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Networking in the Cloud Age!
         With references to Apache CloudStack!
                      !
              December 11 2012!
                        !
               Chiradeep Vittal!
                 @chiradeep!
                David Nalley!
                  @ke4qqq!
Agenda!
•    Why virtual networks?!
•    Basic principles of Cloud Networking!
•    Service insertion in virtual networks!
•    Virtual Networking using L3 isolation!
•    Networking in Apache CloudStack!
•    Software Defined Networking!
•    Wrap-up!
Apache CloudStack!


                              •  Secure, multi-tenant cloud
                                 orchestration platform!
                                –  Turnkey platform for delivering
                                   IaaS clouds!
                                –  Over 150 commercial
  Build your cloud the way         deployments: private and public!
the world’s most successful     –  Full featured GUI, end-user API
       clouds are built!
                                   and admin API!
Apache CloudStack!

                              •  Open Source!
                                 •  Apache License!
                                 •  Incubating in the Apache
                                    Software Foundation since
                                    April 2012!
  Build your cloud the way
the world’s most successful      •  Open Source since May
       clouds are built!            2010!
                              •  In production since 2009!
Networking in the Cloud Age!

DRIVERS!
Drivers!
                                                                          New-style!
IAAS!                                                                     Workload!
                      Agility!           Application owns availability!
 Virtualization!
                         API!                        High bandwidth!


  Self-service!
                      Elasticity!
                                    Scale!   Low cost!       Distributed!

                                             L3!         Cookie cutter!
                   Multi-tenancy!




These classes of drivers (IAAS and new-style workloads) are highly
complementary and therefore most new-style applications operate on IAAS!
Traditional Style!
                                                                          Traditional!
IAAS!                                                                      Workload!
                       Agility!
                                                        Infra owns availability!
  Virtualization!
                          API!
                                                           Complex Packet Filters!
                       Elasticity!   Scale!   High cost!
   Self-service!
                                                           Gold-plated!
                    Multi-tenancy!                         Infra!
                                                  L2!




It is possible to realize some of the benefits of IAAS for traditional workloads !
Traditional infra can be IAAS!

          IAAS!                  Agility!
                                             Gold-plated!
               Virtualization!
                                             Infra!
                                 API!
              Infra owns availability!
                              Elasticity!     Scale!        High cost!
             Self-service!

                            Multi-tenancy!             L2!

                                 Complex Packet Filters!


It is possible to realize some of the benefits of IAAS for traditional infrastructure!
Traditional!                         Cloud!
                                                     •  10x more
                                                        scaleable!
                                                     •  2-5x lower
                                                        cost!
                                                     •  100% more
                                                        open!




Built for traditional             Designed around big data,
enterprise apps & client-         massive scale & next-gen
server compute!                   apps!
•  Enterprise arch for 100s of    •  Cloud architecture for 1000s
   hosts!                            of hosts!
•  Scale-up (server clusters) !   •  Scale-out (multi-site server
•  Apps assume reliability!          farms)!
•  IT Mgmt-centric [1:Dozens]!    •  Apps assume failure!
•  Proprietary vendor stack!      •  Autonomic [1:1,000’s]!
                                  •  Open, value-added stack!
Defining Cloud Computing (IAAS)!
•  Agility!
   –  Re-provision complex infrastructure topologies in
      minutes, not days
•  API!
   –  Automate complex infrastructure tasks
•  Virtualization!
   –  Enables workload mobility and load sharing
•  Multi-tenancy!
   –  Share resources and costs
Defining Cloud Computing (IAAS)!

•  Scalability!
   –  Ability to consume resources limited by budget, not
      by infrastructure
•  Elasticity!
   –  Scale up and down on demand
   –  Reduce need to engineer for peak load
•  Self-service!
   –  No IT assistance!
Cloud Networking
              Requirements!
•  Agile!
   –  Complex networking topologies created by non-
      network engineers
•  API!
   –  Language to talk with the network infrastructure
      layer (not CLI)
•  Virtualization!
   –  Hypervisor-level switches work together with physical
      infrastructure
Cloud Networking
              Requirements!
•  Scalability!
   –  Usually means L3 in the physical infrastructure
•  Elasticity!
   –  Release resources when not in use
   –  Introduce new resources on demand
•  Self-service!
   –  Novices deploying, maintaining, troubleshooting
      virtual networks
Cloud-Style Workloads!

•  Low cost!
   –  Standardized, cookie cutter infrastructure
   –  Highly automated and efficient
•  L3!
   –  Applications do not need persistent ip/mac
   –  L2 adjacency not required
•  Application owns availability!
   –  At scale everything breaks
   –  Focus on MTTR instead of MTBF
Scale!
“At scale, everything breaks”!
            -­‐	
  Urs	
  Hölzle,	
  Google!
  " " "!
                                                      Server failure comes from:!
                                                       ᵒ  70% - hard disk!




      8%	
  
                                                       ᵒ  6% - RAID controller!
                                                       ᵒ  5% - memory!
                                                       ᵒ  18% - other factors!
                                                      Application can still fail for
   Annual	
  Failure	
  Rate	
  of	
  servers	
       other reasons:!
                                                       ᵒ  Network failure!
Kashi	
  Venkatesh	
  Vishwanath	
  and	
  
Nachiappan	
  Nagappan,	
  Characterizing	
  
                                                       ᵒ  Software bugs!
Cloud	
  Compu3ng	
  Hardware	
  Reliability,	
        ᵒ  Human admin error!
SoCC’10	
  
Redundancy helps a little!

                                           • Bugs in failover



      40%!
                                             mechanism!
                                           • Incorrect configuration!
                                           • Protocol issues such
                                             as TCP back-off,
                                             timeouts, and
      Effectiveness of network
      redundancy in reducing                 spanning tree
      failures!                              reconfiguration!
      Phillipa Gill, Navendu Jain &
      Nachiappan Nagappan, Understanding
      Network Failures in Data Centers:
      Measurement, Analysis and
      Implications, SIGCOMM 2011 !
16!
Reliability Strategies!

                         Cloud workloads!


    Traditional-Style!                      New (“Amazon”) Style!
  Reliable hardware, backup            Tell users to expect failure.
  entire cloud, and restore for        Users to build apps that can
  users when failure happens!          withstand infrastructure
                                       failure!




Both styles of workloads must run reliably in the cloud!
Reliability Styles!
    Traditional workload!                   Cloud workload!

 Link aggregation!                   VM backup/snapshots !

 Storage multi-pathing!              Ephemeral resources!

 VM HA, fault tolerance!             Chaos monkey!

