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About Companies Act 1956
• It came into force with effect from 1st April, 1956.
• Companies Act 1956 was an Act of the Parliament of India, enacted in 1956,
which enabled companies to be formed by registration, sets out the responsibilities
of companies, their directors and secretaries and also provides for the procedures
for its winding.
• The Companies Act 1956 is administered by the Government of India through the
Ministry of Corporate Affairs and the Offices of Registrar of Companies, Official
Liquidators, Public Trustee, Company Law Board, Director of Inspection, etc.
• It contains 658 sections and XV schedules
• It mentions types of companies their differences, constitution , management,
members , capital, how shares should be issued, debentures, registration of charge,
at the end of the act it concludes the about winding up of a company, discussing
the situations a company needs to be winded up. The ways it should be done by
volunteer or through courts.
Special features of Companies Act are
• It provides more stringent provisions relating to the company promoters and
company management.
• It provides elaborate provisions relating to the form and contents of a
prospectus, maintenance of accounts by companies, reduction of share
capital, etc.
• This Act recognizes the institution of ‘Government Companies’ (in which
government holds at least 51% share capital) and makes special provisions
for them.
• It gives extensive powers to the Central Government and the Company
Law Board to intervene directly in affairs of a company in public interest, in
recognition of the fact that a public company should be regarded as a
national asset and not as something of exclusive concern to the shareholders
or the directors.
Types of companies under Companies Act
Introduction of companies Act, 2013
• The Companies Act 2013 is an Act of the Parliament of India on Indian company
law which regulates incorporation of a company, responsibilities of a company,
directors, dissolution of a company.
• The 2013 Act is divided into 29 chapters containing 470 sections and 7 schedules.
• The Act has replaced The Companies Act, 1956 (in a partial manner) after
receiving the assent of the President of India on 29 August 2013
• Passed in Lok sabha - Dec 18, 2012
• Passed in Rajya sabha - Aug 8, 2013
• Effective from – Sep 12, 2013
What’s new?
• Simplifies law.
• Provide for better and more powerful oversight.
• Enforce gender equality.
• Ensure independence of boards.
• Limit the terms of independent directors.
• Limit the terms of auditor.
• Spending on CSR.
• Improve quality of financial statements.
Structural comparisons:
COMPANIES ACT
1956
COMPANIES ACT
2013
OBJECTIVES OF THE ACT, 2013
• To promote the development of the economy.
• To encourage transparency and accountability.
• To promote high standards of corporate governance.
• To recognise to concept and procedures to support business and protect
shareholders interests.
• To setup institutional structure in the form of various authorities,
bodies and panels (NCLT and NCLAT)
• To enforce strict action against fraud and gross non-compliance with company law
provisions.
Meaning and Features of a Company
MEANING :
• Section 2(20) of the Companies Act, 2013, defines the term ‘Company’ as
follows: “A company is an artificial person created by law having separate legal
entity with perpetual succession and a common seal”
FEATURES :
• Separate Legal Entity
• Perpetual Succession
• Limited Liability
• Artificial Legal Person
• Common Seal
• Transferability of shares.
New Concepts Introduced
33 new definitions were introduced in section 2
One persons company
Section 2(62) of Companies Act defines a one-person company as a company
that has only one person as to its member.
Features
• Private company
• Single member
• Nominee
• No perpectual successions
• Minimum one director (max 15 director)
Dormant company
• Section 455 of companies Act states that a company can be classified as dormant
When it is formed and registered under this Act only to holds assets or intellectual
property or for project office, having no other accounting transactions.
• Such a company or an inactive one may apply to the ROC for such status of the
dormant company.
Private company
• Section 2(68) of Companies Act, 2013 defines that private companies are those
companies whose articles of association restrict the transferability of shares and
prevent the public at large from subscribing to them.
• Limit of members here increased from 50 to 200.
Small company
• Defined as a company other than a public company.
a) Paid up capital does not exceed 50 lakh
b) Turnover of which as per its last profit & loss a/c does not exceed 2 crore
• Does not applicable for
a) Holding and subsidiary company.
b) A company registered under section 8.
c) A co governed by any special Act .
Associate company
Section 2(6) defines it is the company in which another company
holds at least 20% or total share capital . It can have significance
influence on business decisions due to agreement or joint venture.
cont..
• Private companies to have a max of 200 members (earlier it was 50) – Sec 2 (68)
• E-Governance – maintenance and allowing inspection of documents by companies
in electronic form. Sec-120
• Vigil mechanism (whistle blowing) introduced. Sec 177 (10).
• In prescribed class or class of companies there should be one women director. Sec
149 (1).
