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Information Architecture Fundamentals

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Information Architecture Fundamentals

  1. 1. TODAY’S CLASS Information Architecture 1
  2. 2. Definition The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content. Information Architecture for the World-Wide Web Louis Rosenfeld & Peter Morville
  3. 3. Sort into groups. Name groups PLAY WITH CANDY
  4. 4. MAKE A HOMEPAGE FOR YOUR CANDY SITE
  5. 5. 4 KINDS OF INFORMATION SEEKING
  6. 6. You are going to Belize. You want the lonely planet guidebook
  7. 7. KNOWN ITEM http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
  8. 8. What works Search A-Z index Navigation http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
  9. 9. You want to visit a tropical island. Where should you go?
  10. 10. EXPLORATORY http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
  11. 11. What can help Navigation Related Search Search (with autocomplete, related terms) http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
  12. 12. Ticket Prices to Belize drop in September and April
  13. 13. DON’T KNOW WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
  14. 14. What can help Related information Recommendations Push technologies http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
  15. 15. You saw a great waterproof camera on amazon, and now realize it’s the one you want to buy. Where did it go?
  16. 16. REFINDING http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
  17. 17. What can help Favorites Personalization Visited link color http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
  18. 18. Redesign DESIGN FOR TASKS Find a baseball Find a gift for a upcoming party for a seven year old Make users aware some balls are on sale Find again a good choice for that party
  19. 19. Classification has Consequences A physician who doesn’t see a new cure A poor student who can’t find financial aid A store where a product isn’t found
  20. 20. IA has Solutions Information Architecture manages information to make it findable – Tagging with metadata – Organizing with CV’s – Creating navigation systems – Optimizing search
  21. 21. CLASSIFICATION IS CONTEXTUAL
  22. 22. Benabar n’est pas jazz?
  23. 23. Dewey Decimal System 200-299 – Religion Categories ‣ 40+ categories related to Christianity ‣ 1 for Judaism ‣ 1 for Islam (& related) ‣
  24. 24. Who Cares? Religious Scholars ‣ Librarians ‣ Information Architects ‣ Jews and Muslims ‣
  25. 25. THIS IS A FISH 26
  26. 26. Who Cares? Hungry Catholics inland in South America on Fridays
  27. 27. Context is King Classification reflects social and cultural organization ‣ Information Architect must understand this context ‣
  28. 28. Get to know your audience… Football Fan 1. Who are they?
  29. 29. Get to know your audience… Football Fan? 1. Who are they?
  30. 30. Know your audience… 1. 2. Who are they? What do they care about? Are the Patriots going to make the playoffs? What happened in the last game? Show me photos!
  31. 31. Know your audience… 1. 2. 3. Who are they? What do they care about? How do they think of the information and content? Conference, division… Schedules, standings…
  32. 32. Know your audience… 1. 2. 3. 4. Observe others Study Competitors and similar sites Review your search logs Do a card sort
  33. 33. Now what? Check your labels. Do they make sense?
  34. 34. TODAY’S CLASS Metadata 36
  35. 35. Pictures of “you”
  36. 36. Boards as metadata
  37. 37. Metadata: what is it? “metadata is data about data" 40
  38. 38. Metadata: what is it? 41 “Metadata tags are used to describe documents, pages, images, software, video and audio files, and other content objects for the purposes of improved navigation and retrieval” ‘Information Architecture for the World Wide Web’, 2nd ed., (2002) Rosenfeld, L. & Morville, P.
  39. 39. Descriptive Procuitto Cheese Honey Olivia’s Tapas
  40. 40. Intrinsic What does the camera know? What does the system know?
  41. 41. Administrative
  42. 42. Not all Metadata is equal 45 What are users interested in? What do you want users to be able to find? What metadata makes management easy? Tag content for findability Tag content for management
  43. 43. Exercise BALL Write as many descriptive words (or short phrases) on your post-it One word (or phrase) per post-it Don’t share– yet! Hold on! 46
  44. 44. 48 Add pic of netflix
  45. 45. Controlled vocabularies Master of your domains
  46. 46. The French Academy Founded in 1635 Multiple dialects Goal: purify the French language Goal: unify the nation (ensure that the State and all citizens speak the same language)
  47. 47. The French Academy today …but…
  48. 48. So what? • So what are your goals? • How will you ensure that your users and your system speak the same language? How will you ensure they continue to do so?
  49. 49. When humans and computers interact I’ve got music I want music.
  50. 50. Humans are good at figuring things out Rap. Rock. Dance. Hip Hop
  51. 51. Most of the time Raggamuffin 55 ?
  52. 52. But computers are ? literal Acid reggae No matches found 56
  53. 53. And need help 57 ? Acid Reggae? IA Let’s give them “Reggae” and “Trance”
