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Introduction to Information Architecture & Design - 12/06/14


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Introduction to Information Architecture & Design - As presented by Robert Stribley, SVA Workshop, December 6th, 2014

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Introduction to Information Architecture & Design - 12/06/14

  1. 1. Introduction to Information Architecture & Design School of Visual Arts | December 6, 2014 Robert Stribley
  2. 2. Today’s presentation will be available on SlideShare following the workshop:
  3. 3. Pattern Recognition: In cognitive psychology, the ability to identify familiar forms within a complex arrangement of sensory stimuli Butterfly on the New York City Highline
  4. 4. Butterflies Labeled by Species
  5. 5. Introduction Intro Robert Stribley @stribs • I’m an Associate Experience Director at Razorfish • I like literature, cinema, music, photography, cycling • I drink coffee My clients have included: • Bank of America, PNC, Wachovia • JPMorgan, Morgan Stanley, Oppenheimer Funds, PNC, Prudential, Smith Barney, T. Rowe Price • Boston Scientific, Nasonex • Choice Hotels, RCI • Computer Associates, EMC • Ford, Lincoln • FreshDirect • AT&T, Nextel • Day One, Red Cross • Pearson, Travel Channel, Women’s Wear Daily
  6. 6. Introduction Intro About You •What’s your name? •What do you do for work? •What do you do for fun? •Coffee, tea or bottled water?
  7. 7. Introduction Intro Goals of this workshop •Understand the basic concepts of information architecture •Experience the general process and techniques used on a design project •Review the basic deliverables an information architect develops within a project
  8. 8. Agenda
  9. 9. Agenda Morning • Background • Design Process • Our Project • User Research • Competitive Review • Personas • Lunch
  10. 10. Agenda Afternoon • Card Sorting • Site Maps • Page Types • Navigation • Sketching • Wireframes • Q&A Agenda
  11. 11. Background
  12. 12. Background: History A Brief History of IA 1975 • Richard Saul Wurman coined the term “information architecture” to describe the field now more often described as “information design” 1994 • Formation of Argus Associates in Ann Arbor, MI, the first firm devoted to IA 1998 • First edition of Peter Morville and Lou Rosenfeld’s Information Architecture for the World Wide Web, affectionately known as “The Polar Bear” book
  13. 13. Background: History A Brief History of IA 2000 • First IA Summit, Boston, MA – Defining Information Architecture 2002 • Boxes & Arrows, online journal for information architects goes live • 3 new books on IA published, including Jesse James Garrett’s The Elements of User Experience 2015 • 15th Annual IA Summit held in Minneapolis, MN, April 22-26 Partially adapted from: “A brief history of information architecture” by Peter Morville and Information Architecture: Designing information environments for purpose, edited by Alan Gilchrist and Barry Mahon
  14. 14. Background: Background Defining IA in•for•ma•tion ar•chi•tec•ture n. • The combination of organization, labeling, and navigation schemes within an information system. • The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content. • The art and science of structuring and classifying web sites and intranets to help people find and manage information. • An emerging discipline and community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape. Navigation Interaction Art/Science Discipline/ Community Information Architecture for the World Wide Web (1st Edition), p. 4, Rosenfeld and Morville
  15. 15. Background: Background Defining IA “It's hard to say who really is an information architect. In some sense, we all are.” — Alex Wright, Glut
  16. 16. context IA Background: Defining IA content users
  17. 17. Interface (skin) information architecture (skeleton) Background: Defining IA
  18. 18. Design Process metaphor: architectural plans Cornell University Library Background: Defining IA
  19. 19. Background: User Experience user experience information architecture interaction design content strategy usability testing user research
  20. 20. Design Process Project phases by Harold Kerzner
  21. 21. Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development
  22. 22. Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development • Stakeholder Interviews • Business Requirements • Competitive & Comparative Audits • User Research • Site Inventory
  23. 23. Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development •Personas •Content Audit •Card Sorts •Use Cases •Sketching •Conceptual Wires/Design • Site Map • Creative Brief •UX Brief
  24. 24. Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development • Site Map • Task Flows • Sketching • Wireframes • Stakeholder Reviews • Visual Design • Prototype • Usability Testing • Functional Specifications
  25. 25. Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development • Site Development •User Acceptance Testing (UAT) •Quality Assurance (QA) •Usability Testing
  26. 26. Deliverables Background IA Deliverables discover define design site map requirements document comparative/competitive review features/functionality inventory sketches personas user flows prototype use cases wireframes experience brief
  27. 27. Our Project
  28. 28. Our Project Our Project wants to revamp its website to become the go-to online resource for people wanting to attend or promote events across the United States.
