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Miss Gayatri Patra
Assistant Professor
EPCP, Bangalore
Cinnamon and Cinchona (Bark)
Isabgol and Nux Vomica (Seed)
CINNAMON (BARK)
• Synonyms:-
• Dalchini, Cinnamon bark.
• Biological source:-
• Cinnamon consist of dried bark, freed from the outer cork and from the
underlying parenchyma, from the shoots growing on the cut stumps of
Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees.
• Family:– Lauraceae.
• It should not contain less than 1.0% of volatile oil.
• Geographical source: –
• Srilanka, Malabar Coast of India and Brazil.
Macroscopic Characters
• Colour: Externally dull yellowish brown,
internally dark yellowish brown
• Odour: Aromatic
• Taste: Warm and very refined (Sweetish and
aromatic followed by warm sensation)
• Fracture: Splintery
• Size: Length is about 1 meter, diameter is
nearly 1 cm and thickness is approximately 0.5
mm.
• Shape: Compound quill form.
Cultivation and Collection
• Cinnamon is a crop of topical countries. It needs sandy soils.
• The altitude at which it grows favourably is 800 to 1000 metres and annual rainfall 200 – 250 cm is ideal for
cultivation of cinnamon.
• The seeds are sown in well prepared nursery beds located at suitable places in June and July.
• The seeds are sown at a distance of 10 cm and covered with small layer of soil and watered properly. It takes
approximately 20 days for germination of seeds and allowed to grow for about 10 to 12 months.
• Transplantation is done in oct/Nov or in rainy season by keeping the distance of 2 meters in between two
plants.
• For healthy growth, each plant should be manured with 100 g each of ammonium sulphate and
superphosphate in the 1st year.
• Fertilizers are applied in two equal doses, first in monsoon and second in October – November to encourage
the growth of side shoots.
• The trees are allowed to grow further unless they turn to uniform brown by formation of cork.
• Harvesting is done in rainy season when it is easy to peel off the bark from shoots.
• Longitudinal incisions producing the strips, which are peeled off, strips are made into bundles and
ferment for 24 hours.
• Cork and cortex is removed by scrapping with curved brass knives.
• The drug is dried in shade over the mats, the quills are collected and packed into bundles.
• One hectare plantation of cinnamon, produces 200 – 300 kg bark and 2 – 3 kg of leaf oil per year.
Powder characteristics of cinnamon bark
Chemical Constituents
• Cinnamon bark contains about 0.5 – 1.0 per cent of volatile oil,
1.2 per cent of tannins, mucilage, calcium oxalate, starch and
sweet substance know as mannitol.
• Cinnamon oil contains 60 – 70 % of cinnamaldehyde, 5 – 10%
eugenol, benzaldehyde
• Use:-
• As carminative, mild astringent and flavouring agent.
CINCHONA (BARK)
Synonyms
Cortex Cinchonae, Peruvian bark,
Cinchona
Biological Source
Cinchona is the dried bark of the
stem or of the root of Cinchona
calisaya Wedd., Cinchona
ledgeriana Moens., Cinchona
officinalis Linn., and Cinchona
succirubra Pavon and other species
of Cinchona. , belonging to family
Rubiaceae.
Macroscopic Characters
The outer surface of it is yellowish to green colour and they have short
fractures .
• Inner surface is different in different species .it is striated and varies in
colour from yellow to brown to deep reddish to brown.
• Fractures are short at outer part but fibrous in the inner part.
• The root bark is channelled or often twisted about 2-7 cm long .
• Odour is distinctive and the taste is highly bitter and astringent.
• Shape is curved, quill or double quill.
• Size is 30 cm long and 2-7 mm thick.
• At the outer surface longitudinal and transverse cracks, ridges are present.
• Leaves have opposite arrangement.
• The shape of leaves are rounded to
lanceolate.
• Leaves are 10-40cm long.
• The colour of flowers are white, pink or red
• Fruit contain small capsule and have
numerous seeds.
• The stem bark contain moss or lichen at the
outer surface.
• It may or may not be longitudinally
wrinkled .
Cultivation and Collection
• Cultivation:-
• Cinchona is grow in sub-tropical or tropical climates at a height of about 1000 – 3000 metres. The rainfall is
required (250 – 380 cm in a year) and atmospheric temperature is 60 – 75 F.
• Cinchona requires light, well drained forest soil which is rich in organic matter.
• The propagation is done with either seeds or budding or layering.
• The seeds of cinchona are very small and light in weight. About 1 gm of cinchona seeds contain 3500 seeds.
• The germination takes place in 3 – 6 weeks. Space of 6 – 10 cm in maintained in between two seedlings and
2 rows.
