CV to accomplish?
• To integrate with your navigation system?
• To improve searching? To improve browsing?
  Both?
• How much vocabulary control do you want to
  provide? Synonym ring? Facets? What level of
  vocabulary control is appropriate?
• What can your technology support?


105
Getting answers
•     Content - specificity and stability
•     Technology - tools and integration.
•     Users – who are they
•     Maintenance- who will do it?




106
Content Inventory
      Identify all content and attributes

  •   Link ID                 •   Maintainer
  •   ROT                     •   Expiration
  •   Document type           •   Access
  •   Topics/Keywords         •   Author
  •   Location                •   Existing/planned




107
Term harvesting
• Look Inward              • Log harvesting
      – Your site            – Search engines
      – Current keywords     – Overture
• Look outward             • Ask people
      – Magazines            – Interviews
      – Competitors          – Card sorts
      – Discussion lists     – Free Listing




108
Sorting Terms
A Card Sort for Architects

• Multiple Groupings
      – Equivalent       UF cheese=fromage
      – Broader terms    BT cheese | dairy
      – Narrower terms   NT cheese | cheddar
      – Related term     RT cheese | crackers


109
Sleeping Bags
           BT Camping
           NT Down Sleeping Bags
           NT Synthetic Sleeping Bags
           NT Family Sleeping Bags
           NT Cold Weather Sleeping Bags
                NT 2-Season Sleeping Bags
                NT 3-Season Sleeping Bags
           NT Back Packing Sleeping Bags
                NT Expedition Class Sleeping Bags
                NT Ultralight Sleeping Bags
                RT Backpacks
                RT Ultralight Backpacking
           RT Sleeping Bag Liners
           RT Sleeping Pads
           RT Stuff Sacks
           RT Pillows

           From Creating a Controlled Vocabulary
           by Karl Fast, Fred Leise and Mike Steckel
           http://www.boxesandarrows.com/archives/creating_a_controlled_vocabulary.php
110
Sorting conflicts
• Cheese goes in dairy or in sandwich
  materials?
• A cheese basket?
• String cheese?

Choices fit strategy



111
Associations
• What is related
• What is required?
• What else is interesting?

Relevancy is king




112
Possible Relationships

  • Process/agent
    (camp fires/matches)
  • Action/product of action (baking/cakes)
  • Agent/counteragent
    (allergies/antihistamine)
  • Raw material/product (wool/sweater).


113
Implement
• Implementation dependant on situation
  and tools.
• May be slow painful data entry– know this
  and prepare.




114
Test
• Test with users – did you get it right?

      – Browse Testing
      – Search Testing
      – Monitor quantitative

      – Refine, refine, refine


115
Maintain
• Who maintains it?
• What the rules for new terms?
• Document your decisions.




116
Is that all?


      NO!




  Life beyond enumerative
  classification….

117
Faceted Classification

  was developed, prior to the existence of
  computers, by S. R. Ranganathan,
  a Hindu mathematician
  working as a librarian.




118
S. R. Ranganathan
                           1892-1972

        My dream:
      • to systematically describe, in detail, the
      contents of complex documents
      discussing compound subjects, and to
      • codify those descriptions into a
      sequenced numerical form that would
      • make it possible to retrieve exactly
      what was needed from wherever it was
      located in the library
      • in order to save the time of the reader.



119
And ... describe the entire universe of ideas
      using classification and notation.




120
S. R. Ranganathan
                          1892-1972

       The Five Laws of Library Science

      1. Books are for use.
      2. Every reader his or her book.
      3. Every book its reader.
      4. Save the time of the reader.
      5. The Library is a growing organism.




121
Colon Classification System

      Describing life, the universe, &
      everything, it used facets to classify.
      It affected the world of
        •   classification,
        •   categorization,
        •   information retrieval &
        •   information architecture.
122
Ranganathan’s 5 Facets

      •   who: personality
      •   what: matter
      •   how: energy
      •   where: space
      •   when: time

      Sound familiar?
123
Ranganathan’s 5 Facets
Imagine a book about
―the design of wooden
furniture in 18th century
America.‖

Personality—furniture
Matter—wood
Energy—design
Space—America
Time—18th century

         124
Essential Qualities of a Facet
  • Mutually exclusive; represents a characteristic
    of division not found in any other facet
  • Cannot be further sub-divided
  • Relationships between facets are non-
    hierarchical (though within facets…)




