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Network	
  Func-on	
  Virtualiza-on	
  
in	
  IAAS	
  Clouds	
  	
  	
  
Chiradeep	
  Vi;al	
  
@chiradeep	
  
Commi;er,	
  Apache	
  CloudStack	
  Project	
  
	
  
Agenda
•  Overview of Apache CloudStack
•  How and Why of NFV in CloudStack
•  Does NFV deliver on its promise?
Apache CloudStack is a
•  scalable, 
•  multi-tenant, 
•  open source, 
•  purpose-built,
•  cloud orchestration platform for 
•  delivering turnkey Infrastructure-as-a-
Service clouds
Apache CloudStack
•  Several	
  hundred	
  produc-on	
  clouds	
  
•  Largest	
  clouds	
  in	
  10’s	
  of	
  thousands	
  of	
  
hypervisors	
  
•  Sectors:	
  
• Hos-ng	
  
• Enterprise	
  &	
  Educa-on	
  
• Service	
  Providers	
  
• Web	
  2.0	
  
Commercial	
  and	
  Open	
  Source	
  Success	
  
Most	
  Ac-vely	
  Developed	
  Apache	
  
Project	
  	
  
Source:	
  h;p://www.ohloh.net/orgs/apache	
  retrieved	
  3/11/2014	
  
Apache	
  CloudStack	
  State	
  Of	
  Union	
  –	
  
March	
  2014	
  
•  Apache	
  Commi;ers	
  –	
  74	
  	
  
•  Total	
  Apache	
  Contributors	
  All-­‐
Time	
  -­‐	
  	
  799	
  
•  Individual	
  Companies	
  involved	
  
in	
  ACS	
  -­‐	
  ~284	
  (by	
  unique	
  
domain	
  much	
  lower	
  than	
  actual	
  
based	
  on	
  Gmail	
  and	
  other	
  non-­‐
company	
  addresses)	
  	
  
•  Average	
  Monthly	
  contributors	
  
>150	
  
•  Lines	
  of	
  Code	
  -­‐	
  	
  	
  1,521,161	
  
•  Total	
  commits	
  –	
  22,169	
  
•  Years	
  of	
  Effort	
  (
COCOMO	
  Model)	
  –	
  434	
  years	
  
Stats	
  through	
  2/1/2014	
  
Companies	
  
How can you build your cloud?
Servers
Open Source Xen Hypervisor
Amazon Orchestration Software
AWS API (EC2, S3, …)
Amazon eCommerce Platform
Hypervisor
CloudStack Orchestration Software
Optional Portal
CloudStack or AWS API
StorageNetwork
Networking	
  Principles	
  in	
  Apache	
  
CloudStack	
  
•  Flexibility	
  
–  Allow	
  various	
  combina-ons	
  of	
  technology	
  for	
  L2-­‐L7	
  
network	
  services	
  
–  Allow	
  different	
  providers	
  (vendors)	
  for	
  the	
  same	
  
network	
  service	
  in	
  a	
  Cloud	
  POP	
  
•  Pluggability	
  
–  Plugins	
  allow	
  vendors	
  to	
  drop	
  in	
  vendor-­‐specific	
  
configura-on	
  and	
  lifecycle	
  management	
  code	
  
•  Service	
  scalability	
  
–  Scale	
  out	
  using	
  virtual	
  appliances	
  when	
  possible	
  
–  Scale	
  up	
  using	
  hardware	
  appliances	
  if	
  needed	
  
Network Flexibility
Network
Services
•  L2
connectivity
•  IPAM
•  DNS
•  Routing
•  ACL
•  Firewall
•  NAT
•  VPN
•  LB
•  IDS
•  IPS
Network Flexibility
Network
Services
•  L2
connectivity
•  IPAM
•  DNS
•  Routing
•  ACL
•  Firewall
•  NAT
•  VPN
•  LB
•  IDS
•  IPS

Service
Providers
ü  Virtual
appliances
ü  Hardware
firewalls
ü  LB
appliances
ü  SDN
controllers
ü  IDS /IPS
appliances
ü  VRF
ü  Hypervisor
Network Flexibility
Network
Services
•  L2
connectivity
•  IPAM
•  DNS
•  Routing
•  ACL
•  Firewall
•  NAT
•  VPN
•  LB
•  IDS
•  IPS