• Financial year of any company can only be from April-March. Existing companies
have to align within two years of commencement of the Act. Sec 2 (41)
• Memorandum not to have ‘other objects’. Clause 4(1)
Cont..
• A person cannot become director in more than 20 companies (earlier 15)
• Out od this 20, he cannot be director of more than 10 public companies. (Sec 165)
• Share holders have an exit option if money raised has not been utilised.( Sec 27)
• Concept of CSR introduced.( Sec 135)
• Condition and manner for issue of bonus share has been introduced. (Sec 63)
• Consolidation of accounts. (Sec 129)
• New provisions suggested for allowing re opening of accounts in certain cases
with due safeguards.(Sec 130)
Monitoring and Regulatory Authorities
NFRA- National
Financial reporting
Authority
NCLT- National
Company Law Tribunal
SFIO- Serious Fraud
Investigation Authority
Office
SFIO- Serious Fraud Investigation Authority Office
• Investigation into affairs of company by serious fraud investigation
office.
a) On receipt of a report of inspector under section 208
b) In public interest
c) On request from any department
• Treated as report filled by police officers.
• Penalty provided for fraud related offences.
NCLT- National Company Law Tribunal
• Established by central government through notification consisting of
president and judicial and technical members to discharge such
powers.
• Any person aggrieved by an order of the tribunal may prefer an appeal
to the Appellate Tribunal.
• No appeal should lie to the Appellate Tribunal from an order made by
the tribunal with the consent of parties.
• Chapter 27 of the Act, Section 407-434
NFRA- National Financial reporting Authority
• Section 132
• To advise on matters related to auditing standard in addition to
accounting standards.
• Central government prescribes the standards
• Monitor and enforce the compliance with accounting and auditing
standards.
• Oversee the quality of service of the professions
• To investigate into the matters of professional or other misconduct
committed by any member or the firm of chartered accounts.
Challenges before the profession
1) Voluntary Revision of Financial Statements by the Board( Sec 131)
• Revisions of accounts is a serious matter to be made.
• Applicable only for companies based on high turnover.
2) CSR- corporate social responsibility
• Every co having net worth of 500 cr or more, turnover of 1000 cr or more, net profit
of 5 cr more should constitute a CSR of 2% average profit of 3 immediately
preceding financial years.
• Spending for society.
• Reporting for spending
• Important to track and trail inflows and outflows.
3) Financial statement- Sec 2(40)
• Balance sheet at the end of the year.
• Profit and loss account.
• Cash flow statement
• Statement of changes in equity
Cont..
4. Key managerial person-Sec 2(51)
• Chief executive officer
• Company secretary
• Whole time director
• Chief financial officer
5. Promoter- Sec 2(69)
• Means a person who have the control over the affairs of the co.
• Mentioned in the prospectus
• In accordance with whose advise, directions, instructions co is accustomed.
Other important provisions
1. Classification and Registration
• Concept of one person company and small companies.
• Provisions for conversions of company.
• Registration process made faster.
• Provisions for enrichment.
2. Registered office
• Verify registration within 30 days of incorporation.
• Notice of change given within 15 days of the change.
3. Commencement of business
• paid up capital is not less than l lac in case of public co and 1 lac in private co.
Cont..
4. General meeting
• Every general annual meeting shall be called during business hours i.e. 9 am to 6 pm.
• First meeting should be held within 9 months from the end of the financial year.
• Called by giving not less than prior 21 days notice.
• Prepare a report and shall be filled with the register within 30 days of the conclusion of the
meeting.
• Quorum or public co has increased from 5 to 30 members
5. Board meetings
• At least 7 days notice to be given for Board Meeting.
• The Board need to meet at least 4 times within a year.
• There should not be a gap of more than 120 days between two consecutive meetings.
Cont..
6. Appointment of Statutory Auditors
• Every Listed company can appoint an individual auditor for 5 years and a firm of auditors for
10 years.
• This period of 5 / 10 years commences from the date of their appointment.
• Therefore, those companies who have reappointed their statutory auditors for more than 5 / 10
years, have to appoint another auditor in their Annual General Meeting.
7. Other specialized services which cannot be provided by Statutory Auditors
• The Statutory Auditor of the Company cannot give following specialized services directly or
indirectly to the company .
• Accounting and book keeping services and Internal audit
• Design and implementation of any financial information system
• Investment advisory and banking services
• Rendering of outsourced financial services
• Management and/or any other services as may be prescribed
Cont.
8. Independent Directors:
• The Companies Act 2013 provides that all listed companies should have at least one-third
of the Board as independent directors.
• Such other class or classes of public companies as may be prescribed by the Central
Government shall also be required to appoint independent directors.