 VM live migration!                  Multi-site redundancy!

Expect reliability. Back-up entire   Expect failure. Design app for failure.
 cloud. Admin controlled failure         Self-service failure handling!
            handling!                    Think Amazon Web Services!
    Think Server Virtualization!
Traditional Enterprise network!
                   Backbone/
                    Internet!

                                Core Routers!
N-S traffic!

                       …!       Access Routers!
                                Packet Filters!
                                Aggregation Switches!

                                Load Balancers!

              …!                Top of Rack Switches!

                                Servers!
Enterprise networks!
•  Hierarchical tree structure!
   –  Assumes N-S traffic predominant
•  L2 domains!
   –  Susceptible to flooding
   –  Wasted capacity due to STP
•  Services provided by redundant HW appliances!
   –  Firewall, IDS, ACL, Loadbalancer
   –  Often need L2 adjacency!
•  Complex engineering, limited scale!
Scaled out network!
                                         Backbone/
                                          Internet!




                                                      Spine Routers!




                                                      Leaf Routers!


                         …!                           Servers!

Host-based!         Server Load Balancing!
firewalls and ACL!
Scaled out network!
•  L3 (routed) network!
  –  ECMP for increased bandwidth/redundancy
•  No oversubscription!
  –  Uniform access to bandwidth
•  Predominantly east-west traffic!
•  Commodity hardware!
•  Services provided at the host / vm level!
  –  Firewall, IDS, load balancing.
Networking in the Cloud Age!

VIRTUAL NETWORKING
PRINCIPLES!
The illusion of isolated networks on top of
shared physical infrastructure!
Usually requires!
•  Hypervisors!
   –  To share the same host with multiple tenants
•  Virtual (software) switches!
   –  Port-level control to provide isolation
•  Services provided in software / virtual contexts!
   –  Loadbalancer / firewall virtual appliances
   –  Host-based firewalls
Virtual-to-Physical Mapping!
•  Option 1: VLAN!
  –  1 virtual network = 1 VLAN in physical infra

  !
•  Option 2: Tunnels!
  –    VxLAN!
  –    (NV) GRE!
  –    STT!
  –    Others: MAC-in-MAC, NVO3, MPLS!
Virtual-to-Physical Mapping!
•  Option 3: IP address re-write!
  –  1 tenant address mapped to 1 different provider
     address
  –  Hyper-V only (possible with KVM/Xen)
•  Option 4: No mapping !
  –  Tenant address is present on physical network
  –  Tenants isolated from each other and physical
     network using packet filters in hypervisor
  –  L3 isolation is CloudStack’s term for this mode
  –  Also called “Basic Networking”.
Virtual Switches!
•  Linux bridge!
  –  KVM, XenServer, XCP, Oracle VM
•  Open vSwitch (OVS)!
  –  KVM, XenServer, XCP
•  VMware options!
  –  vSphere
  –  Distributed vSwitch (DVS)
  –  Cisco Nexus 1000v
Virtual Switches!
    Hypervisor Host!




         VM A1!        VM A2!    VM B1!      VM C1!



                                                       untagged (usually)!
Virtual Nics!

                vswitch!        vswitch!     vswitch!



         Physical !
         Nics!

                                    192.168.1.0/24!          VLAN TRUNK!
                                                                             VLAN 10!
                                     192.168.1.0/24!
                                                                             VLAN 20!
                                     10.1.1.0/24!                            VLAN 30!
Egress Traffic from VM!

    Ethernet frame from VM A1 to vswitch (untagged)

                                                     Payload (IP Packet)
    06:00:01:AA:BB:CC
 06:02:12:1D:1E
 0x800
                                                       46-1500 octets

         Dest, addr
       Src, addr
   Type

     Ethernet frame from vswitch to physical nic( tagged)

                                                                 Payload (IP Packet)
     06:00:01:AA:BB:CC
 06:02:12:1D:1E
 0x8100
   0xA
 0x800
                                                                   46-1500 octets

         Dest, addr
       Src, addr
   802.1Q
   Tag
   Type




*not all fields shown for clarity!
Ingress Traffic to VM!
 From physical nic to vswitch( tagged)

                                                             Payload (IP Packet)
06:02:12:1D:1E:1F
 06:00:01:AA:BB:CC
0x8100
   0xA
 0x800
                                                               46-1500 octets




 From vswitch to VM A1 (untagged)

                                                 Payload (IP Packet)
06:02:12:1D:1E:1F
 06:00:01:AA:BB:CC
 0x800
                                                   46-1500 octets
VLAN networking!

Trunks!              Trunks!                         Trunks!

                               User	
  
                                A	
  
          User	
  
           A	
  



          User	
  
           A	
  
                                                               User	
  
                               User	
  
                                                                B	
  
                                A	
  
          User	
  
           B	
  
                                          …   	
  
12 bits tag
          =
4094 virtual networks
VLANs – other problems!
•  Configuration complexity!
  –  Need to program switches carefully
•  Large L2 domains!
  –  Broadcast in one VLAN can cause
     unintended load on unrelated hypervisors
•  Live migration limited to a single VLAN!
•  Limited mac table sizes in L2 switches!
  –  100s of vms per hypervisor 
  –  1000s of mac addresses on uplink port
Tunnels!
•  Map VM address (Tenant Address) to Physical
   address (PA) of Hypervisor!
  –  Software IPv4 tunnels between hypervisors
  –  Tunnel endpoints are PA of hypervisor
  –  Discriminator in tunnel header identifies tenant/
     network
     •  GRE key in (NV) GRE tunnels (24-32 bits)
     •  VxLAN Network Identifier (VNI) in VxLAN (24 bits)
     •  Context ID in STT (64 bits)
GRE tunnel example!
                                 GRE	
  Key	
  1	
                GRE	
  Key	
  2	
  


                       OVS	
     User	
  
                                  1	
  
OVS	
      User	
  
            1	
  



           User	
  
            1	
  
                                                       OVS	
        User	
  
OVS	
                            User	
  
                      OVS	
                                          2	
  
                                  1	
  
           User	
  
            2	
  
…   	
                …   	
                           …   	
  
GRE Example!
Hypervisor 1!                                                                                        Hypervisor 2!


          VM	
                   VM	
                                      VM	
                   VM	
  
          A1	
                   B1	
                                      A2	
                   B2	
  
       192.168.10.55!            192.168.20.88!                          192.168.10.5!            192.168.20.8!


                   vswitch	
                                                        vswitch	
  

                             10.10.10.5!                                                      10.20.20.9!




