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Wood (Quassia),
Flower (Clove) and
Fruits (Coriander,
Fennel) Gayatri Patra
Assistant professor
EPCP, Bangalore
Quassia (Wood)
Synonyms:- Jamaica Quassia
Biological Source:- It consists of dried stem wood of
Picrosma excelsa Plan, belonging to family
Simaroubaceae.
Morphology:- Quassia Wood occurs in logs , chips . The
logs are of variable length and about 30 cm in diameter.
Logs are covered with dark grey cork.
Wood is Yellowish white to yellow in colour with
frequent black marking of fungus and fracture is
granular.
The drug has no odour but an intensely bitter taste.
Cultivation and Collection
• The wood is obtained from main trunk and other branches. After
cutting the tree, the bark is removed and the wood of trunk and large
branches are cut into small chips, logs.
• The wood is white in colour, but slowly turns to yellow on drying.
T.S of Quassia
• The xylem consisting of vessels, fibres and parenchyma
is entirely lignified.
• Vessels are large and occur single or in groups
extending from one medullary ray to the next.
• Fibres are arranged in radial rows and constitute bulk
of wood.
• Medullary rays are 2-5 cells wide.
• Parenchyma is composed of moderately thick-walled,
square to polygonal cells with pitted walls.
• Several cells of parenchyma and medullary rays
contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
• A few starch grains usually simple or compound,
spherical are found in the cells of parenchyma.
Chemical Constituents
• Quassia contains amaroid compounds such as quassin, anintensely
bitter lactone, neoquassin, 18-hydroxy quassin etc.
• Use:- As bitter tonic , insecticide and anthelmintic.
Clove (Flower)
• Synonyms:- Clove Flower, Clove buds.
• Biological Source:- Clove is the dried flower bud of Eugenia
caryophyllus Sprague, Family Myrtaceae.
• It contains not less than 15% of clove oil.
• Geographical source:- It is cultivated in India,Sri Lanka , Penang. In
India, clove are grown in Nilgiri, kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu
State. It is also cultivated in Kottayam and Quilon districts of Kerala.
Macroscopic Characters
Colour : Crimson to dark brown.
Odour : Slightly aromatic.
Taste : Pungent and aromatic.
Size : About 10 to 17.5 mm in length, 4 mm in width,
and 2 mm thick.
Shape : Clove Flower bud consists of lower body
called ‘hypanthium’ and upper ‘head’ or ‘crown’.
Hypanthium is sub cylindrical, slightly flattened.
The inferior, bilocular ovary is situated in the upper
portion of hypanthium, containing numerous ovules
attached by axile placentation.
Head consists of four slightly projecting ,triangular
sepals.
Cultivation and Collection
• Deep rich loamy soil is suitable for clove cultivation.
• It needs warm humid climate and grows well in the vicinity of sea. The annual rainfall in the
range of 150 – 250 cm is another requirement for cultivation of clove.
• It is propagated by seed germination. The seeds are sown from August to October.
• The seeds are placed in the nursery beds at a distance of 10 cm. It takes from four to five weeks
for seed germination.
• After six months, they are transplanted to the pots where they are allowed to grow for a year.
Thereafter , they are again transferred to the field.
• The plants are provided with suitable fertilizers like ammonium sulphate, super phosphate and
potash. Generally , the fertilizers are given in 2 doses; first in May/June and 2nd in October.
• The plant starts bearing after 7 – 8 years and the satisfactory yield per hectare of the drug is
achieved only after 15 – 20 years of growth.
• Cloves are handpicked or collected by beating with bamboos.
• The cloves are dried in the sun and freed from foreign material. The cloves on drying become
perfectly brownish black in colour.
Chemical Constituents
• Clove contains volatile oil (14 – 21%) and tannins (10-13%). Major
constituents of volatile oil are eugenol (up to 90%) and methyl pentyl
ketone (up to 1%).
• Use:- As stimulant, Aromatic, Antiseptic and flavouring agent.
Fennel (fruits)
Synonym :- Pan-Mauri, Fennel fruit,
Madhurika
Biological Source :- It is consists of dried ripe
fruit of foeniculum vulgare
Family :- Umbellifera. It contains not less
than 1.4% v/w of volatile oil.
Characteristics of Fennel Herb :-
Aromatic perennial herb
Stout stems
4 to 5 feet or more in height, erect and
cylindrical
Much branched bearing leaves
Morphology of Fennel
Seed
Type: Cremocarp with two one-seeded
mericarps.
Shape: Straight or slightly curved, oblong,
tapering towards the base and apex. Stylopod is
present in the apex.
Oval in shape with five ridges
Seeds are light green to grey colour.
Size: 5 to 10 mm(L), 2 to 4 mm(b)
Surface: The dorsal surface is glabrous with 5
straight, primary ridges and stylopod at the
apex.