  54. 54. The IA can’t always be there… 58 Thus Controlled vocabularies (CV) Amy Warner defines a controlled vocabulary (CV) as “organized lists of words and phrases, or notation systems, that are used to initially tag content, and then to find it through navigation or search.”
  55. 55. Controlled Vocabularies I define them as Documented relationships of words and concepts to assist people finding stuff. Same dif.
  56. 56. Controlled Vocabulary Types (Vocabularies) Synonym Rings Authority Files Classification Schemes Simple Equivalence Thesauri Complex Hierarchical (Relationships) Associative
  57. 57. Controlled vocabularies A=B Equivalence Christmas= Xmas B A Hierarchal Winter Holidays > Christmas A B Associative Christmas Tree | Santa Claus 61
  58. 58. Synonym rings • Simplest type • Helps with search, indexing • Simplifies maintenance 62
  59. 59. Synonym rings include • Acronyms: BBC, British Broadcasting Company; MPG, miles per gallon • Variant spellings: cancelled, canceled; honor, honour • Scientific terms versus popular use terms: acetylsalicylic acid, aspirin; lilioceris, lily beetle – From Synonym Rings and Authority Files by Karl Fast, Fred Leise and Mike Steckel
  60. 60. 64 China cap = chinois = strainer
  61. 61. Why Bother? • Sometimes on intranets, CV’s are skipped • You think you can force people to use proper terms • But people are lazy 65 I’m tired of typing “Controlled Vocabulary--- CV is shorter.
  62. 62. Why Bother? • On the internet you want to be found • Plus users use short queries • – Average queries are 2.5 words– 30% of searches are one word queries On large scale sites, there is enough data to do this programmatically, but on small sites, not. 66 I want a cannon camera.
  63. 63. Thesauri • Cadillac of Controlled Vocabularies • Includes associative relationships Preferred term Variants Siblings Parent Associated Christmas X-mas, Nöel Hanukah, Kwanzaa Winter holidays Santa Claus
  64. 64. Associations
  65. 65. Associations • Amazon uses buying patterns to determine associations
  66. 66. Associations
  67. 67. Associations What is related What is required? What else is interesting? Relevancy is king 71
  68. 68. Possible Relationships Process/agent (camp fires/matches) Action/product of action (baking/cakes) Agent/counteragent (allergies/antihistamine) Raw material/product (wool/sweater). 72
  69. 69. Preferred term Variants Siblings Parent Associated Christmas X-mas, Nöel Hanukah, Kwanzaa Winter holidays Santa Claus Make a candy thesaurus EXERCISE 73
  70. 70. Implementation? 74 Implementation dependent on situation and tools. May be slow painful data entry– know this and prepare.
  71. 71. Test Test with users – did you get it right? –Browse Testing –Search Testing –Monitor quantitative –Refine, refine, refine 75
  72. 72. Maintain Who maintains it? What the rules for new terms? Document your decisions. 76
  73. 73. TODAY’S CLASS facets 77
  74. 74. Is that all? NO! Life beyond enumerative classification…. 78
  75. 75. Faceted Classification was developed, prior to the existence of computers, by S. R. Ranganathan, a Hindu mathematician working as a librarian. 79
  76. 76. Ranganathan’s 5 Facets • • • • • who: personality what: matter how: energy where: space when: time 80
  77. 77. Ordinary stuff? 82 Epicurious uses facets to help users find recipes
  78. 78. Personals Faceted classification is often used by Personas Content is by the users 83
  79. 79. What’s the difference? 84 Electronics Camera Digital Film PDAs Televisions Camera facets Pixels Zoom Price
  80. 80. Music 85 Enumerative Faceted Modern Mood – Rock • Alternative – Seattle – Atlanta Tempo Artist Use
  81. 81. • who: personality • what: matter • how: energy • where: space • when: time Create candy facets for your store FACETS, ANYONE? 86
  82. 82. Is this all there is?
  83. 83. 89
  84. 84. Tagging– when it works 90
  85. 85. People can’t be bothered 91
  86. 86. Pictures of “you”
  87. 87. 93
  88. 88. User navigation 94
  89. 89. HEADER 95 This slide was left purposely blank.
  90. 90. HEADER Q&A 96

Editor's Notes

  • Discussion.
  • I am looking for a baseball.
  • Discussion.
  • I’m looking for somewhere to take vacation
  • Discussion.
  • Discussion.
  • If you have picked a camera, how do you find it again?
  • How would you search for this photo? No face recognition could recognize this. (close up of procuitto)
  • Tagging by users on facebook is used to indicate things I should see, not really fotos of me.
  • Pinterest boards add metadata, but how does it match what the company needs?
  • Olivia’s is where I ate it.
  • Pandora is the world’s greatest work for IA (IMO) is their music genome. It’s a recommendation engine made of professionally crafted metadata. Features of this track is metadata determined by musicians
  • When netflix when to improve their algorithm, they went the same way as pandora, using meteadata. (the last screen shot is an april 1st one)
  • http://untitledname.com/2005/05/jesus-saves
  • Tagging by users on facebook is used to indicate things I should see, not really potos of me.
  • What is this site? Is this a better representation of amazon than the navigation? (Hit next) Which navigation tells the story of amazon?Can users do a better job than IA’s?
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