  29. 29. Discover
  30. 30. User Research User Research in Copenhagen’s Elderly Homes
  31. 31. User Discovery: Research User Research “Through research, we aim to learn enough about the business goals, the users, and the information ecology to develop a solid strategy.” – Louis Rosenfeld & Peter Morville
  32. 32. Discovery: User Research User Research Goals • Identify patterns and trends in user behavior, tasks, preferences, obstacles. Methodology • Focus Groups • Surveys • Interviews
  33. 33. Discovery: User Research User Research Class Exercise: Survey Questions • How do you learn about events in NYC? • What type of events are you interested in? • What’s more important to you: – Price – Type of Event – Location – Date • How often do you attend the events? • Do you ever need to promote an event? • Do you ever invite people to an event?
  34. 34. Competitive Review image by brandon schauer
  35. 35. Discovery: Competitive Audit Review “This type of assessment helps set an industry ‘marker’ by looking at what the competition is up to, what features and functionalities are standard, and how others have solved the same problems you might be tasked with.” – Dorelle Rabinowitz
  36. 36. Discovery: Competitive Competitive Review Review Heuristic Evaluation … involves evaluators examining the interface and judging its compliance with recognized usability principles (the ‘heuristics’) - Wikipedia Self Study For a more detailed explanation of heuristic evaluation, see Jakob Nielsen’s Ten Usability Heuristics.
  37. 37. Discovery: Competitive Competitive Review Review Sample Usability Criteria These examples aren’t comprehensive. Appropriate criteria will depend on the project to be completed. Home Page • Are home page elements appropriately weighted and distributed? • Is information clustered in meaningful ways? Navigation • Is the navigation structure concise and consistent? • Are paths to important information intuitive and unobstructed? Content • Is content current? Are there visible indications of content freshness? • Is content properly adapted for the Web? Is tone of voice consistent throughout content? Is content chunked appropriately? • Are headings and titles scannable? Design • Are colors appropriate to the Web? Is white space used appropriately? Is text readable? Search • Are search results relevant and cleanly presented? Functionality • Are functionality and forms efficiently designed? Messaging • Are errors messages clear on the site? Is help readily available to users? • Are there appropriate means for user feedback?
  38. 38. Discovery: Competitive Competitive Review Review Methodology •Review and analyze competitor sites according to particular criteria •Draw key findings, which can influence and guide IA through the design phase •Include a scorecard for high-level comparison of points across all sites Also: Comparative Reviews
  39. 39. Competitive Discovery: Competitive Review Review Competitors
  40. 40. Competitive Discovery: Competitive Review Review Key Findings • Search prominent on each site • Need for filtering events • Calendars are helpful, but not always prominent • Profiles and social features common, but handled with varying degrees of detail • Free events are often highlighted • Event detail pages vary, may have maps, RSVP, sharing, rating, commenting functionality • Displaying other venues and restaurants adds utility • Option to add or promote an event isn’t always prominent
  41. 41. Competitive Discovery: Competitive Review Review What else have we learned? • Who are the audiences of these sites? • What are the strengths of these sites? • What are their weaknesses? • How might another event site differentiate itself from these sites?
  42. 42. Define
  43. 43. Personas Created at Personas is a component of the Metropath(ologies) exhibit, recently on display at the MIT Museum by the Sociable Media Group from the MIT Media Lab. It uses sophisticated natural language processing and the Internet to create a data portrait of one's aggregated online identity. In short, Personas shows you how the Internet sees you.