Network
Isolation
•  No
isolation
•  VLAN
isolation
•  Overlays
•  L3
isolation
Service
Providers
ü  Virtual
appliances
ü  Hardware
firewalls
ü  LB
appliances
ü  SDN
controllers
ü  IDS /IPS
appliances
ü  VRF
ü  Hypervisor
NFV in Apache CloudStack
•  Built-in VNFs for IAAS network services
–  Out of the box experience – no additional installation
–  Lifecycle managed by CloudStack
–  Debian 7.0 hardened appliance
•  Vendor VNFs also supported
–  Pooled model, no explicit instantiation
–  License and initial configuration resist automation
–  Citrix Netscaler ADC , Cisco ASA1000v firewall, Cisco
Nexus 1000v
•  Software defined networking
–  Built-in GRE/VxLAN controller
–  Plugins for NSX, Contrail, OpenDaylight, etc
Computing
Hardware
Storage
Hardware
Network
Hardware
Hardware resources
Virtualisation Layer
Virtualised
Infrastructure
Manager(s)
VNF
Manager(s)
VNF 2
OrchestratorOSS/BSS
NFVI
VNF 3VNF 1
Execution reference points Main NFV reference pointsOther reference points
Virtual
Computing
Virtual
Storage
Virtual
Network
NFV Management and
Orchestration
EMS 2 EMS 3EMS 1
Service, VNF and Infrastructure
Description
Or-Vi
Or-Vnfm
Vi-Vnfm
Os-Ma
Se-Ma
Ve-Vnfm
Nf-Vi
Vn-Nf
Vl-Ha
ETSI	
  NFV	
  Func-onal	
  Blocks	
  
Computing
Hardware
Storage
Hardware
Network
Hardware
Hardware resources
Virtualisation Layer
Virtualised
Infrastructure
Manager(s)
VNF
Manager(s)
VNF 2
OrchestratorOSS/BSS
NFVI
VNF 3VNF 1
Execution reference points Main NFV reference pointsOther reference points
Virtual
Computing
Virtual
Storage
Virtual
Network
NFV Management and
Orchestration
EMS 2 EMS 3EMS 1
Service, VNF and Infrastructure
Description
Or-Vi
Or-Vnfm
Vi-Vnfm
Os-Ma
Se-Ma
Ve-Vnfm
Nf-Vi
Vn-Nf
Vl-Ha
CloudStack	
  NFV	
  func-ons	
  
NFV	
  func-ons	
  in	
  CloudStack	
  
•  Similar	
  to	
  ETSI,	
  but	
  not	
  iden-cal	
  
–  VirtualNetworkApplianceManager	
  =	
  VNF	
  Manager	
  
–  NetworkServiceManager	
  	
  =	
  NFV	
  Orchestrator	
  
–  VirtualRouter	
  =	
  VNF	
  
•  Purpose-­‐built	
  for	
  IAAS	
  today	
  
– Can	
  be	
  generalized	
  
– Need	
  external	
  APIs	
  (currently	
  internal)	
  
	
  
Example:	
  VNF	
  Lifecycle	
  Management	
  
GREKey2724
DB
VM 1!
Web
VM 1!
Web
VM 3!
Web
VM 2!
GREKey1001
App
VM 1!
App
VM 2!
GREKey398
!
Virtual Router!
Internet!
Customer!
Premises!
IPSec VPN!
Private Gateway!Loadbalancer	
  
(HW	
  or	
  
Virtual)	
  
Network Services!
•  IPAM!
•  DNS!
•  LB [intra]!
•  S-2-S VPN!
•  Static Routes!
•  ACLs!
•  NAT, PF!
•  FW [ingress & egress]!
LB VM !
Automated	
  Lifecycle:	
  Instan-a-on,	
  HA,	
  scaling
upgrade,	
  decommission	
  
Example:	
  VNF	
  Lifecycle	
  Management	
  
•  IAAS	
  API	
  calls	
  result	
  in	
  VNF	
  instan-a-on	
  and	
  
destruc-on	
  
– Create	
  a	
  subnet	
  with	
  NAT,	
  firewall	
  and	
  LB	
  service	
  
•  Results	
  in	
  instan-a-on	
  of	
  virtual	
  router	
  VM	
  and	
  LB	
  VM	
  