• In forest soil, they are transplanted after 15 months of growth and before heavy rainfall.
• The plants from 4 – 20 years of age are selected for harvesting but the maximum alkaloid content is found to
6 – 10 years old plants.
• Collection:-
• The bark is collected by coppicing method.
• Vertical incisions are made on branches, trunk of tree. The bark is then stripped off and dried in sun light.
• The quills of drug are packed in gunny bags.
Powder characteristics
Chemical Constituents
• It contains quinoline Alkaloids (6-10%) e.g. Quinine, quinidine,
cinchonine and cinchonidine.
Use:-
• Quinine is used in the treatment of malaria and quinidine as
an antiarrhythmic agent.
Isapgol (Seed)
• Synonyms:-
Isabgul, Indian Psyllium,
Ispaghula
• Biological Source:-
It consists of dried ripe seeds of
Plantago ovata Linn, belonging to
family Plantaginaceae.
• Geographical Source:-
It is cultivated in Gujarat, Punjab
and South Rajasthan
Macroscopic Characters
• Colour - pinkish-grey to brown
• Odour – None
• Size – 10 – 35 mm in length and 1
– 1.75 mm in width
• Shape – It is ovate outline with
boat-shaped
• Taste – Mucilaginous taste
• Surface is hard, translucent,
smooth and pinkish grey-brown in
colour
Cultivation and Collection
• Isapgol is a Rabi crop and needs well-drained loamy soil with a pH 7.5 to 8.5 and cool and dry
weather.
• The drug is cultivated by broadcasting method, in the month of November. About 6 – 12 kg seeds
are needed per hectare.
• Irrigation is done 7-8 times at an interval of 8-10 days.
• Ammonium sulphate is found to be satisfactory fertilizer for the plant.
• The crop is harvested in march/April and the average yield of the seeds per hectare is 7.4 quintals.
• It is collected by cutting the plant just above the ground, converting it to sheaves and drying.
Thrashing is done and the thrashed material is winnowed and sieved to maintain quality.
• India is producing 48000 tones of seeds annually at present.
T.S of Isabgol
• Epidermis: Single layered, thick
walled transparent, cells
containing mucilage, which exudes
if brought in contact with water.
• Pigment Layer: Usually collapsed
which is yellow in colour.
• Endosperm: Outer layer consists of
palisade like cells which are thick
walled but inner cells are irregular
and are also thick walled
consisting of aleurone grains and
oil globules.
• Embryo: Have two cotyledons,
with three to five vascular bundles
in each, a portion of raphe
remains attached to the seed.
Chemical Constituents:
• It contains mucilage, fixed oil, sugars ect.
• The mucilage yields on hydrolysis D-xylose, L-arabinose, D-
galactose and D- galacturonic acid.
• Use:- As demulcent and laxative in treatment of chronic
constipation.
Nux Vomica
Synonyms:-
Nux Vomica seed ,Crow-fig
Biological Source:-
It consists of dried ripe seeds of Strychnos
nux vomica Linn, family Loganiaceae.It
should contain not less than 1.2% of total
alkaloids calculated as strychnine.
Geographical Source:-
It is cultivated in Sri Lanka,Northern Australia
and India (Tamil Nadu,
Kerala,Bihar,Odissa,Mysore and Gorakhpur.
Macroscopic Characters
• Colour : Seeds are greenish
brown
• Odour : None
• Taste : Intensely bitter
• Size : Seeds are 10 to 30 mm
in diameter and 4 to 6 mm
in thickness.
• Shape: The seeds are disc
shaped, somewhat flat or
irregularly bent and Margin
of the seeds is rounded.
• Surface of the seeds is silky
due to the radially arranged
and densely covered.
Cultivation and Collection
• The nux vomica tree is found throughout the tropical area, 1300 m above the sea level. The plants
are about 10 – 12 metres in height with a crooked trunk and several branches.
• The flowers are greenish white and the bark is greyish to yellow. Fruits of the plants are orange
yellow, berries of normal size.
• Each fruit contains about 4 – 5 seeds and heavy bitter pulp. The ripened fruits are collected and
seeds are freed of the pulp. They are washed with water thoroughly.
• Un ripened seeds are separated by the floating test in water.
• The seeds are dried on mat and packed in gunny bags for marketing.
• The collection of the fruit and seeds is carried out from November to February.
• About 15,000 tones of seeds are collected annually.
Chemical Constituents
• Nux Vomica seed contains alkaloids (2.5-5%), fixed oil and
Glycosides loganin.
• Major alkaloids are strychnine (1.2%) and brucine (1.55%)
Use:-
Strychnine Is used as antidote in CNS depressants poisoning such
as barbiturate poisoning.