               10.20.20.9!       10.10.10.5!   GRE key=10!   MAC A2!       MAC A1! 192.168.10.5! 192.168.10.55!
A1->A2!
B1->B2!        10.20.20.9!       10.10.10.5!   GRE key=20!   MAC B2!       MAC B1! 192.168.20.8! 192.168.20.88!

                   Physical Address!                         Tenant L2 header!            Tenant L3 header!
                                                 Wire format!
Layer 3 cloud networking!



            Web	
                               DB	
                                Web	
  
            VM	
                                VM	
                                VM	
  
                        Web	
                               DB	
  	
  
                      Security	
                          Security	
  
                       Group	
                             Group	
  
            Web	
                               Web	
                               DB	
  
            VM	
                                VM	
                                VM	
  

 …   	
                              …   	
                              …   	
  




            Web	
                               Web	
  
            VM	
                                VM	
  
L3 isolation with distributed firewalls!
                                                                                     !
                                                                                Tenant   10.1.0.2
Public      Public IP
                                                                                1 VM 1
Internet    address
            65.37.141.11!
            65.37.141.24!                                      10.1.0.1
                                                                                     !
                                              Pod 1                             Tenant   10.1.0.3
            65.37.141.36!
                                                       !
                                               Leaf                             2 VM 1
            65.37.141.80!                     Switch
            !

                                                                                     !
                                                                                Tenant   10.1.0.4
                                                                                1 VM 2

                            L3 Core   !       Pod 2
                                                               10.1.8.1
                                                                           …!
                                                   !
                                               Leaf
                                              Switch




                                                               10.1.16.1
                                          !
                             Load             Pod 3

                                                       !
                            Balancer           Leaf
                                              Switch




                                              …            !
Networking in the Cloud Age!

SERVICES!
Virtual Network Services!
•  Provide L2-L7 network services that
   applications expect:!
  –  Load balancing, firewall, IDS, VPN, NAT, etc.
•  Services are inserted in the virtual network
   topology!
  –  usually in the path to the public network
•  Services are on-demand (api-driven), scalable,
   elastic!
Virtual Network Appliances!
Network services are often provided by virtual appliances.!
These are either commercial appliances in the virtual form factor or
Linux-based networking appliances!


                         Virtual Router!


   Public Network Nic!                      Virtual Network Nic!




                     Control Network Nic!
Service insertion example!
                                                           Tenant 1 Virtual Network 10.1.1.0/24

                 Public    Public IP
                                                                                   !
                                                                            Tenant      10.1.1.2
                 Network   address                  Gateway                 1 VM 1
                           65.37.141.11!            address 10.1.1.1
                           65.37.141.36

                                                                                   !
                                            Tenant 1 !                      Tenant     10.1.1.3
                                             Edge                           1 VM 2
                                            Services
                                                      !
                                           Appliance(s)
                                           NAT!
Internet!
                                                                                   !
                                                                            Tenant     10.1.1.4
                                           DHCP!
                                                                            1 VM 3
                                           FW


                                                                                   !
                                                                            Tenant     10.1.1.5
                                                                            1 VM 4
Service insertion with VLAN !

Trunks!                                Trunks!                                           Trunks!

                                                 Tena
                                                 nt	
  1	
  
          Tena
          nt	
  1	
  



          Tena
          nt	
  1	
  
                                                                                                   Tena
                                                 Tena
                                                                                                   nt	
  2	
  
          Rout                                   nt	
  1	
  
           er	
  
          VM	
  1	
  
                                                                              …   	
  




                                                               Public VLAN!




                                                                                                                 Public VLAN!
                        Public VLAN!




                                                 Rout
                                                  er	
  
                                                 VM	
  2	
  
Network Services!
    Network
    Services!
•  L2
   connectivity!
•  IPAM!
•  DNS!
•  Routing!
•  ACL!
•  Firewall!
•  NAT!
•  VPN!
•  LB!
•  IDS!
•  IPS!
!
Network Services!
    Network           Service
    Services!        Providers!
•  L2              ü  Virtual
   connectivity!       appliances!
•  IPAM!           ü  Hardware
•  DNS!                firewalls!
•  Routing!        ü  LB
•  ACL!                appliances!
•  Firewall!       ü  SDN
•  NAT!                controllers!
•  VPN!            ü  IDS /IPS
•  LB!                 appliances!
•  IDS!            ü  VRF!
•  IPS!            ü  Hypervisor!
!
Network Services!
    Network           Service             Network
    Services!        Providers!           Isolation!
•  L2              ü  Virtual        •  No
   connectivity!       appliances!
•  IPAM!                                 isolation!
                   ü  Hardware
•  DNS!                firewalls!      •  VLAN
•  Routing!        ü  LB                isolation!
•  ACL!                appliances!
•  Firewall!       ü  SDN            •  Overlays!
•  NAT!                controllers!   •  L3
•  VPN!            ü  IDS /IPS          isolation!
•  LB!                 appliances!
•  IDS!            ü  VRF!
•  IPS!            ü  Hypervisor!
!
Service Catalog!
•  Cloud users are not exposed to the nature of
   the service provider!
•  Cloud operator designs a service catalog and
   offers them to end users.!
  –  Gold = {LB + FW, using virtual appliances}
  –  Platinum = {LB + FW + VPN, using hardware
     appliances}
  –  Silver = {FW using virtual appliances, 10Mbps}
End-user experience!
•  Deploy a VM in a network!
  –  VM Template = Windows 2008 with Joomla
     on VMWare!
  –  Service offering {m1.large} = 2 x CPU x
     2.0Ghz, 8 GB RAM!
  –  Disk Offering {Super fast}!
  –  Network Offering {Gold} = Source NAT + LB+
     FW + 20 Mbps Internet access!
End-user experience!
•  Deploy a VM in a network!
  –  VM Template = Windows 2008 with Joomla on VMWare
  –  Service offering {m1.large} = 2 x CPU x 2.0Ghz, 8 GB
     RAM
  –  Disk Offering {Super fast}
  –  Network Offering {Gold} = Source NAT + LB+ FW + 20
     Mbps Internet access
•  Network Offering Gold is realized by!
  –    VLAN isolation
  –    Source NAT & FW on Juniper SRX
  –    LB on F5 BigIp
  –    DHCP, DNS on virtual appliance
End-user experience!
•  CloudStack orchestration:!
  –  Pick a free VLAN, pick a free public IP, free private IP
  –  Pick hypervisor with spare capacity
  –  Pick primary storage of SSD type accessible in hypervisor
     cluster
  –  Pick a Juniper SRX and F5 with spare capacity
  –  Spin up a new virtual appliance if necessary that runs
     DHCP and DNS service
     •  Pick hypervisor, call hypervisor APIs to provision virtual
        appliance on selected VLAN
  –  Call hypervisor APIs to provision VM on selected VLAN
  –  Call SRX and F5 APIs to place their internal interfaces on
     the VLAN, public interfaces on public VLAN
  –  Call SRX API to provision source NAT, default FW rules
Network services with VLANs!
                                Tenant 1 Virtual Network 10.1.1.0/24