  44. 44. Definition: Personas Personas “Personas summarize user research findings and bring that research to life in such a way that everyone can make decisions based on these personas, not based on themselves.” – Steve Mulder
  45. 45. Definition: Personas Personas Methodology • Cluster Analysis Goals • Create a narrative based on real data to illustrate user behavior, motivations, goals Big Budget Promoter Planner Small Budget
  46. 46. Definition: Personas Personas Characteristics of Effective Personas • Varied and distinct • Detailed • Not weighed down with minutiae • Tied into business-specific goals • Backed by data
  47. 47. Definition: Personas Jerry Jenny Donny Sabrina
  48. 48. Sabrina, 27 The party planner Location: Gramercy Park Attitude: Organized, outgoing Financial Perspective: Generous, bit of spendthrift Online Habits: Avid user of social networking sites, Twitter, Facebook, etc Events: Wine tastings, gallery openings Quote: “I love getting bunches of friends together to attend all these NYC events. There’s so much great stuff to do in this city!” DePfienritsion:a Ps ersonas Big Budget Promoter Planner Small Budget
  49. 49. Jerry, 44 The out-of-towner Location: Cincinnati, OH Attitude: Casual, yet adventurous Financial Perspective: Moderate spender Online Habits: Utilitarian use of the Web to research trips, read about the arts and pay bills Events: Museums, visiting landmarks, tours Quote: “I’m visiting the Big Apple with my wife and we want to check out some art-related events.” Definition: Personas Big Budget Promoter Planner Small Budget
  50. 50. Personas Donny, 38 The local comedian Location: East Village Attitude: Laidback, loosely organized Financial Perspective: Frugal, paycheck to paycheck Online Habits: Spends time networking, promoting his act online, haunts comedy sites Events: Comedy slams, variety shows Quote: “I land a few comedy gigs around the city and I want to promote them better.” Big Budget Promoter Planned Small Budget Definition: Personas
  51. 51. Personas Jenny, 33 The professional promoter Location: Williamsburg Attitude: Busy, disciplined, professional Financial Perspective: Healthy budget for promotions and advertising Online Habits: Heavy use of social networking sites both professionally and personally, shops online Events: Small gigs, big concerts, DJ sets Quote: “I manage a few bands and DJs and I have to ensure they’re listed in the right, targeted places.” Big Budget Promoter Planned Small Budget Definition: Personas
  52. 52. Definition: Personas Class Exercise: Personas Jerry Jenny Donny Sabrina • What tasks might each persona attempt to complete on • What features can you imagine each persona might like on such a site? • What obstacles or pain points might they encounter? Self Study ”Personas and the Role of Design Documentation" by Andrew Hinton, Boxes and Arrows, 2008/02/27
  53. 53. Lunch Break
  54. 54. Agenda Afternoon • Card Sorting • Site Maps • Page Types • Navigation • Sketching • Wireframes • Q&A Agenda
  55. 55. Card Sorting
  56. 56. Definition: Card Sorting Card Sorting “There are often better ways to organize data than the traditional ones that first occur to us. Each organization of the same set of data expresses different attributes and messages. It is also important to experiment, reflect, and choose which organization best communicates our messages.” – Nathan Shedroff, Experience Strategist
  57. 57. Definition: Card Sorting Methodology • Grouping and labeling with index cards, post it notes • Two types: Open – Participants sort cards with no pre-established categories. Useful for new architectures Closed – Participants sort cards into predetermined, provided groups. Useful for fitting content into existing architectures • Online card sorts –WebSort, OptimalSort, Socratic Goals • Organize content more efficiently • Find names for categories based on users’ perspectives Self Study "Card sorting: a definitive guide" by Donna Spencer and Todd Warfel, Boxes and Arrows, 2004/04/07
  58. 58. Definition: Card Sorting Case Studies: • Wachovia Wealth Management Group • American Red Cross • Mercedes Benz
  59. 59. Definition: Card Sorting Class Exercise: As individuals: • Take 5 minutes to think of all the events a person could attend •Write each event you come up with on a Post- It note
  60. 60. Definition: Card Sorting Class Exercise: Now, as a group: • Take a few minutes to organize your events into categories (group & label them) • Then we’ll share some categories
  61. 61. Definition: Card Sorting Characteristics & Findings: • Lumping and splitting • Outliers and miscellaneous items • Placing items in multiple categories • Categories versus filters –E.g. Free, Family, Outdoors • Unique but intuitive labels –E.g. Geeks
  62. 62. Definition: Card Sorting Next Steps: With the results of a card sort we then can: • Build consensus • Refine terminology • Create a site map • Help define navigation
  63. 63. IDnefofinition: Card Sort Tools Post-It Plus This new app from 3M allows you to scan your Post-It Notes, organize and share them.