• No independent director shall hold office for more than two consecutive terms of five
years.

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Companies Act, 2013

  • 1.
  • 2. About Companies Act 1956 • It came into force with effect from 1st April, 1956. • Companies Act 1956 was an Act of the Parliament of India, enacted in 1956, which enabled companies to be formed by registration, sets out the responsibilities of companies, their directors and secretaries and also provides for the procedures for its winding. • The Companies Act 1956 is administered by the Government of India through the Ministry of Corporate Affairs and the Offices of Registrar of Companies, Official Liquidators, Public Trustee, Company Law Board, Director of Inspection, etc. • It contains 658 sections and XV schedules • It mentions types of companies their differences, constitution , management, members , capital, how shares should be issued, debentures, registration of charge, at the end of the act it concludes the about winding up of a company, discussing the situations a company needs to be winded up. The ways it should be done by volunteer or through courts.
  • 3. Special features of Companies Act are • It provides more stringent provisions relating to the company promoters and company management. • It provides elaborate provisions relating to the form and contents of a prospectus, maintenance of accounts by companies, reduction of share capital, etc. • This Act recognizes the institution of ‘Government Companies’ (in which government holds at least 51% share capital) and makes special provisions for them. • It gives extensive powers to the Central Government and the Company Law Board to intervene directly in affairs of a company in public interest, in recognition of the fact that a public company should be regarded as a national asset and not as something of exclusive concern to the shareholders or the directors.
  • 4. Types of companies under Companies Act
  • 5. Introduction of companies Act, 2013 • The Companies Act 2013 is an Act of the Parliament of India on Indian company law which regulates incorporation of a company, responsibilities of a company, directors, dissolution of a company. • The 2013 Act is divided into 29 chapters containing 470 sections and 7 schedules. • The Act has replaced The Companies Act, 1956 (in a partial manner) after receiving the assent of the President of India on 29 August 2013 • Passed in Lok sabha - Dec 18, 2012 • Passed in Rajya sabha - Aug 8, 2013 • Effective from – Sep 12, 2013
  • 6. What’s new? • Simplifies law. • Provide for better and more powerful oversight. • Enforce gender equality. • Ensure independence of boards. • Limit the terms of independent directors. • Limit the terms of auditor. • Spending on CSR. • Improve quality of financial statements.
  • 8. OBJECTIVES OF THE ACT, 2013 • To promote the development of the economy. • To encourage transparency and accountability. • To promote high standards of corporate governance. • To recognise to concept and procedures to support business and protect shareholders interests. • To setup institutional structure in the form of various authorities, bodies and panels (NCLT and NCLAT) • To enforce strict action against fraud and gross non-compliance with company law provisions.
  • 9. Meaning and Features of a Company MEANING : • Section 2(20) of the Companies Act, 2013, defines the term ‘Company’ as follows: “A company is an artificial person created by law having separate legal entity with perpetual succession and a common seal” FEATURES : • Separate Legal Entity • Perpetual Succession • Limited Liability • Artificial Legal Person • Common Seal • Transferability of shares.
  • 10. New Concepts Introduced 33 new definitions were introduced in section 2 One persons company Section 2(62) of Companies Act defines a one-person company as a company that has only one person as to its member. Features • Private company • Single member • Nominee • No perpectual successions • Minimum one director (max 15 director)
  • 11. Dormant company • Section 455 of companies Act states that a company can be classified as dormant When it is formed and registered under this Act only to holds assets or intellectual property or for project office, having no other accounting transactions. • Such a company or an inactive one may apply to the ROC for such status of the dormant company. Private company • Section 2(68) of Companies Act, 2013 defines that private companies are those companies whose articles of association restrict the transferability of shares and prevent the public at large from subscribing to them. • Limit of members here increased from 50 to 200.
  • 12. Small company • Defined as a company other than a public company. a) Paid up capital does not exceed 50 lakh b) Turnover of which as per its last profit & loss a/c does not exceed 2 crore • Does not applicable for a) Holding and subsidiary company. b) A company registered under section 8. c) A co governed by any special Act . Associate company Section 2(6) defines it is the company in which another company holds at least 20% or total share capital . It can have significance influence on business decisions due to agreement or joint venture.