                                                        !
                                                 Tenant      10.1.1.2
                         Gateway                 1 VM 1
                         address 10.1.1.1


                                                        !
                                                 Tenant     10.1.1.3
                                                 1 VM 2


Internet!
                                                        !
                                                 Tenant     10.1.1.4
                                                 1 VM 3



                                                        !
                                                 Tenant     10.1.1.5
                                                 1 VM 4
Network virtualization with VLANs!
                                                      Tenant 1 Virtual Network 10.1.1.0/24

            Public    Public IP
                                                                              !
                                                                       Tenant      10.1.1.2
            Network   address                  Gateway                 1 VM 1
                      65.37.141.11!            address 10.1.1.1
                      65.37.141.36

                                                                              !
                                       Tenant 1 !                      Tenant     10.1.1.3
                                        Edge                           1 VM 2
                                       Services
Interne                                          !
                                      Appliance(s)
                                      NAT!
                                                                              !
                                                                       Tenant
   t!                                 DHCP!
                                                                       1 VM 3
                                                                                  10.1.1.4
                                      FW


                                                                              !
                                                                       Tenant     10.1.1.5
                                                                       1 VM 4
Network virtualization with VLANs!
                                                         Tenant 1 Virtual Network 10.1.1.0/24

            Public    Public IP
                                                                                 !
                                                                          Tenant      10.1.1.2
            Network   address                  Gateway                    1 VM 1
                      65.37.141.11!            address 10.1.1.1
                      65.37.141.36

                                                                                 !
                                        Tenant 1 !                        Tenant     10.1.1.3
                                          Edge 1 !
                                           Tenant                         1 VM 2
                                            Edge
                                        Services
                                           Services
                                      Appliance(s)
                                      NAT!
                                                   ! !
                                         Appliance(s)
Internet!
                                                                                 !
                                                                          Tenant     10.1.1.4
                                      DHCP!
                                                                          1 VM 3
                                      FW
                                      Load
                                      Balancing!
                                                                                 !
                                      VPN                                 Tenant     10.1.1.5
                                                                          1 VM 4
Service insertion with VLANs!
                                                               Tenant 1 Virtual Network 10.1.1.0/24

              Public    Public IP
                                                                                        !
                                                                                 Tenant          10.1.1.2
              Network   address                  Gateway                         1 VM 1
                        65.37.141.11!            address 10.1.1.1
                        65.37.141.36

                                                                                        !
                                          Tenant 1 !                             Tenant         10.1.1.3
                                            Edge 1 !
                                             Tenant                              1 VM 2
                                              Edge
                                          Services
                                             Services
                                        Appliance(s)
                                        NAT!
                                                         ! !
Internet!                                  Appliance(s)
                                                                                        !
                                                                                 Tenant         10.1.1.4
                                        DHCP!
                                                                                 1 VM 3
                                        FW
                                        Load
                                        Balancing!
                                                                                        !
                                                                                 Tenant         10.1.1.5
                                                                                 1 VM 4

                                                               Tenant 2 Virtual Network 10.1.1.0/24
                        Public IP
                        address
                        65.37.141.24!
                                                 Gateway
                                                 address
                                                                                 Tenant
                                                                                 2 VM 1     !    10.1.1.2

                        65.37.141.80             10.1.1.1


                                                                                            !
                                         Tenant 2 !                              Tenant          10.1.1.3
                                           Edge                                  2 VM 2

                                                     !
                                         Services
                                         Appliance
                                        VPN!
                                        NAT!
                                        DHCP
                                                                                 Tenant
                                                                                 2 VM 3     !    10.1.1.4
Scaling services with VLANs!

  Scale out edge services using virtual appliances!


                                 10.1.1.0/24!
                                 VLAN 100




                                                       VM 1!
                                           10.1.1.
                                           2
65.37.141.1                10.1.1.1
11!              CS!
65.37.141.1    Virtual                                 VM 2!
12             Router!                     10.1.1.
                                           3
              DHCP, DNS!
              NAT!
              Load                         10.1.1.4    VM 3!
              Balancing!
              VPN

                                                       VM 4!
                                            10.1.1.5
Scaling services with VLANs!

  Scale out edge services using virtual appliances!              Scale up using hardware devices!


                                 10.1.1.0/24!                                                  10.1.1.0/24!
                                 VLAN 100                                                      VLAN 100




                                                       VM 1!   65.37.141.11             10.1.1.1        10.1.1.2   VM 1!
                                           10.1.1.
                                                               1            Juniper
                                           2                                  SRX!
65.37.141.1                10.1.1.1
11!              CS!                                                        Firewall!   NAT,
65.37.141.1    Virtual                                 VM 2!                            VPN!                       VM 2!
                                           10.1.1.                                                      10.1.1.3
12             Router!
                                           3                    65.37.141.11            10.1.1.112
              DHCP, DNS!                                        2          Netscaler!
              NAT!                                                           Load
              Load                         10.1.1.4    VM 3!                                                       VM 3!
                                                                            Balancer!                   10.1.1.4
              Balancing!
              VPN

                                                       VM 4!                                                       VM 4!
                                            10.1.1.5                                                    10.1.1.
                                                                                                        5
                                                                                                      CS!
                                                                                             DHCP, Virtual
                                                                                                   Router!
                                                                                             DNS!
Multi-tier virtual networking!
                            Internet!



                                                      !
      Loadbalancer                           Virtual appliance/!
                                             Hardware Devices!
      (virtual or HW)!



Network Services!
•  IPAM!
•  DNS!                           Web VM
                                    1!
•  LB [intra]!
•  S-2-S VPN!
•  Static Routes!                 Web VM
•  ACLs!                            2!
•  NAT, PF!
•  FW [ingress & egress]!
                                  Web VM
                                    3!


                                  Web VM
                                    4!
                  Web subnet !
                  10.1.1.0/24! VLAN   101
Multi-tier virtual networking!
                             Internet!


                                                          !
          Loadbalancer                           Virtual appliance/!
                                                 Hardware Devices!
          (virtual or HW)!