– Remove	
  LB	
  service	
  
•  Results	
  in	
  LB	
  VM	
  gemng	
  garbage	
  collected	
  
– Destroy	
  subnet	
  
•  Results	
  in	
  virtual	
  router	
  gemng	
  destroyed	
  /	
  garbage	
  
collected	
  
	
  
Example:	
  Network	
  Service	
  onboarding	
  
The	
  NFV	
  Promise	
  
•  Scalability	
  
•  Large-­‐scale	
  network	
  automa-on	
  
•  Cost	
  reduc-on	
  
•  Rate	
  of	
  innova-on	
  
•  Disaster	
  recovery	
  
Scaling	
  with	
  CloudStack	
  NFV	
  
•  Scale	
  out	
  models	
  
– Flexible	
  mapping	
  of	
  VNF	
  instances	
  to	
  unit	
  of	
  scaling	
  
•  Per	
  N	
  tenant,	
  per	
  N	
  network,	
  per	
  service	
  instance,	
  per	
  N	
  
applica-on,	
  per	
  POP	
  
•  Scaling	
  model	
  can	
  be	
  tuned	
  on	
  the	
  fly	
  
– Instan-ate	
  on	
  demand,	
  or	
  pool-­‐based	
  
– VNFs	
  are	
  stateless	
  and	
  disposable	
  
•  Scale	
  up	
  model	
  
– Configurable	
  memory,	
  CPU,	
  network	
  and	
  storage	
  
capacity	
  for	
  a	
  VNF.	
  
Scaling:	
  Caveat	
  
•  Effec-ve	
  scaling	
  requires	
  appropriate	
  network	
  
topology	
  
– Designed	
  for	
  predominantly	
  east-­‐west	
  traffic	
  
– Firewall,	
  ACL	
  provided	
  at	
  the	
  VM	
  or	
  hypervisor	
  
level	
  
– ECMP	
  for	
  increased	
  bandwidth	
  /	
  availability	
  
•  VNF	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  stateless	
  	
  
– Recreate	
  a	
  VNF	
  by	
  re-­‐impor-ng	
  config.	
  
– Applica-ons	
  should	
  tolerate	
  VNF	
  scaling	
  ac-ons	
  
•  Scale	
  up	
  limited	
  by	
  hypervisor	
  overhead	
  
NFV	
  Promise:	
  Network	
  Automa-on	
  
•  Everything	
  in	
  CloudStack	
  is	
  	
  
– API-­‐driven	
  
– Self-­‐service	
  
•  No	
  chance	
  of	
  misconfigura-on	
  
•  Configura-on	
  changes	
  are	
  atomic	
  across	
  VNF	
  
Network	
  Automa-on:	
  Caveats	
  
•  VNF	
  are	
  unnecessarily	
  hard	
  to	
  configure	
  
– Usually	
  have	
  no	
  APIs	
  
– Varying	
  models	
  for	
  reconfigura-on:	
  
•  Impera-ve	
  (e.g.,	
  iptables)	
  
•  Configura-on	
  file	
  based	
  (usually	
  not	
  hitless)	
  
•  CLI	
  screen	
  scrape	
  
•  Netconf/YANG	
  etc	
  
– Rollback	
  is	
  hard	
  
•  Out-­‐of-­‐band	
  changes	
  are	
  hard	
  to	
  reconcile	
  
– Network	
  admins	
  s-ll	
  have	
  remote	
  access	
  to	
  VNF!	
  
Cost	
  reduc-on	
  
•  Capex	
  	
  
– Replace	
  proprietary	
  firewalls,	
  routers,	
  NAT,	
  LB,	
  
VPN	
  with	
  (free)	
  Linux	
  appliances	
  
•  Opex	
  
– Instan-ate	
  complex	
  network	
  topologies	
  and	
  VNF	
  
forwarding	
  graphs	
  in	
  seconds	
  
•  Development	
  
– Reuse	
  and	
  improve	
  open	
  source	
  	
  
Cost	
  reduc-on:	
  Caveats	
  
•  None	
  
Rate	
  of	
  innova-on	
  
•  Open	
  source	
  is	
  key	
  
– Knowledge	
  is	
  just	
  a	
  Google	
  search	
  away	
  
•  Closed	
  source	
  VNFs	
  are	
  harder	
  to	
  integrate	
  
2010	
  2009	
   2011	
   2012	
   2013	
   2014	
  
#	
  of	
  core	
  dev	
  
1	
  
4	
  
Rate	
  of	
  Innova-on	
  :	
  Caveats	
  
•  Development	
  model	
  
– Solving	
  problems	
  or	
  marke-ng	
  claims?	
  