  64. 64. Design
  65. 65. Site Maps
  66. 66. CDeosnicgenp: tSuaitle D Measpigsn “A site map is a high level diagram showing the hierarchy of a system. Site maps reflect the information structure, but are not necessarily indicative of the navigation structure.” - Step Two Designs
  67. 67. CDeosnicgenp: tSuaitle D Measpigsn
  68. 68. CDeosnicgenp: tSuaitle D Measpigsn
  69. 69. Page Types The Mercator Atlas of Europe From The British Library
  70. 70. Conceptual Design: Page Design Types Home Page Category Page Details Page
  71. 71. Navigation Navigation Bridge, USS Enterprise by Serendigity, Flickr
  72. 72. Design: Grids Navigation Types of Navigation • Site Structure – major nav • Hierarchical – product families • Function – sitemap privacy • Direct – banner ad/shortcut • Reference – related links • Dynamic – search results • Breadcrumb – location • Step Navigation – sequence through forms/results • Faceted Navigation – filters results Areas of Navigation • Global – universal header/footer • Local – left nav/right nav • Local content – text links, buttons Styles of Navigation • Rollover • Dropdown • Flyout • Tabs • Accordion Self Study Adapted from Atsushi Hasegagwa’s The 7 Navigation Types of Web Sites
  73. 73. Design: Grids Navigation Mega Dropdowns
  74. 74. Design: Grids Navigation Power Footers
  75. 75. Sketching Aerial Screw by Leonardo da Vinci, 1485-1487
  76. 76. Design: Sketching
  77. 77. Sketching Can you guess what this is a sketch of? Design: Sketching
  78. 78. Design: Sketching “twttr sketch” Sketching Twitter [This sketch] has very special significance – it's hanging in the office somewhere with one other page. Whenever I'm thinking about something, I really like to take out the yellow notepad and get it down. – Jack Dorsey, Twitter
  79. 79. Design: Sketching Sketching “There are techniques and processes whereby we can put experience front and center in design. My belief is that the basis for doing so lies in extending the traditional practice of sketching. ” - Bill Buxton Bill Buxton Sketching User Experiences
  80. 80. Bill Buxton Sketching User Experiences Design: Sketching Sketching Attributes of a Sketch •Quick •Timely • Inexpensive • Disposable • Plentiful • Clear vocabulary • Distinct gesture •Minimal detail •Appropriate degree of refinement •Suggest & explore rather than confirm •Ambiguity
  81. 81. Design: Sketching Sketching Methodology • Draw • Limit your time • Don’t worry about mistakes or style Goals • Benefit from the participation of your colleagues • Quickly generate ideas and refine through iterations
  82. 82. DeSskigentc: hSinkgetching
  83. 83. Design: Sketching Sketching Process 1. Discuss 2. Sketch 3. Share 4. Revise
  84. 84. Design: Sketching Discuss • Not sketching yet • Discuss the purpose of the experience you’re sketching • What features are necessary? • How would you prioritize them? • What’s the audience?
  85. 85. Design: Sketching Sketch • Sketch silently • Limit your time • Sketch as much has possible, as many different ideas as possible
  86. 86. Design: Sketching Share • Review your work with your team • You offer your feedback to others • What you like • Questions about didn’t work for you • You’re not grilling your colleagues and this is not a competition
  87. 87. Design: Sketching Revise • Now sketch again/begin your wireframe with a more informed view, more and better ideas • Iterate on your design
  88. 88. Design: Sketching Design: Sketching Class Exercise: Collaborative Sketching In teams, sketch your ideas. Event Page 1. Take 5 or so minutes first to discuss what features belong here
  89. 89. Design: Sketching Design: Sketching Class Exercise: Collaborative Sketching In teams, sketch your ideas. Event Page 1. Take 5 or so minutes first to discuss what features belong here 2. Time for silent sketching
  90. 90. Design: Sketching Design: Sketching Class Exercise: Collaborative Sketching In teams, sketch your ideas. Event Page 1. Take 5 or so minutes first to discuss what features belong here 2. Time for silent sketching 3. Time for sharing your sketches
  91. 91. IDnefosign: Sketching Tools Sketching Tools: The following apps are all for the iPad: • Adobe Ideas (Free) • Bamboo Paper (Free) • Muji Notebook ($3.99) • Penultimate (Free) • SketchBook Pro ($4.99) • Paper (Free)
  92. 92. Wireframes photo & sculpture by polly verity
  93. 93. Design: Wireframes Wireframes “Web site wireframes are blue prints that define a Web page’s content and functionality. They do not convey design – e.g. colors, graphics, or fonts.” - FatPurple
  94. 94. IDnefosign: Wireframing Tools Wireframing/Prototyping Tools: • Adobe InDesign • Axure • Omnigraffle (Mac) • Microsoft Visio • Mockingbird (online, free) Also: • Balsamiq • iPlotz • iMockups (iPad) • Omnigraffle (iPad) Self Study Smashing Magazine: 35 Excellent Wireframing Resources