Network Services!
                                                                       App VM
•  IPAM!
                                                                         1!
•  DNS!                               Web VM
                                        1!
•  LB [intra]!
•  S-2-S VPN!                                                          App VM
•  Static Routes!                     Web VM                             2!            VLAN 2724
•  ACLs!                                2!
•  NAT, PF!
•  FW [ingress & egress]!                                     VLAN 353
                                      Web VM                                                   DB VM
•  BGP!                                 3!                                                       1!


                                      Web VM
                                        4!
                      Web subnet !                  App subnet                  DB Subnet!
                      10.1.1.0/24! VLAN   101
      10.1.2.0/24!                10.1.3.0/24!
Multi-tier virtual networking!
                             Internet!


                                                                         IPSec or SSL site-to-site VPN!
                                                          !                                               Custome
          Loadbalancer                           Virtual appliance/!
                                                                                                             r!
                                                 Hardware Devices!
          (virtual or HW)!                                                                                Premises!

                                                                                         MPLS VLAN!


Network Services!
                                                                       App VM
•  IPAM!
                                                                         1!
•  DNS!                               Web VM
                                        1!
•  LB [intra]!
•  S-2-S VPN!                                                          App VM
•  Static Routes!                     Web VM                             2!               VLAN 2724
•  ACLs!                                2!
•  NAT, PF!
•  FW [ingress & egress]!                                     VLAN 353
                                      Web VM                                                      DB VM
•  BGP!                                 3!                                                          1!


                                      Web VM
                                        4!
                      Web subnet !                  App subnet                     DB Subnet!
                      10.1.1.0/24! VLAN   101
      10.1.2.0/24!                   10.1.3.0/24!
Multi-tier networking with
                   Overlay!
                            Internet!


                                                                   IPSec or SSL site-to-site VPN!
      Loadbalancer                                     !                                            Custome
         (virtual                              Virtual Router!                                         r!
                                                                                                    Premises!
       appliance)!
                                                                                   MPLS VLAN!


Network Services!                                                App VM
•  IPAM!                            Web VM
                                                                   1!
•  DNS!                               1!
•  LB [intra]!
                                                                 App VM
•  S-2-S VPN!                                                      2!
•  Static Routes!                   Web VM                                          GRE Key 2724
                                      2!
•  ACLs!
•  NAT, PF!
•  FW [ingress & egress]!           Web VM                GRE Key 353
                      DB VM
•  BGP!                               3!                                                      1!


                                    Web VM
                                      4!
                 Web subnet !                   App subnet                   DB Subnet!
                 10.1.1.0/24! GRE   Key 101
    10.1.2.0/24!                 10.1.3.0/24!
Multi-tier networking with
            Overlay!
                 Internet!



Loadbalancer                                vswitches!
   (virtual
 appliance)!



                                                      App VM
                                                        1!
                            Web VM
                              1!

                                                      App VM
                            Web VM                      2!            GRE Key 2724
                              2!


                            Web VM             GRE Key 353
                   DB VM
                              3!                                                1!


                            Web VM
                              4!
         Web subnet !                  App subnet              DB Subnet!
         10.1.1.0/24! GRE   Key 101
   10.1.2.0/24!            10.1.3.0/24!
Networking in the Cloud Age!

LAYER 3 ISOLATION!
Layer 3 cloud networking!



          Web                             DB                           Web
          VM!                             VM!                          VM!
                   Web!                           DB !
                 Security                       Security
                  Group!                         Group!
          Web                           Web                             DB
          VM!                           VM!                             VM!

     …!                              …!                            …!

          Web                           Web
          VM!                           VM!



Ingress Rule: Allow VMs in Web Security Group access to VMs in DB Security Group on Port 33
L3 isolation with distributed firewalls!
                                                                                     !
                                                                                Tenant   10.1.0.2
Public      Public IP
                                                                                1 VM 1
Internet    address
            65.37.141.11!
            65.37.141.24!                                      10.1.0.1
                                                                                     !
                                              Pod 1                             Tenant   10.1.0.3
            65.37.141.36!
                                                       !
                                               Leaf                             2 VM 1
            65.37.141.80!                     Switch
            !

                                                                                     !
                                                                                Tenant   10.1.0.4
                                                                                1 VM 2

                            L3 Core   !       Pod 2
                                                               10.1.8.1
                                                                           …!
                                                   !
                                               Leaf
                                              Switch




                                                               10.1.16.1
                                          !
                             Load             Pod 3

                                                       !
                            Balancer           Leaf
                                              Switch




                                              …            !
L3 isolation with distributed firewalls!
                                                                                     !
                                                                                Tenant       10.1.0.2
Public      Public IP
                                                                                1 VM 1
Internet    address
            65.37.141.11!
            65.37.141.24!                                      10.1.0.1
                                                                                     !
                                              Pod 1                             Tenant       10.1.0.3
            65.37.141.36!
                                                       !
                                               Leaf                             2 VM 1
            65.37.141.80!                     Switch
            !

                                                                                     !
                                                                                Tenant       10.1.0.4
                                                                                1 VM 2

                            L3 Core   !       Pod 2
                                                               10.1.8.1
                                                                           …!
                                                   !
                                               Leaf
                                              Switch




                                                               10.1.16.1
                                          !
                             Load             Pod 3

                                                       !
                            Balancer           Leaf
                                              Switch




                                              …            !
                                                                                Tenant
                                                                                1 VM 3   !   10.1.16.47




                                                                                         !
                                                                                Tenant
                                                                                             10.1.16.85
                                                                                1 VM 4
L3 isolation with distributed firewalls!
                                                                                     !
                                                                                Tenant       10.1.0.2
Public      Public IP
                                                                                1 VM 1
Internet    address
            65.37.141.11!
            65.37.141.24!                                      10.1.0.1
                                                                                     !
                                              Pod 1                             Tenant       10.1.0.3
            65.37.141.36!
                                                       !
                                               Leaf                             2 VM 1
            65.37.141.80!                     Switch
            !