125
Facets
      The broad categories into which the
      subject area is divided. A facet consists “... of a
      group of terms that represents one, and only one,
      characteristic of division of a subject field....no
      two facets may contain terms that could represent
      the same concepts.” —Louise Spiteri




126
Heady stuff?
What does all this philosophical mumbo
 jumbo mean?




127
Heady stuff?

                     Yahoo!
                     Shopping uses
                     facets to help
                     users select a
                     camera




128
Ordinary stuff?

                        Epicurious uses
                        facets to help
                        users find
                        recipes




129
Yahoo! Personals




• Faceted classification by Yahoo! Personas
• Content by the users

130
What’s the difference?




      Electronics           Camera facets

           Camera               Pixels
                Digital         Zoom
                Film            Price
           PDAs
           Televisions
131
Our Music example
Enumerative             Faceted

• Modern                •   Mood
      – Rock            •   Tempo
        • Alternative
            – Seattle
                        •   Artist
            – Atlanta   •   Use




132
Mix and match?
In Yahoo Shopping

•     Electronics > Cameras > Digital

•     Then choose by pixel, zoom and price

•     Then offer camera bag, flash card, batteries?



133
Facets, anyone?
      What facets would you use to
      describe the qualities of a song?




134
Making Facets
  1. Consider the universe of documents to be
     indexed.
  2. Consider user finding strategies.
  3. Analyze each document to identify the facets.
  4. Group isolates (simple-concept subjects) into
     the facets.
  5. Apply the notational system.

  (I skipped some steps, to avoid wonking out….)
135
Are Facets Hard?
Consider:
      – Facets for a knife store?
      – Facets for a kitchen store?
      – Facets for a book store?




136
Before jumping in…
Consider:
• How various is your content?
• How complex is your subject?
• How do people find your content?
• How much time do you have?




137
Is this all there is?
Information Architecture is:

   Architecture in
Information Spaces.
Dan Klyn (and TUG) is bringing Richard
Saul Wurman’s and other architect’s
views back to make better digital
products




 http://understandinggroup.com/
“Less is more.”
           ~ Mies
What does a digital product want?
• A librarian?
• An urban planner?
• An architect?
―Modern Systems! Yes indeed! To approach
  everything in a strictly methodical manner
  and not to waver a hair’s breath from
  preconceived patterns, until genius has
  been strangled to death and joie de vivre
  stifled by the system– that is the sign of
  our time.‖ Camillo Sitte
Homework
• Content inventory: what’s in your site?
• Organizational Scheme
  – Hierarchal?
  – Faceted?
  – Combination?
• Portfolio: Site map (a la Dan Brown’s
  Communicating design Chapter 5)
Designing Structure Part II: Information Archtecture
Designing Structure Part II: Information Archtecture

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Designing Structure Part II: Information Archtecture