•  OSS	
  License	
  minefield	
  
•  Niche	
  needs	
  may	
  not	
  be	
  met	
  in	
  OSS	
  
•  Standardiza-on	
  /	
  Conven-ons	
  for	
  VNF	
  
ini-aliza-on,	
  scaling,	
  metrics,	
  etc	
  are	
  needed	
  
Rate	
  of	
  Innova-on:	
  caveat	
  
•  Avoid	
  NIH	
  	
  
•  Focus	
  on	
  customer	
  value	
  not	
  vendor	
  value	
  
•  Clear	
  vision	
  required	
  
•  Requires	
  fast	
  itera-on	
  and	
  frequent	
  releases	
  
Disaster	
  Recovery	
  
•  Advantage:	
  Very	
  low	
  MTTR	
  
•  Keys:	
  
– Stateless	
  VNF	
  
– Automated	
  VNF	
  configura-on	
  
– Awareness	
  of	
  shared	
  fate	
  (rack	
  /	
  POP)	
  
– Immutable	
  object	
  store	
  with	
  an	
  API	
  (e.g.,	
  S3)	
  
DR:	
  caveats	
  
•  Focus	
  on	
  state	
  
– Where	
  it	
  is	
  stored,	
  backed	
  up	
  and	
  recovered	
  from	
  
– Decouple	
  it	
  from	
  VNF	
  
Futures	
  
•  CloudStack	
  liaison	
  with	
  ETSI	
  NFV	
  MANO	
  WG	
  
•  Iden-fy	
  gaps	
  
•  Proof	
  of	
  concepts	
  (POC)	
  with	
  non-­‐IAAS	
  
workloads	
  

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Network Functions Virtualization and CloudStack