                                                                                     !
                                                                                Tenant       10.1.0.4
                                                                                1 VM 2

                            L3 Core   !       Pod 2
                                                               10.1.8.1
                                                                           …!
                                                   !
                                               Leaf
                                              Switch



                                                                                     !
                                                                                Tenant       10.1.16.12
                                                               10.1.16.1        2 VM 2
                                          !
                             Load             Pod 3

                                                       !
                            Balancer           Leaf

                                                                                         !
                                              Switch                            Tenant
                                                                                2 VM 3       10.1.16.21



                                              …            !
                                                                                Tenant
                                                                                1 VM 3   !   10.1.16.47




                                                                                         !
                                                                                Tenant
                                                                                             10.1.16.85
                                                                                1 VM 4
1 Firewall per Virtual Machine
A Million Firewalls?!
VM!       VM!     VM!
…!        …!                  VM!        VM!
                  …!          …!
VM!       VM!                            …!
                  VM!         VM!
VM!                                      VM!
          VM!     VM!         VM!        VM!
VM!       VM!     VM!
…!        …!                  VM!        VM!
                  …!          …!
VM!       VM!                            …!
                  VM!         VM!
VM!                                      VM!
          VM!     VM!         VM!        VM!
VM!       VM!     VM!
…!        …!                  VM!        VM!
                  …!          …!
VM!       VM!                            …!
                  VM!         VM!
VM!                                      VM!
          VM!     VM!         VM!        VM!
VM!       VM!     VM!
…!        …!                  VM!        VM!
                  …!          …!
VM!       VM!                            …!
                  VM!         VM!
VM!                                      VM!
          VM!     VM!         VM!        VM!
VM!       VM!     VM!
…!        …!                  VM!        VM!
                  …!          …!
VM!       VM!                            …!
                  VM!         VM!
VM!                                      VM!
          VM!     VM!         VM!        VM!
VM!
…!
VM!
          VM!
          …!
          VM!
                  VM!
                  …!
                  VM!
                              VM!
                              …!    …!   VM!
                                         …!
                              VM!        VM!
VM!       VM!     VM!         VM!        VM!
VM!       VM!     VM!
…!        …!                  VM!        VM!
                  …!          …!
VM!       VM!                            …!
                  VM!         VM!
VM!                                      VM!
          VM!     VM!         VM!        VM!
VM!       VM!     VM!
…!        …!                  VM!        VM!
                  …!          …!
VM!       VM!                            …!
                  VM!         VM!
VM!                                      VM!
          VM!     VM!         VM!        VM!
Networking in the Cloud Age!

SOFTWARE DEFINED
NETWORKING!
Definition!
•  Separation of Control Plane from the hardware
  performing the forwarding function!
•  Control plane is logically centralized!
SDN Advantages!
•  Centralized control makes it easier to
   configure, troubleshoot and maintain
•  Eliminates ‘box’ mode of configuration
•  Enables control at a high level
Related to SDN!
•  API layer over a collection of ‘boxes’!
   –  API layer communicates with boxes using box-level
      APIs / ssh / telnet
•  OpenFlow!
   –  Standard protocol for the centralized control plane to
      talk to the forwarding elements.
•  Tunnels / overlays!
   –  SDN is valuable for virtual topologies
   –  Initial target of SDN implementation
Centralized control plane!
Admin/User	
  API	
  

                Controller	
  Cluster	
  

                        MySQL/NoSQL	
  



  Openflow/ssh/netconf/other!




                                            Boxes!
SDN problems!
•  Discovery of virtual address -> physical
   address mapping!
  –  VxLAN = multicast
  –  GRE = programmed by control plane
  –  L3 isolation = no mapping, no discovery
SDN problems!
•  State maintenance!
  –  Large number of endpoints + flows
  –  High arrival rate of new flows
  –  Needs fast and scalable storage and
     processing
CloudStack and SDN!
                                                                                                                Hypervisor	
  
                                                                                                                  Hypervisor	
  
                                                                                                                 Resource	
  
                                                                                                          5
                                                                       4
                                          Resource	
  
                                                                                 Hyperviso
                                                                                  Hyperviso
                                                                                 r	
  Plugins	
  
                                                                                  r	
  Plugins	
  
                                                          Plugin	
  
                                                          Framew             6
                                                          ork	
                                                  Network	
  
       API	
                                                                                              7
         SDN	
  
                                                                                                                 Resource	
  
                                                                                 Network	
  
        	
   API	
                                                                Network	
                       controller	
  
                                  OrchestraSon	
  Engine	
                       Plugins	
  
1
            	
   API	
                                                          Plugins	
  
                    	
       2
                                             8


                                                                                 Allocator	
         9
                                                                   3
             Storage	
  
                                                                                 Plugins	
  
                                                                                  Plugins	
                       Storage	
  
                                                                                                                    Storage	
  
                                                                                                                 Resource	
  
                                                                                                                   Resource	
  
                                                                                  Allocator	
  
                                                                                   Allocator	
  
                                                                                  Plugins	
  
                                                                                   Plugins	
  
                                                                                                               Physical Resources !



     Network plugin is the glue that understands the SDN controller’s API!
Virtual Networking "!

NETWORKING IN APACHE
CLOUDSTACK!
Regions and Zones!
•  A cluster of CloudStack management servers
   manage the physical resources of a region
   –  Single API endpoint per region
•  Each region consists of zones
•  Zones are physically proximate, but provide
   distinct failure domains (e.g., flood, earthquake,
   power)
•  Zones are interconnected with high speed low
   latency links
Region “West”
             Region “East”

                     Geographic 
                     separation




                       Internet
Low Latency 





                  Region “South”
Region “West”
                        Zone “West-Beta”
   Zone “West-Alpha”

                                   High Speed Backbone
                                   (e.g., SONET ring)


         Zone “West-Delta”


                            Zone “West-Gamma”
Inside a zone!
   Admin/User	
  API	
                                                       End	
  users	
  

                        CloudStack	
  Cluster	
  
                                                                        DC	
  Edge	
  
                                MySQL	
  
                                                                        L2/L3	
  core	
  


       Leaf	
  Sw	
  

Hypervisor	
  (Xen	
  
/VMWare/KVM)	
  
                                                                                                          Secondary	
  Storage	
  




Primary	
  Storage	
  
NFS/ISCSI/FC	
  

                          Pod	
        Pod	
        Pod	
     Pod	
                             Pod	
  
Orchestration!
•  Orchestration describes the automated
   arrangement, coordination, and management of
   complex computer systems, middleware and
   services
    –  Wikipedia!
CloudStack Architecture!