  • 2.
  • 4. We design for movement Data, Information, Knowledge From data To information To Knowledge
  • 5. The Goal • To go from fact Estimated portion of all U.S. nuclear waste that Nevada's Yucca Mountain dumpsite will hold when it is full in 2046 : 3/5
  • 6. The Goal • To meaning Estimated portion of all U.S. nuclear waste that Nevada's Yucca Mountain dumpsite will hold when it is full in 2046 : 3/5 Richter-scale magnitude of an earthquake last June twelve miles from the Yucca site : 4.4
  • 7. Classification and Consequences • A physician who doesn’t see a new cure • A poor student who can’t find financial aid • A store where a product isn’t found
  • 8. From fact to meaning The right information at the right time in the right way – Find information – Understand information – Use information
  • 9. Special skills • Information Architecture for Findability • Information Design for Understandability • Interaction Design for Usability
  • 10. Information Architects specialize • In Information Architecture– duh!
  • 11. Unfortunate Seperation Why the separation? Little IA Big IA
  • 12. Better model Are they closer? Big IA Little IA
  • 13. Best model?? A new shape Big IA Little IA
  • 14. Information Architects • What is IA? • IAI definition 1. The art and science of organizing and labeling web sites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability and findability. 2. The structural design of shared information environments. 3. An emerging community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape.
  • 16. In the physical world • Things that have fixed locations – We find with maps and signs- - wayfinding • Things that don’t – We find with organization and wayfinding
  • 17. In the digital world • Nothing is fixed • Wayfinding and organization is the two keys to findability • Role of IA is to shape the digital space to enable findability.
  • 18. Make things findable • Organization – Build on Metadata – Browse systems – Search systems • Wayfinding – Labels – Visual cues
  • 19. Make things appear • Serendipity systems – See also – Related – Popularity relationships – Also built on metadata
  • 20. Definition The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content. Information Architecture for the World-Wide Web Louis Rosenfeld & Peter Morville
  • 21. Who cares? Once there were people with cows And people without cows The people with no cows were hungry
  • 22. They took to the road And met at the market And the people with no cows bought cows The people with cows had fewer cows, but money for other things
  • 23. Now there are people with information And people with no information The road is the computer And the market is the web
  • 24. But the market is really big And the people can’t find each other So we have ignorant people And people with no money The cows are okay with this Business is not.
  • 25. The Goal The players – Users, seeking information (cowless) – Businesses with information (with cows) – Intermediaries such as search engines and directories, profiting on the exchange (marketplaces) The goal is to get the users seeking the data to the businesses offering the data
  • 26. Missing information Lost sales - Expensive support - Duplicated effort - Lost trust - Lost lives?
  • 27. Classification has Consequences • A physician who doesn’t see a new cure • A poor student who can’t find financial aid • A store where a product isn’t found
  • 28. IA has consequences Information Architecture manages information to make it findable – Tagging with metadata – Organizing with CV’s – Creating navigation systems – Optimizing search
  • 29. And IA can build brands.
  • 30. Branding in 10 seconds Brand managers create brand promises fullfilled by brand experiences Brian Collins’ Model of Brand
  • 31. Brand and the User Experience Creating a good customer experience is the essence of good branding Hugh Dubberly’s Model of Brand
  • 33. Product Quality = Brand Loyalty why Apple's customers I get asked a lot are so loyal. It's not because they belong to the Church of Mac! That's ridiculous. It's because when you buy our products, and three months later you get stuck on something, you quickly figure out [how to get past it]. "Wow, someone over there at And you think, Apple actually thought of this!" And then three months later you try to do something you hadn't tried before, and it works, and you think "Hey, they thought of that, too." And There's almost then six months later it happens again. no product in the world that you have that experience with, but you have it with a Mac. And you have it with an iPod.
  • 34.
  • 41. They are all birds (ornithologist) 41
  • 42. The Cassowary is not a bird! (the Karam) 42
  • 43. From “Why the Cassowary is not a bird”, R. Bulmer, Man, Vol. 2, Issue 1, (Mar. 1967) 43
  • 44. From “Why the Cassowary is not a bird”, R. Bulmer, Man, Vol. 2, Issue 1, (Mar. 1967) 44
  • 45. Who Cares? • Ornithologists • The Karam • Information Architects 45
  • 46. Dewey Decimal System • 200-299 – Religion Categories • 40+ categories related to Christianity • 1 for Judaism • 1 for Islam (& related) 46