It is used as stimulates respiratory and cardiovascular system.

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Cultivation, Collection and T.S , Powder Character of Bark and Seed ( Cinchona, Cinnamon, Isapgol, Nux Vomica.pptx

  • 1. Miss Gayatri Patra Assistant Professor EPCP, Bangalore Cinnamon and Cinchona (Bark) Isabgol and Nux Vomica (Seed)
  • 2. CINNAMON (BARK) • Synonyms:- • Dalchini, Cinnamon bark. • Biological source:- • Cinnamon consist of dried bark, freed from the outer cork and from the underlying parenchyma, from the shoots growing on the cut stumps of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. • Family:– Lauraceae. • It should not contain less than 1.0% of volatile oil. • Geographical source: – • Srilanka, Malabar Coast of India and Brazil.
  • 3. Macroscopic Characters • Colour: Externally dull yellowish brown, internally dark yellowish brown • Odour: Aromatic • Taste: Warm and very refined (Sweetish and aromatic followed by warm sensation) • Fracture: Splintery • Size: Length is about 1 meter, diameter is nearly 1 cm and thickness is approximately 0.5 mm. • Shape: Compound quill form.
  • 4. Cultivation and Collection • Cinnamon is a crop of topical countries. It needs sandy soils. • The altitude at which it grows favourably is 800 to 1000 metres and annual rainfall 200 – 250 cm is ideal for cultivation of cinnamon. • The seeds are sown in well prepared nursery beds located at suitable places in June and July. • The seeds are sown at a distance of 10 cm and covered with small layer of soil and watered properly. It takes approximately 20 days for germination of seeds and allowed to grow for about 10 to 12 months. • Transplantation is done in oct/Nov or in rainy season by keeping the distance of 2 meters in between two plants. • For healthy growth, each plant should be manured with 100 g each of ammonium sulphate and superphosphate in the 1st year. • Fertilizers are applied in two equal doses, first in monsoon and second in October – November to encourage the growth of side shoots.
  • 5. • The trees are allowed to grow further unless they turn to uniform brown by formation of cork. • Harvesting is done in rainy season when it is easy to peel off the bark from shoots. • Longitudinal incisions producing the strips, which are peeled off, strips are made into bundles and ferment for 24 hours. • Cork and cortex is removed by scrapping with curved brass knives. • The drug is dried in shade over the mats, the quills are collected and packed into bundles. • One hectare plantation of cinnamon, produces 200 – 300 kg bark and 2 – 3 kg of leaf oil per year.
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  • 8. Chemical Constituents • Cinnamon bark contains about 0.5 – 1.0 per cent of volatile oil, 1.2 per cent of tannins, mucilage, calcium oxalate, starch and sweet substance know as mannitol. • Cinnamon oil contains 60 – 70 % of cinnamaldehyde, 5 – 10% eugenol, benzaldehyde • Use:- • As carminative, mild astringent and flavouring agent.
  • 9. CINCHONA (BARK) Synonyms Cortex Cinchonae, Peruvian bark, Cinchona Biological Source Cinchona is the dried bark of the stem or of the root of Cinchona calisaya Wedd., Cinchona ledgeriana Moens., Cinchona officinalis Linn., and Cinchona succirubra Pavon and other species of Cinchona. , belonging to family Rubiaceae.
  • 10. Macroscopic Characters The outer surface of it is yellowish to green colour and they have short fractures . • Inner surface is different in different species .it is striated and varies in colour from yellow to brown to deep reddish to brown. • Fractures are short at outer part but fibrous in the inner part. • The root bark is channelled or often twisted about 2-7 cm long . • Odour is distinctive and the taste is highly bitter and astringent. • Shape is curved, quill or double quill. • Size is 30 cm long and 2-7 mm thick. • At the outer surface longitudinal and transverse cracks, ridges are present.
  • 11. • Leaves have opposite arrangement. • The shape of leaves are rounded to lanceolate. • Leaves are 10-40cm long. • The colour of flowers are white, pink or red • Fruit contain small capsule and have numerous seeds. • The stem bark contain moss or lichen at the outer surface. • It may or may not be longitudinally wrinkled .
  • 12. Cultivation and Collection • Cultivation:- • Cinchona is grow in sub-tropical or tropical climates at a height of about 1000 – 3000 metres. The rainfall is required (250 – 380 cm in a year) and atmospheric temperature is 60 – 75 F. • Cinchona requires light, well drained forest soil which is rich in organic matter. • The propagation is done with either seeds or budding or layering. • The seeds of cinchona are very small and light in weight. About 1 gm of cinchona seeds contain 3500 seeds. • The germination takes place in 3 – 6 weeks. Space of 6 – 10 cm in maintained in between two seedlings and 2 rows. • In forest soil, they are transplanted after 15 months of growth and before heavy rainfall. • The plants from 4 – 20 years of age are selected for harvesting but the maximum alkaloid content is found to 6 – 10 years old plants. • Collection:- • The bark is collected by coppicing method. • Vertical incisions are made on branches, trunk of tree. The bark is then stripped off and dried in sun light. • The quills of drug are packed in gunny bags.