  • 1. Network  Func-on  Virtualiza-on   in  IAAS  Clouds       Chiradeep  Vi;al   @chiradeep   Commi;er,  Apache  CloudStack  Project    
  • 2. Agenda •  Overview of Apache CloudStack •  How and Why of NFV in CloudStack •  Does NFV deliver on its promise?
  • 3. Apache CloudStack is a •  scalable, •  multi-tenant, •  open source, •  purpose-built, •  cloud orchestration platform for •  delivering turnkey Infrastructure-as-a- Service clouds Apache CloudStack
  • 4. •  Several  hundred  produc-on  clouds   •  Largest  clouds  in  10’s  of  thousands  of   hypervisors   •  Sectors:   • Hos-ng   • Enterprise  &  Educa-on   • Service  Providers   • Web  2.0   Commercial  and  Open  Source  Success  
  • 5. Most  Ac-vely  Developed  Apache   Project     Source:  h;p://www.ohloh.net/orgs/apache  retrieved  3/11/2014  
  • 6. Apache  CloudStack  State  Of  Union  –   March  2014   •  Apache  Commi;ers  –  74     •  Total  Apache  Contributors  All-­‐ Time  -­‐    799   •  Individual  Companies  involved   in  ACS  -­‐  ~284  (by  unique   domain  much  lower  than  actual   based  on  Gmail  and  other  non-­‐ company  addresses)     •  Average  Monthly  contributors   >150   •  Lines  of  Code  -­‐      1,521,161   •  Total  commits  –  22,169   •  Years  of  Effort  ( COCOMO  Model)  –  434  years   Stats  through  2/1/2014   Companies  
  • 7. How can you build your cloud? Servers Open Source Xen Hypervisor Amazon Orchestration Software AWS API (EC2, S3, …) Amazon eCommerce Platform Hypervisor CloudStack Orchestration Software Optional Portal CloudStack or AWS API StorageNetwork
  • 8. Networking  Principles  in  Apache   CloudStack   •  Flexibility   –  Allow  various  combina-ons  of  technology  for  L2-­‐L7   network  services   –  Allow  different  providers  (vendors)  for  the  same   network  service  in  a  Cloud  POP   •  Pluggability   –  Plugins  allow  vendors  to  drop  in  vendor-­‐specific   configura-on  and  lifecycle  management  code   •  Service  scalability   –  Scale  out  using  virtual  appliances  when  possible   –  Scale  up  using  hardware  appliances  if  needed  
  • 9. Network Flexibility Network Services •  L2 connectivity •  IPAM •  DNS •  Routing •  ACL •  Firewall •  NAT •  VPN •  LB •  IDS •  IPS
  • 10. Network Flexibility Network Services •  L2 connectivity •  IPAM •  DNS •  Routing •  ACL •  Firewall •  NAT •  VPN •  LB •  IDS •  IPS Service Providers ü  Virtual appliances ü  Hardware firewalls ü  LB appliances ü  SDN controllers ü  IDS /IPS appliances ü  VRF ü  Hypervisor
  • 11. Network Flexibility Network Services •  L2 connectivity •  IPAM •  DNS •  Routing •  ACL •  Firewall •  NAT •  VPN •  LB •  IDS •  IPS Network Isolation •  No isolation •  VLAN isolation •  Overlays •  L3 isolation Service Providers ü  Virtual appliances ü  Hardware firewalls ü  LB appliances ü  SDN controllers ü  IDS /IPS appliances ü  VRF ü  Hypervisor
  • 12. NFV in Apache CloudStack •  Built-in VNFs for IAAS network services –  Out of the box experience – no additional installation –  Lifecycle managed by CloudStack –  Debian 7.0 hardened appliance •  Vendor VNFs also supported –  Pooled model, no explicit instantiation –  License and initial configuration resist automation –  Citrix Netscaler ADC , Cisco ASA1000v firewall, Cisco Nexus 1000v •  Software defined networking –  Built-in GRE/VxLAN controller –  Plugins for NSX, Contrail, OpenDaylight, etc
  • 13. Computing Hardware Storage Hardware Network Hardware Hardware resources Virtualisation Layer Virtualised Infrastructure Manager(s) VNF Manager(s) VNF 2 OrchestratorOSS/BSS NFVI VNF 3VNF 1 Execution reference points Main NFV reference pointsOther reference points Virtual Computing Virtual Storage Virtual Network NFV Management and Orchestration EMS 2 EMS 3EMS 1 Service, VNF and Infrastructure Description Or-Vi Or-Vnfm Vi-Vnfm Os-Ma Se-Ma Ve-Vnfm Nf-Vi Vn-Nf Vl-Ha ETSI  NFV  Func-onal  Blocks  
  • 14. Computing Hardware Storage Hardware Network Hardware Hardware resources Virtualisation Layer Virtualised Infrastructure Manager(s) VNF Manager(s) VNF 2 OrchestratorOSS/BSS NFVI VNF 3VNF 1 Execution reference points Main NFV reference pointsOther reference points Virtual Computing Virtual Storage Virtual Network NFV Management and Orchestration EMS 2 EMS 3EMS 1 Service, VNF and Infrastructure Description Or-Vi Or-Vnfm Vi-Vnfm Os-Ma Se-Ma Ve-Vnfm Nf-Vi Vn-Nf Vl-Ha CloudStack  NFV  func-ons  