  • 47. Who Cares? • Religious Scholars • Librarians • Information Architects • Jews and Muslims 47
  • 48. Context is King • Classification reflects social and cultural organization • Information Architect must understand this context 48
  • 49. Get to know your audience… 1. Who are they? Football Fan 49
  • 50. Get to know your audience… 1. Who are they? Football Fan? 50
  • 51. Get to know your audience… 1. Who are they? Show me 2. What do they care about? photos! Are the Patriots going to make the playoffs? What happened in the last game? 51
  • 52. Get to know your audience… 1. Who are they? 2. What do they care about? 3. How do they think of the information and content? Conference, division… Schedules, standings… 52
  • 53. Get to know your audience… 1. Observe others 2. Study Competitors and similar sites 3. Review your search logs 4. Do a card sort 53
  • 54. Now what? • Organize your information so it makes sense to your audience • Structure your information to help users find it • …using metadata 54
  • 55.
  • 56. Metadata: what is it? ―metadata is data about data" 56
  • 57. Metadata: what is it? ―Metadata tags are used to describe documents, pages, images, software, video and audio files, and other content objects for the purposes of improved navigation and retrieval‖ ‘Information Architecture for the World Wide Web’, 2nd ed., (2002) Rosenfeld, L. & Morville, P. 57
  • 58. Types of Metadata • Descriptive: the nature of the thing, what is it related to?… • Intrinsic: composition of the thing, size, shape… • Administrative: how can the thing be handled? Workflow… 58
  • 60. Types of Metadata Web Page: New England Patriots • Descriptive: Patriots, NFL, AFC East… • Intrinsic: HTML page, 40k… • Administrative: update daily with news feeds, update when new game… 60
  • 62. Types of Metadata Logo: New England Patriots • Descriptive: Patriots, NFL, AFC East… • Intrinsic: jpg file, 4k… • Administrative: rights owner-NFL, replace when logo changes… 62
  • 63. Yahoo Travel <!-- Meta Data --> … <META NAME="description" CONTENT="Plan your vacation using Yahoo! Travel's Paris Vacations and tourism …” <!-- /Meta Data --> http://travel.yahoo.com/p- travelguide-191501740- paris_vacations-i 63
  • 64. Yahoo! Travel: Homepage <meta name='description' content="Yahoo! Travel is a comprehensive online travel destination, where you can reserve flights, rental cars, hotel rooms, cruises and vacation packages, all in one place. Research trips from a wealth of planning resources including destination and city guides, user and expert reviews, local weather and currency information, and much more. Yahoo! Travel has competitive prices on everything from airfare to lodging, it's easy to find great deals and special offers"> <meta name='keywords' content='online airfare airfares hotel car reservations travelocity airlines tickets airplane air line air fares arifares airline low fairs fares cheap tickets flights book information flight itinerary itineraries online reservations online tickets online travel agents vacations cruise cruises cruiselines business travel busines corporate hotels discounts car cars rental lasvegas tickets travel reservations online travel travel bookings online bookings book airfare fare wars discount fares sales lowest vacation planning information travel agencies travel sites disney world florida orlando miami atlanta ATL Dallas DFW DCA LAS LAX NYC ORD SFO atl dfw dca las lax nyc ord sfo Washington D.C. washington dc los angeles Los Angeles new york New York new york city New York City San Francisco sanfrancisco family trips family vacation family vacations'> 64
  • 65. Yahoo! Travel: Successful Meta Data • Added Meta Data to page (descriptive meta tags, urls, titles in page) • Was 2001: result # 300+ in Google/Yahoo Search • 2002: result # 2 • Users can find the content! 65
  • 66. Not all Metadata is equal • What are users interested in? • What do you want users to be able to find? • What metadata makes management easy? • Tag content for findability • Tag content for management 66
  • 67. Exercise • Listen • Write five descriptive words (or short phrases) on your post-it • One word (or phrase) per post-it • Don’t share– yet! Hold on! 67
  • 68. Next Content Architecture Part II 68
  • 69.
  • 70. Controlled vocabularies Master of your domains 70
  • 71. Cardinal Richelieu Grandfather of controlled vocabularies 71
  • 72. The French Academy • Founded in 1635 • Multiple dialects • Goal: purify the French language • Goal: unify the nation (ensure that the State and all citizens speak the same language) 72
  • 73. The French Academy today …but… 73
  • 74. So what? • So what are your goals? • How will you ensure that your users and your system speak the same language? • How will you ensure they continue to do so? 74
  • 75. When humans and computers interact I want I’ve got music. music 75
  • 76. Humans are good at figuring things out Rap. Hip Hop Rock. Dance. 76
  • 77. Most of the time Jiggy ? tunes 77
  • 78. But computers are literal Acid ? reggae No matches found 78
  • 79. And need help Acid ? Reggae? IA Let’s give them “Dance and DJ” 79