                                               Hypervisor	
  
                                                Hypervisor	
  
                                               Plugins	
  
                                                Plugins	
  
                               Plugin	
  
                               Framework	
  

                                               Network	
  Plugins	
  
  OrchestraSon	
  Engine	
                      Network	
  Plugins	
  



                                               Allocator	
  
                                                Allocator	
  
                                               Plugins	
  
                                                Plugins	
  



                                               Storage	
  Plugins	
  
CloudStack Architecture!
                                                                 •   XenServer	
  
                                                                 • VMWare	
  

                                                                 • KVM	
  

                                                                 • OracleVM	
  


                                               Hypervisor	
      	
  
                                                Hypervisor	
  
                                               Plugins	
  
                                                Plugins	
  
                               Plugin	
  
                               Framework	
                            Nicira	
  
                                                                      • 

                                                                 • Netscaler	
  

                                                                 • Brocade	
  
                                               Network	
  Plugins	
  
  OrchestraSon	
  Engine	
                      Network	
  Plugins	
   idoNet	
  
                                                                 • M

                                                                 	
  

                                               Allocator	
  
                                                                      •   Random	
  
                                                Allocator	
           • User-­‐
                                               Plugins	
  
                                                Plugins	
  
                                                                      concentrated	
  
                                                                      • Intel	
  TXT	
  

                                                                      • Affinity	
  

                                                                      	
  
CloudStack Architecture!
                                                                                                                Hypervisor	
  
                                                                                                                  Hypervisor	
  
                                                                                                                 Resource	
  
                                                                                                          5
                                                                       4
                                          Resource	
  
                                                                                 Hyperviso
                                                                                  Hyperviso
                                                                                 r	
  Plugins	
  
                                                                                  r	
  Plugins	
  
                                                          Plugin	
  
                                                          Framew             6
                                                          ork	
                                                  Network	
  
       API	
                                                                                              7
       Network	
  
                                                                                                                 Resource	
  
                                                                                 Network	
  
        	
   API	
                                                                Network	
                        Resource	
  
                                  OrchestraSon	
  Engine	
                       Plugins	
  
1
            	
   API	
                                                          Plugins	
  
                    	
       2
                                             8


                                                                                 Allocator	
         9
                                                                   3
             Storage	
  
                                                                                 Plugins	
  
                                                                                  Plugins	
                       Storage	
  
                                                                                                                    Storage	
  
                                                                                                                 Resource	
  
                                                                                                                   Resource	
  
                                                                                  Allocator	
  
                                                                                   Allocator	
  
                                                                                  Plugins	
  
                                                                                   Plugins	
  
                                                                                                               Physical Resources !



     Orchestration steps can be executed in parallel or in sequence!
Problem:
Manage Configuration of!
  1000s of virtual appliances (or VRF)
  Dozens of HW appliances
Solution:
Database-driven state management of
appliances!
   Message queues + Retry Logic
   Idempotent updates,
   Recreatable virtual appliances
Problem:
Manage Configuration of!
  1000s of virtual appliances (or VRF)
  Dozens of HW appliances
Solution:
Database-driven state management of
appliances!
   Message queues + Retry Logic!
   Idempotent updates,!
   Recreatable virtual appliances!
   !
Problem:!
Single-tenant HW appliances!
Solution:!
CloudStack API layers multi-tenancy, provides
abstraction!
   No direct access to devices!
Problem:
Hardware appliances with no APIs
   CLI only
   Limited concurrent login sessions
Solution:
  
Recommend appliances with APIs
  
Integrate with Network Orchestrators
   !
Problem:
Manage the configuration of 100s of thousands of firewalls



Solution:
Well-known software scaling techniques
•  Message queues
•  Consistency tradeoffs
•  Idempotent configuration & retries
CloudStack uses 
•  special purpose queues
•  optimized for large security groups
•  eventual consistency for rule updates
Problem:
Firewall (iptables) rules explosion on the host firewall!
    Allow Security Group {Web} on TCP port 3060 !
    !

-A FORWARD -m tcp –p tcp –dport 3060 –src 10.1.16.31 – j ACCEPT
-A FORWARD -m tcp –p tcp –dport 3060 –src 10.1.45.112 – j ACCEPT
-A FORWARD -m tcp –p tcp –dport 3060 –src 10.1.189.5 – j ACCEPT
                      …!
-A FORWARD -m tcp –p tcp –dport 3060 –src 10.21.9.77 – j ACCEPT




 For large security groups, performance suffers
Problem:
 Firewall (iptables) rules explosion on the host firewall
     !

 Solution:!
 Use ipsets: !

ipset   –N   web_sg iptreemap
ipset   –A   web_sg 10.1.16.31
ipset   –A   web_sg 10.1.16.112
ipset   –A
                 …!
             web_sg 10.1.189.5

ipset –A web_sg 10.21.9.77

-A FORWARD –p tcp –m tcp –dport 3060 –m   set –match-set web_sg src   -j ACCEPT
Apache CloudStack!
•  Apache CloudStack!
  –  http://www.cloudstack.org/!
  –  Download it!
  –  Use it!
  –  Contribute to it!
•  Citrix CloudPlatform!
  –  Based on Apache CloudStack!
  –  Commercial support!

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Networking in the Cloud Age (LISA 2012 Tutorial)