The commisural surface is flat and carpophore
which holds the 2 mericarps.
Odour and taste: Strongly aromatic.
Cultivation and Collection
• Fennel is cultivated by the dibbling method. Four to five seeds are put, at a time, in holes at a
distance of 25 cm in between them.
• Well-drained and calcareous soil in sunny situations is found to be favourable for the cultivation
of fennel.
• In India, nearly 90% of the fennel production comes from Gujarat alone.
• The crop is kept free of weeds and provided with suitable fertilizers. When the fruits are ripe, the
crop is harvested and dried in the sun. Fruits are separated by thrashing.
• Altitude: 1000 – 1800 m
• Temperature: 25 – 45°c
• Rainfall: 700 – 900 mm per annum
• pH of soil: 6 – 7.5
• Duration of the crop: Annual
Chemical Constituents
• It contains volatile oil (about 6%), fixed oil and protein.
• Use:- As carminative and aromatic.
Coriander ( fruit)
• Synonyms:- Coriander fruits.
• Biological Source:- These are the fully dried ripe fruits of the plant
known as Coriandrum sativum Linn. Family ( Umbelliferae ). The fruits
should contain not less than 0.3% of the volatile oil.
• Geographical source: The plant is cultivated throughout European
countries, Russia and India. In India, it is cultivated in Andhra Pradesh,
Maharashtra, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Jammu and
Kashmir.
Macroscopic Characters
Colour: Yellowish–brown to brown.
Odour: Aromatic.
Taste: Spicy and characteristic.
Size: Fruits are 2 – 4 mm in diameter and 4 –
30 mm in length.
Shape: Coriander is a sub-globular
cremocarpous fruit.
About 10 primary ridges and 8 secondary
ridges are present.
Cultivation and Collection
• Coriander is cultivated as a rabi crop. It needs light to heavy black soil.
• About 15 to 20 kg of fruits per hectare are required for cultivation. It
is sown by the dibbling method.
• The crop is ready for harvesting after 100 days of growth. J-16, J-214,
K-45 and new pusa are a few of the improved varieties of coriander.
• About 2 lakh hectares of land is under cultivation in India.
• India produces about 70% of the global requirement of coriander.
70% of production in India.
Chemical Constituents
• Coriander fruit contains Volatile oil (about 1%), fixed oil and protein.
• Major constituents of the volatile oil are linalool or coriandrol (45-
70%) and pinene.
• Use:- As carminative, spice and aromatic.

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Cultivation, Collection and T.S , Powder Character Wood (Quassia) Flower (Clove) and fruits (Coriander, Fennel).pptx

  • 1. Wood (Quassia), Flower (Clove) and Fruits (Coriander, Fennel) Gayatri Patra Assistant professor EPCP, Bangalore
  • 2. Quassia (Wood) Synonyms:- Jamaica Quassia Biological Source:- It consists of dried stem wood of Picrosma excelsa Plan, belonging to family Simaroubaceae. Morphology:- Quassia Wood occurs in logs , chips . The logs are of variable length and about 30 cm in diameter. Logs are covered with dark grey cork. Wood is Yellowish white to yellow in colour with frequent black marking of fungus and fracture is granular. The drug has no odour but an intensely bitter taste.
  • 3. Cultivation and Collection • The wood is obtained from main trunk and other branches. After cutting the tree, the bark is removed and the wood of trunk and large branches are cut into small chips, logs. • The wood is white in colour, but slowly turns to yellow on drying.
  • 4. T.S of Quassia • The xylem consisting of vessels, fibres and parenchyma is entirely lignified. • Vessels are large and occur single or in groups extending from one medullary ray to the next. • Fibres are arranged in radial rows and constitute bulk of wood. • Medullary rays are 2-5 cells wide. • Parenchyma is composed of moderately thick-walled, square to polygonal cells with pitted walls. • Several cells of parenchyma and medullary rays contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. • A few starch grains usually simple or compound, spherical are found in the cells of parenchyma.
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  • 6. Chemical Constituents • Quassia contains amaroid compounds such as quassin, anintensely bitter lactone, neoquassin, 18-hydroxy quassin etc. • Use:- As bitter tonic , insecticide and anthelmintic.
  • 7. Clove (Flower) • Synonyms:- Clove Flower, Clove buds. • Biological Source:- Clove is the dried flower bud of Eugenia caryophyllus Sprague, Family Myrtaceae. • It contains not less than 15% of clove oil. • Geographical source:- It is cultivated in India,Sri Lanka , Penang. In India, clove are grown in Nilgiri, kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu State. It is also cultivated in Kottayam and Quilon districts of Kerala.