  • 13. cont.. • Private companies to have a max of 200 members (earlier it was 50) – Sec 2 (68) • E-Governance – maintenance and allowing inspection of documents by companies in electronic form. Sec-120 • Vigil mechanism (whistle blowing) introduced. Sec 177 (10). • In prescribed class or class of companies there should be one women director. Sec 149 (1). • Financial year of any company can only be from April-March. Existing companies have to align within two years of commencement of the Act. Sec 2 (41) • Memorandum not to have ‘other objects’. Clause 4(1)
  • 14. Cont.. • A person cannot become director in more than 20 companies (earlier 15) • Out od this 20, he cannot be director of more than 10 public companies. (Sec 165) • Share holders have an exit option if money raised has not been utilised.( Sec 27) • Concept of CSR introduced.( Sec 135) • Condition and manner for issue of bonus share has been introduced. (Sec 63) • Consolidation of accounts. (Sec 129) • New provisions suggested for allowing re opening of accounts in certain cases with due safeguards.(Sec 130)
  • 15. Monitoring and Regulatory Authorities NFRA- National Financial reporting Authority NCLT- National Company Law Tribunal SFIO- Serious Fraud Investigation Authority Office
  • 16. SFIO- Serious Fraud Investigation Authority Office • Investigation into affairs of company by serious fraud investigation office. a) On receipt of a report of inspector under section 208 b) In public interest c) On request from any department • Treated as report filled by police officers. • Penalty provided for fraud related offences.
  • 17. NCLT- National Company Law Tribunal • Established by central government through notification consisting of president and judicial and technical members to discharge such powers. • Any person aggrieved by an order of the tribunal may prefer an appeal to the Appellate Tribunal. • No appeal should lie to the Appellate Tribunal from an order made by the tribunal with the consent of parties. • Chapter 27 of the Act, Section 407-434
  • 18. NFRA- National Financial reporting Authority • Section 132 • To advise on matters related to auditing standard in addition to accounting standards. • Central government prescribes the standards • Monitor and enforce the compliance with accounting and auditing standards. • Oversee the quality of service of the professions • To investigate into the matters of professional or other misconduct committed by any member or the firm of chartered accounts.
  • 19. Challenges before the profession 1) Voluntary Revision of Financial Statements by the Board( Sec 131) • Revisions of accounts is a serious matter to be made. • Applicable only for companies based on high turnover. 2) CSR- corporate social responsibility • Every co having net worth of 500 cr or more, turnover of 1000 cr or more, net profit of 5 cr more should constitute a CSR of 2% average profit of 3 immediately preceding financial years. • Spending for society. • Reporting for spending • Important to track and trail inflows and outflows. 3) Financial statement- Sec 2(40) • Balance sheet at the end of the year. • Profit and loss account. • Cash flow statement • Statement of changes in equity
  • 20. Cont.. 4. Key managerial person-Sec 2(51) • Chief executive officer • Company secretary • Whole time director • Chief financial officer 5. Promoter- Sec 2(69) • Means a person who have the control over the affairs of the co. • Mentioned in the prospectus • In accordance with whose advise, directions, instructions co is accustomed.
  • 21. Other important provisions 1. Classification and Registration • Concept of one person company and small companies. • Provisions for conversions of company. • Registration process made faster. • Provisions for enrichment. 2. Registered office • Verify registration within 30 days of incorporation. • Notice of change given within 15 days of the change. 3. Commencement of business • paid up capital is not less than l lac in case of public co and 1 lac in private co.
  • 22. Cont.. 4. General meeting • Every general annual meeting shall be called during business hours i.e. 9 am to 6 pm. • First meeting should be held within 9 months from the end of the financial year. • Called by giving not less than prior 21 days notice. • Prepare a report and shall be filled with the register within 30 days of the conclusion of the meeting. • Quorum or public co has increased from 5 to 30 members 5. Board meetings • At least 7 days notice to be given for Board Meeting. • The Board need to meet at least 4 times within a year. • There should not be a gap of more than 120 days between two consecutive meetings.
  • 23. Cont.. 6. Appointment of Statutory Auditors • Every Listed company can appoint an individual auditor for 5 years and a firm of auditors for 10 years. • This period of 5 / 10 years commences from the date of their appointment. • Therefore, those companies who have reappointed their statutory auditors for more than 5 / 10 years, have to appoint another auditor in their Annual General Meeting. 7. Other specialized services which cannot be provided by Statutory Auditors • The Statutory Auditor of the Company cannot give following specialized services directly or indirectly to the company . • Accounting and book keeping services and Internal audit • Design and implementation of any financial information system • Investment advisory and banking services • Rendering of outsourced financial services • Management and/or any other services as may be prescribed
  • 24. Cont. 8. Independent Directors: • The Companies Act 2013 provides that all listed companies should have at least one-third of the Board as independent directors. • Such other class or classes of public companies as may be prescribed by the Central Government shall also be required to appoint independent directors. • No independent director shall hold office for more than two consecutive terms of five years.