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  • 15. Chemical Constituents • It contains quinoline Alkaloids (6-10%) e.g. Quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine. Use:- • Quinine is used in the treatment of malaria and quinidine as an antiarrhythmic agent.
  • 16. Isapgol (Seed) • Synonyms:- Isabgul, Indian Psyllium, Ispaghula • Biological Source:- It consists of dried ripe seeds of Plantago ovata Linn, belonging to family Plantaginaceae. • Geographical Source:- It is cultivated in Gujarat, Punjab and South Rajasthan
  • 17. Macroscopic Characters • Colour - pinkish-grey to brown • Odour – None • Size – 10 – 35 mm in length and 1 – 1.75 mm in width • Shape – It is ovate outline with boat-shaped • Taste – Mucilaginous taste • Surface is hard, translucent, smooth and pinkish grey-brown in colour
  • 18. Cultivation and Collection • Isapgol is a Rabi crop and needs well-drained loamy soil with a pH 7.5 to 8.5 and cool and dry weather. • The drug is cultivated by broadcasting method, in the month of November. About 6 – 12 kg seeds are needed per hectare. • Irrigation is done 7-8 times at an interval of 8-10 days. • Ammonium sulphate is found to be satisfactory fertilizer for the plant. • The crop is harvested in march/April and the average yield of the seeds per hectare is 7.4 quintals. • It is collected by cutting the plant just above the ground, converting it to sheaves and drying. Thrashing is done and the thrashed material is winnowed and sieved to maintain quality. • India is producing 48000 tones of seeds annually at present.
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  • 20. T.S of Isabgol • Epidermis: Single layered, thick walled transparent, cells containing mucilage, which exudes if brought in contact with water. • Pigment Layer: Usually collapsed which is yellow in colour. • Endosperm: Outer layer consists of palisade like cells which are thick walled but inner cells are irregular and are also thick walled consisting of aleurone grains and oil globules. • Embryo: Have two cotyledons, with three to five vascular bundles in each, a portion of raphe remains attached to the seed.
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  • 22. Chemical Constituents: • It contains mucilage, fixed oil, sugars ect. • The mucilage yields on hydrolysis D-xylose, L-arabinose, D- galactose and D- galacturonic acid. • Use:- As demulcent and laxative in treatment of chronic constipation.
  • 23. Nux Vomica Synonyms:- Nux Vomica seed ,Crow-fig Biological Source:- It consists of dried ripe seeds of Strychnos nux vomica Linn, family Loganiaceae.It should contain not less than 1.2% of total alkaloids calculated as strychnine. Geographical Source:- It is cultivated in Sri Lanka,Northern Australia and India (Tamil Nadu, Kerala,Bihar,Odissa,Mysore and Gorakhpur.
  • 24. Macroscopic Characters • Colour : Seeds are greenish brown • Odour : None • Taste : Intensely bitter • Size : Seeds are 10 to 30 mm in diameter and 4 to 6 mm in thickness. • Shape: The seeds are disc shaped, somewhat flat or irregularly bent and Margin of the seeds is rounded. • Surface of the seeds is silky due to the radially arranged and densely covered.
  • 25. Cultivation and Collection • The nux vomica tree is found throughout the tropical area, 1300 m above the sea level. The plants are about 10 – 12 metres in height with a crooked trunk and several branches. • The flowers are greenish white and the bark is greyish to yellow. Fruits of the plants are orange yellow, berries of normal size. • Each fruit contains about 4 – 5 seeds and heavy bitter pulp. The ripened fruits are collected and seeds are freed of the pulp. They are washed with water thoroughly. • Un ripened seeds are separated by the floating test in water. • The seeds are dried on mat and packed in gunny bags for marketing. • The collection of the fruit and seeds is carried out from November to February. • About 15,000 tones of seeds are collected annually.
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  • 28. Chemical Constituents • Nux Vomica seed contains alkaloids (2.5-5%), fixed oil and Glycosides loganin. • Major alkaloids are strychnine (1.2%) and brucine (1.55%) Use:- Strychnine Is used as antidote in CNS depressants poisoning such as barbiturate poisoning. It is used as stimulates respiratory and cardiovascular system.