  • 80. Of course, the IA can’t always be there… Thus Controlled vocabularies (CV) Amy Warner defines a controlled vocabulary (CV) as “organized lists of words and phrases, or notation systems, that are used to initially tag content, and then to find it through navigation or search.” 80
  • 81.
  • 82. Controlled Vocabularies I define them as Documented relationships of words and concepts to assist people finding stuff. Same dif. 82
  • 83. Controlled Vocabulary Types • Levels of control (Vocabularies) Synonym Authority Classification Thesauri Rings Files Schemes Simple Complex Equivalence Hierarchical Associative (Relationships) 83
  • 84. Controlled vocabularies • Relationships B A=B A A B Equivalence Hierarchal Associative Christmas= Winter Holidays > Christmas | Xmas Christmas Santa Claus 84
  • 85. Synonym rings • Simplest type • Helps with search, indexing • Simplifies maintenance 85
  • 86. Synonym rings include • Acronyms: BBC, British Broadcasting Company; MPG, miles per gallon • Variant spellings: cancelled, canceled; honor, honour • Scientific terms versus popular use terms: acetylsalicylic acid, aspirin; lilioceris, lily beetle – From Synonym Rings and Authority Files by Karl Fast, Fred Leise and Mike Steckel 86
  • 87. Why Bother? I’m tired of typing “Controlled Vocabulary--- CV is shorter. • Sometimes on intranets, CV’s are skipped • You think you can force people to use proper terms • But people are lazy 87
  • 88. Why Bother? I want a cannon camera. • On the internet you want to be found • You’ve got cows • But people can’t spell “cows” • Plus users use short queries – Average queries are 2.5 words– 30% of searches are one word queries 88
  • 89. Bizrate takes good advantage It may be the Canon PowerShot S30 89
  • 90. But what do people call it? Canon S30 Cannon S30 S30 Powershot S30 90
  • 91. A page for each synonym 91
  • 92. And they can be number one 92
  • 93. Authority File • Addition of preferred terms and variants • Preferred terms – Protects brand – Sensitivities – Educates Christmas | Xmas, X-mas, Nöel, 93
  • 94. There is a right spelling 94
  • 95. Classification schemes • Includes non-equivalent relationships • Includes hierarchal informal • Useful for navigation • Useful for helping people broaden their search 95
  • 96. Classification schemes • Types of relationships • Sibling: Gap.com directories » Men » Women » Maternity » Body » Boys » Girls » Baby boy » Baby girl 96
  • 97. Classification schemes Parent / Child (amazon.com) 97
  • 98. Classification Schemes Other Relationships Alphabetical (administrative metadata) Authors, A-Z > ( M ) > Moore, Alan Chronological (administrative metadata) New for You > New Releases > Books Topic (descriptive metadata) Comics > Graphic Novels > Horror Amazon uses all of these, and more…. 98
  • 99. Thesauri • Cadillac of Controlled Vocabularies • Includes associative relationships Preferred Variants Siblings Parent Associated term Christmas X-mas, Hanukah, Winter Santa Claus Nöel Kwanzaa holidays 99
  • 101. Associations • Amazon uses buying patterns to determine associations 101
  • 103. Exercise Card sort Take your keywords Open your packets Sort the items into similar piles. Label the piles with post-its Discuss 103
  • 104. Building your own 1. Understand requirements 2. Harvest terms 3. Create groupings 4. Implement 5. Test 6. Maintain 104
  • 105. What kind of CV do you need? • What do you want your CV to accomplish? • To integrate with your navigation system? • To improve searching? To improve browsing? Both? • How much vocabulary control do you want to provide? Synonym ring? Facets? What level of vocabulary control is appropriate? • What can your technology support? 105
  • 106. Getting answers • Content - specificity and stability • Technology - tools and integration. • Users – who are they • Maintenance- who will do it? 106
  • 107. Content Inventory Identify all content and attributes • Link ID • Maintainer • ROT • Expiration • Document type • Access • Topics/Keywords • Author • Location • Existing/planned 107
  • 108. Term harvesting • Look Inward • Log harvesting – Your site – Search engines – Current keywords – Overture • Look outward • Ask people – Magazines – Interviews – Competitors – Card sorts – Discussion lists – Free Listing 108
  • 109. Sorting Terms A Card Sort for Architects • Multiple Groupings – Equivalent UF cheese=fromage – Broader terms BT cheese | dairy – Narrower terms NT cheese | cheddar – Related term RT cheese | crackers 109
  • 110. Sleeping Bags BT Camping NT Down Sleeping Bags NT Synthetic Sleeping Bags NT Family Sleeping Bags NT Cold Weather Sleeping Bags NT 2-Season Sleeping Bags NT 3-Season Sleeping Bags NT Back Packing Sleeping Bags NT Expedition Class Sleeping Bags NT Ultralight Sleeping Bags RT Backpacks RT Ultralight Backpacking RT Sleeping Bag Liners RT Sleeping Pads RT Stuff Sacks RT Pillows From Creating a Controlled Vocabulary by Karl Fast, Fred Leise and Mike Steckel http://www.boxesandarrows.com/archives/creating_a_controlled_vocabulary.php 110
  • 111. Sorting conflicts • Cheese goes in dairy or in sandwich materials? • A cheese basket? • String cheese? Choices fit strategy 111