  95. 95. Responsive Design
  96. 96. Design: Design: Responsive Sketching Design Responsive Web Design “Rather than tailoring disconnected designs to each of an ever-increasing number of web devices, we can treat them as facets of the same experience. We can design for an optimal viewing experience, but embed standards-based technologies into our designs to make them not only more flexible, but more adaptive to the media that renders them. In short, we need to practice responsive web design.” – Ethan Marcotte, Responsive Web Design, A List Apart Self Study Ethan Marcotte: Responsive Web Design
  97. 97. DeDseigsnig: nR: eSskpeotncshiivneg Design
  98. 98. DeDseigsnig: nR: eSskpeotncshiivneg Design
  99. 99. DeDseigsnig: nR: eSskpeotncshiivneg Design Desktop Tablet Mobile
  100. 100. Design: Design: Responsive Sketching Design Responsive Design Characteristics • The goal is to maintain content and features across devices • Responsive designs adjust at different “break points” corresponding to the dimensions of various devices, typically desktop, tablet and mobile • Navigation may be repositioned • Modules may be repositioned but hierarchies are maintained • Images scale down in size or may be cropped • Text size is maintained where possible, though headings may be reduced in size • Occasionally, content or features are dropped to save screen real estate or if they’re not device appropriate
  101. 101. Design: Design: Final Sketching Exercise Design a Responsive Home Page In your teams, create your final deliverable, a responsive home page for 1) Discuss features needed for a homepage 2) Sketch your ideas for a homepage individually 3) Pin up your sketches and we’ll review them together
  102. 102. Design: Final Exercise Don’t forget to keep your personas in mind Jerry Jenny Donny Sabrina
  103. 103. Development
  104. 104. Additional Resources Books: • Information Architecture for the World Wide Web – Louis Rosenfeld, Peter Morville • Information Architecture: Blueprints for the Web – Christina Wodtke, Austin Govella • The Elements of User Experience – Jesse James Garrett • Designing Web Navigation: Optimizing the User Experience – James Kalbach, Aaron Gustafson • Design of Everyday Things – Donald Norman Local Events: • IA Meetup • Brooklyn UX • Content Strategy Meetup Web Sites: • Alertbox • A List Apart • Boxes & Arrows • Organizations: • Human Computer Interactions (HCI) • Interaction Designers Association (IxDA) • Usability Professionals Association (UPA) Further Studies: • School of Visual Arts • Continuing Ed classes • MFA in Interaction Design • Pratt – Course in Information Design • Rosenfeld Media • General Assembly • Skillshare • Adaptive Path • The Information Architecture Institute • The IA Summit • Nielsen Norman Group • User Interface Engineering Video: The Right Way to Wireframe by Russ Unger (YouTube)
  105. 105. Q&A
  106. 106. Slideshare address: My article on how to find an IA job: @stribs
  107. 107. Design: Wireframes Design: Sketching Wireframe & Prototyping Tools Addendum: Axure Dreamweaver InDesign Visio • Grids • Dieter Rams: 10 Principles of Good Design • Defining Wireframes vs. Sketches, Templates, vs. Pages
  108. 108. Grids
  109. 109. Design: Grids Grids “The true benefit of using a grid is that as you learn how to use a grid, you start to think systemically about the solutions you design. You start to try and see how various details can echo one another, how different regions of the canvas can be reused or used for similar things, how like elements can be grouped together.” – Khoi Vinh, former design Director,
  110. 110. DeGsirgidns: Grids
  111. 111. DeGsirgidns: Grids
  112. 112. DeGsirgidns: Grids
  113. 113. Design: Grids Grids Self Study: Want to know more? Learn more about design by grids: 960 Grid System Design by Grid Hashgrid
  114. 114. Dieter Rams: 10 principles of good design Good design is… Good design is innovative. Good design makes a product useful. Good design is aesthetic. Good design makes a product understandable. Good design is unobtrusive. Good design is honest. Good design is long-lasting. Good design is thorough down to the last detail. Good design is environmentally friendly. Good design is as little design as possible. © Dieter Rams, amended March 2003 and October 2009
  115. 115. DeDfiensiniggn S: kSektecthcehsin Vgersus Wireframes, Templates Versus Pages Sketches Wireframes Quick More time-consuming Few details Very detailed Not typically delivered Professional deliverable Templates Pages Apply to many different pages Specific, may apply to a single page or screen Examples: • basic page • category page • product page Examples: • homepage • ecommerce or transactional form