  • 15. NFV  func-ons  in  CloudStack   •  Similar  to  ETSI,  but  not  iden-cal   –  VirtualNetworkApplianceManager  =  VNF  Manager   –  NetworkServiceManager    =  NFV  Orchestrator   –  VirtualRouter  =  VNF   •  Purpose-­‐built  for  IAAS  today   – Can  be  generalized   – Need  external  APIs  (currently  internal)    
  • 16. Example:  VNF  Lifecycle  Management   GREKey2724 DB VM 1! Web VM 1! Web VM 3! Web VM 2! GREKey1001 App VM 1! App VM 2! GREKey398 ! Virtual Router! Internet! Customer! Premises! IPSec VPN! Private Gateway!Loadbalancer   (HW  or   Virtual)   Network Services! •  IPAM! •  DNS! •  LB [intra]! •  S-2-S VPN! •  Static Routes! •  ACLs! •  NAT, PF! •  FW [ingress & egress]! LB VM ! Automated  Lifecycle:  Instan-a-on,  HA,  scaling upgrade,  decommission  
  • 17. Example:  VNF  Lifecycle  Management   •  IAAS  API  calls  result  in  VNF  instan-a-on  and   destruc-on   – Create  a  subnet  with  NAT,  firewall  and  LB  service   •  Results  in  instan-a-on  of  virtual  router  VM  and  LB  VM   – Remove  LB  service   •  Results  in  LB  VM  gemng  garbage  collected   – Destroy  subnet   •  Results  in  virtual  router  gemng  destroyed  /  garbage   collected    
  • 18. Example:  Network  Service  onboarding  
  • 19. The  NFV  Promise   •  Scalability   •  Large-­‐scale  network  automa-on   •  Cost  reduc-on   •  Rate  of  innova-on   •  Disaster  recovery  
  • 20. Scaling  with  CloudStack  NFV   •  Scale  out  models   – Flexible  mapping  of  VNF  instances  to  unit  of  scaling   •  Per  N  tenant,  per  N  network,  per  service  instance,  per  N   applica-on,  per  POP   •  Scaling  model  can  be  tuned  on  the  fly   – Instan-ate  on  demand,  or  pool-­‐based   – VNFs  are  stateless  and  disposable   •  Scale  up  model   – Configurable  memory,  CPU,  network  and  storage   capacity  for  a  VNF.  
  • 21. Scaling:  Caveat   •  Effec-ve  scaling  requires  appropriate  network   topology   – Designed  for  predominantly  east-­‐west  traffic   – Firewall,  ACL  provided  at  the  VM  or  hypervisor   level   – ECMP  for  increased  bandwidth  /  availability   •  VNF  need  to  be  stateless     – Recreate  a  VNF  by  re-­‐impor-ng  config.   – Applica-ons  should  tolerate  VNF  scaling  ac-ons   •  Scale  up  limited  by  hypervisor  overhead  
  • 22. NFV  Promise:  Network  Automa-on   •  Everything  in  CloudStack  is     – API-­‐driven   – Self-­‐service   •  No  chance  of  misconfigura-on   •  Configura-on  changes  are  atomic  across  VNF  
  • 23. Network  Automa-on:  Caveats   •  VNF  are  unnecessarily  hard  to  configure   – Usually  have  no  APIs   – Varying  models  for  reconfigura-on:   •  Impera-ve  (e.g.,  iptables)   •  Configura-on  file  based  (usually  not  hitless)   •  CLI  screen  scrape   •  Netconf/YANG  etc   – Rollback  is  hard   •  Out-­‐of-­‐band  changes  are  hard  to  reconcile   – Network  admins  s-ll  have  remote  access  to  VNF!  
  • 24. Cost  reduc-on   •  Capex     – Replace  proprietary  firewalls,  routers,  NAT,  LB,   VPN  with  (free)  Linux  appliances   •  Opex   – Instan-ate  complex  network  topologies  and  VNF   forwarding  graphs  in  seconds   •  Development   – Reuse  and  improve  open  source    
  • 25. Cost  reduc-on:  Caveats   •  None  
  • 26. Rate  of  innova-on   •  Open  source  is  key   – Knowledge  is  just  a  Google  search  away   •  Closed  source  VNFs  are  harder  to  integrate   2010  2009   2011   2012   2013   2014   #  of  core  dev   1   4  
  • 27. Rate  of  Innova-on  :  Caveats   •  Development  model   – Solving  problems  or  marke-ng  claims?   •  OSS  License  minefield   •  Niche  needs  may  not  be  met  in  OSS   •  Standardiza-on  /  Conven-ons  for  VNF   ini-aliza-on,  scaling,  metrics,  etc  are  needed  
  • 28. Rate  of  Innova-on:  caveat   •  Avoid  NIH     •  Focus  on  customer  value  not  vendor  value   •  Clear  vision  required   •  Requires  fast  itera-on  and  frequent  releases  
  • 29. Disaster  Recovery   •  Advantage:  Very  low  MTTR   •  Keys:   – Stateless  VNF   – Automated  VNF  configura-on   – Awareness  of  shared  fate  (rack  /  POP)   – Immutable  object  store  with  an  API  (e.g.,  S3)  
  • 30. DR:  caveats   •  Focus  on  state   – Where  it  is  stored,  backed  up  and  recovered  from   – Decouple  it  from  VNF  
  • 31. Futures   •  CloudStack  liaison  with  ETSI  NFV  MANO  WG   •  Iden-fy  gaps   •  Proof  of  concepts  (POC)  with  non-­‐IAAS   workloads