  • 8. Macroscopic Characters Colour : Crimson to dark brown. Odour : Slightly aromatic. Taste : Pungent and aromatic. Size : About 10 to 17.5 mm in length, 4 mm in width, and 2 mm thick. Shape : Clove Flower bud consists of lower body called ‘hypanthium’ and upper ‘head’ or ‘crown’. Hypanthium is sub cylindrical, slightly flattened. The inferior, bilocular ovary is situated in the upper portion of hypanthium, containing numerous ovules attached by axile placentation. Head consists of four slightly projecting ,triangular sepals.
  • 9. Cultivation and Collection • Deep rich loamy soil is suitable for clove cultivation. • It needs warm humid climate and grows well in the vicinity of sea. The annual rainfall in the range of 150 – 250 cm is another requirement for cultivation of clove. • It is propagated by seed germination. The seeds are sown from August to October. • The seeds are placed in the nursery beds at a distance of 10 cm. It takes from four to five weeks for seed germination. • After six months, they are transplanted to the pots where they are allowed to grow for a year. Thereafter , they are again transferred to the field. • The plants are provided with suitable fertilizers like ammonium sulphate, super phosphate and potash. Generally , the fertilizers are given in 2 doses; first in May/June and 2nd in October. • The plant starts bearing after 7 – 8 years and the satisfactory yield per hectare of the drug is achieved only after 15 – 20 years of growth. • Cloves are handpicked or collected by beating with bamboos. • The cloves are dried in the sun and freed from foreign material. The cloves on drying become perfectly brownish black in colour.
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  • 12. Chemical Constituents • Clove contains volatile oil (14 – 21%) and tannins (10-13%). Major constituents of volatile oil are eugenol (up to 90%) and methyl pentyl ketone (up to 1%). • Use:- As stimulant, Aromatic, Antiseptic and flavouring agent.
  • 13. Fennel (fruits) Synonym :- Pan-Mauri, Fennel fruit, Madhurika Biological Source :- It is consists of dried ripe fruit of foeniculum vulgare Family :- Umbellifera. It contains not less than 1.4% v/w of volatile oil. Characteristics of Fennel Herb :- Aromatic perennial herb Stout stems 4 to 5 feet or more in height, erect and cylindrical Much branched bearing leaves
  • 14. Morphology of Fennel Seed Type: Cremocarp with two one-seeded mericarps. Shape: Straight or slightly curved, oblong, tapering towards the base and apex. Stylopod is present in the apex. Oval in shape with five ridges Seeds are light green to grey colour. Size: 5 to 10 mm(L), 2 to 4 mm(b) Surface: The dorsal surface is glabrous with 5 straight, primary ridges and stylopod at the apex. The commisural surface is flat and carpophore which holds the 2 mericarps. Odour and taste: Strongly aromatic.
  • 15. Cultivation and Collection • Fennel is cultivated by the dibbling method. Four to five seeds are put, at a time, in holes at a distance of 25 cm in between them. • Well-drained and calcareous soil in sunny situations is found to be favourable for the cultivation of fennel. • In India, nearly 90% of the fennel production comes from Gujarat alone. • The crop is kept free of weeds and provided with suitable fertilizers. When the fruits are ripe, the crop is harvested and dried in the sun. Fruits are separated by thrashing. • Altitude: 1000 – 1800 m • Temperature: 25 – 45°c • Rainfall: 700 – 900 mm per annum • pH of soil: 6 – 7.5 • Duration of the crop: Annual
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  • 18. Chemical Constituents • It contains volatile oil (about 6%), fixed oil and protein. • Use:- As carminative and aromatic.
  • 19. Coriander ( fruit) • Synonyms:- Coriander fruits. • Biological Source:- These are the fully dried ripe fruits of the plant known as Coriandrum sativum Linn. Family ( Umbelliferae ). The fruits should contain not less than 0.3% of the volatile oil. • Geographical source: The plant is cultivated throughout European countries, Russia and India. In India, it is cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir.
  • 20. Macroscopic Characters Colour: Yellowish–brown to brown. Odour: Aromatic. Taste: Spicy and characteristic. Size: Fruits are 2 – 4 mm in diameter and 4 – 30 mm in length. Shape: Coriander is a sub-globular cremocarpous fruit. About 10 primary ridges and 8 secondary ridges are present.
  • 21. Cultivation and Collection • Coriander is cultivated as a rabi crop. It needs light to heavy black soil. • About 15 to 20 kg of fruits per hectare are required for cultivation. It is sown by the dibbling method. • The crop is ready for harvesting after 100 days of growth. J-16, J-214, K-45 and new pusa are a few of the improved varieties of coriander. • About 2 lakh hectares of land is under cultivation in India. • India produces about 70% of the global requirement of coriander. 70% of production in India.
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  • 24. Chemical Constituents • Coriander fruit contains Volatile oil (about 1%), fixed oil and protein. • Major constituents of the volatile oil are linalool or coriandrol (45- 70%) and pinene. • Use:- As carminative, spice and aromatic.