  • 112. Associations • What is related • What is required? • What else is interesting? Relevancy is king 112
  • 113. Possible Relationships • Process/agent (camp fires/matches) • Action/product of action (baking/cakes) • Agent/counteragent (allergies/antihistamine) • Raw material/product (wool/sweater). 113
  • 114. Implement • Implementation dependant on situation and tools. • May be slow painful data entry– know this and prepare. 114
  • 115. Test • Test with users – did you get it right? – Browse Testing – Search Testing – Monitor quantitative – Refine, refine, refine 115
  • 116. Maintain • Who maintains it? • What the rules for new terms? • Document your decisions. 116
  • 117. Is that all? NO! Life beyond enumerative classification…. 117
  • 118. Faceted Classification was developed, prior to the existence of computers, by S. R. Ranganathan, a Hindu mathematician working as a librarian. 118
  • 119. S. R. Ranganathan 1892-1972 My dream: • to systematically describe, in detail, the contents of complex documents discussing compound subjects, and to • codify those descriptions into a sequenced numerical form that would • make it possible to retrieve exactly what was needed from wherever it was located in the library • in order to save the time of the reader. 119
  • 120. And ... describe the entire universe of ideas using classification and notation. 120
  • 121. S. R. Ranganathan 1892-1972 The Five Laws of Library Science 1. Books are for use. 2. Every reader his or her book. 3. Every book its reader. 4. Save the time of the reader. 5. The Library is a growing organism. 121
  • 122. Colon Classification System Describing life, the universe, & everything, it used facets to classify. It affected the world of • classification, • categorization, • information retrieval & • information architecture. 122
  • 123. Ranganathan’s 5 Facets • who: personality • what: matter • how: energy • where: space • when: time Sound familiar? 123
  • 124. Ranganathan’s 5 Facets Imagine a book about ―the design of wooden furniture in 18th century America.‖ Personality—furniture Matter—wood Energy—design Space—America Time—18th century 124
  • 125. Essential Qualities of a Facet • Mutually exclusive; represents a characteristic of division not found in any other facet • Cannot be further sub-divided • Relationships between facets are non- hierarchical (though within facets…) 125
  • 126. Facets The broad categories into which the subject area is divided. A facet consists “... of a group of terms that represents one, and only one, characteristic of division of a subject field....no two facets may contain terms that could represent the same concepts.” —Louise Spiteri 126
  • 127. Heady stuff? What does all this philosophical mumbo jumbo mean? 127
  • 128. Heady stuff? Yahoo! Shopping uses facets to help users select a camera 128
  • 129. Ordinary stuff? Epicurious uses facets to help users find recipes 129
  • 130. Yahoo! Personals • Faceted classification by Yahoo! Personas • Content by the users 130
  • 131. What’s the difference? Electronics Camera facets Camera Pixels Digital Zoom Film Price PDAs Televisions 131
  • 132. Our Music example Enumerative Faceted • Modern • Mood – Rock • Tempo • Alternative – Seattle • Artist – Atlanta • Use 132
  • 133. Mix and match? In Yahoo Shopping • Electronics > Cameras > Digital • Then choose by pixel, zoom and price • Then offer camera bag, flash card, batteries? 133
  • 134. Facets, anyone? What facets would you use to describe the qualities of a song? 134
  • 135. Making Facets 1. Consider the universe of documents to be indexed. 2. Consider user finding strategies. 3. Analyze each document to identify the facets. 4. Group isolates (simple-concept subjects) into the facets. 5. Apply the notational system. (I skipped some steps, to avoid wonking out….) 135
  • 136. Are Facets Hard? Consider: – Facets for a knife store? – Facets for a kitchen store? – Facets for a book store? 136
  • 137. Before jumping in… Consider: • How various is your content? • How complex is your subject? • How do people find your content? • How much time do you have? 137
  • 138.
  • 139. Is this all there is?
  • 140. Information Architecture is: Architecture in Information Spaces.
  • 141. Dan Klyn (and TUG) is bringing Richard Saul Wurman’s and other architect’s views back to make better digital products http://understandinggroup.com/
  • 142.
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  • 154.
  • 155. What does a digital product want? • A librarian? • An urban planner? • An architect?
  • 156. ―Modern Systems! Yes indeed! To approach everything in a strictly methodical manner and not to waver a hair’s breath from preconceived patterns, until genius has been strangled to death and joie de vivre stifled by the system– that is the sign of our time.‖ Camillo Sitte
  • 157. Homework • Content inventory: what’s in your site? • Organizational Scheme – Hierarchal? – Faceted? – Combination? • Portfolio: Site map (a la Dan Brown’s Communicating design Chapter 5)

Editor's Notes

  1. Five Hats