  • 1. Networking in the Cloud Age! With references to Apache CloudStack! ! December 11 2012! ! Chiradeep Vittal! @chiradeep! David Nalley! @ke4qqq!
  • 2. Agenda! •  Why virtual networks?! •  Basic principles of Cloud Networking! •  Service insertion in virtual networks! •  Virtual Networking using L3 isolation! •  Networking in Apache CloudStack! •  Software Defined Networking! •  Wrap-up!
  • 3. Apache CloudStack! •  Secure, multi-tenant cloud orchestration platform! –  Turnkey platform for delivering IaaS clouds! –  Over 150 commercial Build your cloud the way deployments: private and public! the world’s most successful –  Full featured GUI, end-user API clouds are built! and admin API!
  • 4. Apache CloudStack! •  Open Source! •  Apache License! •  Incubating in the Apache Software Foundation since April 2012! Build your cloud the way the world’s most successful •  Open Source since May clouds are built! 2010! •  In production since 2009!
  • 5. Networking in the Cloud Age! DRIVERS!
  • 6. Drivers! New-style! IAAS! Workload! Agility! Application owns availability! Virtualization! API! High bandwidth! Self-service! Elasticity! Scale! Low cost! Distributed! L3! Cookie cutter! Multi-tenancy! These classes of drivers (IAAS and new-style workloads) are highly complementary and therefore most new-style applications operate on IAAS!
  • 7. Traditional Style! Traditional! IAAS! Workload! Agility! Infra owns availability! Virtualization! API! Complex Packet Filters! Elasticity! Scale! High cost! Self-service! Gold-plated! Multi-tenancy! Infra! L2! It is possible to realize some of the benefits of IAAS for traditional workloads !
  • 8. Traditional infra can be IAAS! IAAS! Agility! Gold-plated! Virtualization! Infra! API! Infra owns availability! Elasticity! Scale! High cost! Self-service! Multi-tenancy! L2! Complex Packet Filters! It is possible to realize some of the benefits of IAAS for traditional infrastructure!
  • 9. Traditional! Cloud! •  10x more scaleable! •  2-5x lower cost! •  100% more open! Built for traditional Designed around big data, enterprise apps & client- massive scale & next-gen server compute! apps! •  Enterprise arch for 100s of •  Cloud architecture for 1000s hosts! of hosts! •  Scale-up (server clusters) ! •  Scale-out (multi-site server •  Apps assume reliability! farms)! •  IT Mgmt-centric [1:Dozens]! •  Apps assume failure! •  Proprietary vendor stack! •  Autonomic [1:1,000’s]! •  Open, value-added stack!
  • 10. Defining Cloud Computing (IAAS)! •  Agility! –  Re-provision complex infrastructure topologies in minutes, not days •  API! –  Automate complex infrastructure tasks •  Virtualization! –  Enables workload mobility and load sharing •  Multi-tenancy! –  Share resources and costs
  • 11. Defining Cloud Computing (IAAS)! •  Scalability! –  Ability to consume resources limited by budget, not by infrastructure •  Elasticity! –  Scale up and down on demand –  Reduce need to engineer for peak load •  Self-service! –  No IT assistance!
  • 12. Cloud Networking Requirements! •  Agile! –  Complex networking topologies created by non- network engineers •  API! –  Language to talk with the network infrastructure layer (not CLI) •  Virtualization! –  Hypervisor-level switches work together with physical infrastructure
  • 13. Cloud Networking Requirements! •  Scalability! –  Usually means L3 in the physical infrastructure •  Elasticity! –  Release resources when not in use –  Introduce new resources on demand •  Self-service! –  Novices deploying, maintaining, troubleshooting virtual networks
  • 14. Cloud-Style Workloads! •  Low cost! –  Standardized, cookie cutter infrastructure –  Highly automated and efficient •  L3! –  Applications do not need persistent ip/mac –  L2 adjacency not required •  Application owns availability! –  At scale everything breaks –  Focus on MTTR instead of MTBF
  • 15. Scale! “At scale, everything breaks”! -­‐  Urs  Hölzle,  Google! " " "! Server failure comes from:! ᵒ  70% - hard disk! 8%   ᵒ  6% - RAID controller! ᵒ  5% - memory! ᵒ  18% - other factors! Application can still fail for Annual  Failure  Rate  of  servers   other reasons:! ᵒ  Network failure! Kashi  Venkatesh  Vishwanath  and   Nachiappan  Nagappan,  Characterizing   ᵒ  Software bugs! Cloud  Compu3ng  Hardware  Reliability,   ᵒ  Human admin error! SoCC’10  
  • 16. Redundancy helps a little! • Bugs in failover 40%! mechanism! • Incorrect configuration! • Protocol issues such as TCP back-off, timeouts, and Effectiveness of network redundancy in reducing spanning tree failures! reconfiguration! Phillipa Gill, Navendu Jain & Nachiappan Nagappan, Understanding Network Failures in Data Centers: Measurement, Analysis and Implications, SIGCOMM 2011 ! 16!
  • 17. Reliability Strategies! Cloud workloads! Traditional-Style! New (“Amazon”) Style! Reliable hardware, backup Tell users to expect failure. entire cloud, and restore for Users to build apps that can users when failure happens! withstand infrastructure failure! Both styles of workloads must run reliably in the cloud!
  • 18. Reliability Styles! Traditional workload! Cloud workload! Link aggregation! VM backup/snapshots ! Storage multi-pathing! Ephemeral resources! VM HA, fault tolerance! Chaos monkey! VM live migration! Multi-site redundancy! Expect reliability. Back-up entire Expect failure. Design app for failure. cloud. Admin controlled failure Self-service failure handling! handling! Think Amazon Web Services! Think Server Virtualization!
  • 19. Traditional Enterprise network! Backbone/ Internet! Core Routers! N-S traffic! …! Access Routers! Packet Filters! Aggregation Switches! Load Balancers! …! Top of Rack Switches! Servers!
  • 20. Enterprise networks! •  Hierarchical tree structure! –  Assumes N-S traffic predominant •  L2 domains! –  Susceptible to flooding –  Wasted capacity due to STP •  Services provided by redundant HW appliances! –  Firewall, IDS, ACL, Loadbalancer –  Often need L2 adjacency! •  Complex engineering, limited scale!
  • 21. Scaled out network! Backbone/ Internet! Spine Routers! Leaf Routers! …! Servers! Host-based! Server Load Balancing! firewalls and ACL!
  • 22. Scaled out network! •  L3 (routed) network! –  ECMP for increased bandwidth/redundancy •  No oversubscription! –  Uniform access to bandwidth •  Predominantly east-west traffic! •  Commodity hardware! •  Services provided at the host / vm level! –  Firewall, IDS, load balancing.
  • 23. Networking in the Cloud Age! VIRTUAL NETWORKING PRINCIPLES!
  • 24. The illusion of isolated networks on top of shared physical infrastructure!
  • 25. Usually requires! •  Hypervisors! –  To share the same host with multiple tenants •  Virtual (software) switches! –  Port-level control to provide isolation •  Services provided in software / virtual contexts! –  Loadbalancer / firewall virtual appliances –  Host-based firewalls
  • 26. Virtual-to-Physical Mapping! •  Option 1: VLAN! –  1 virtual network = 1 VLAN in physical infra ! •  Option 2: Tunnels! –  VxLAN! –  (NV) GRE! –  STT! –  Others: MAC-in-MAC, NVO3, MPLS!
  • 27. Virtual-to-Physical Mapping! •  Option 3: IP address re-write! –  1 tenant address mapped to 1 different provider address –  Hyper-V only (possible with KVM/Xen) •  Option 4: No mapping ! –  Tenant address is present on physical network –  Tenants isolated from each other and physical network using packet filters in hypervisor –  L3 isolation is CloudStack’s term for this mode –  Also called “Basic Networking”.
  • 28. Virtual Switches! •  Linux bridge! –  KVM, XenServer, XCP, Oracle VM •  Open vSwitch (OVS)! –  KVM, XenServer, XCP •  VMware options! –  vSphere –  Distributed vSwitch (DVS) –  Cisco Nexus 1000v
  • 29. Virtual Switches! Hypervisor Host! VM A1! VM A2! VM B1! VM C1! untagged (usually)! Virtual Nics! vswitch! vswitch! vswitch! Physical ! Nics! 192.168.1.0/24! VLAN TRUNK! VLAN 10! 192.168.1.0/24! VLAN 20! 10.1.1.0/24! VLAN 30!
  • 30. Egress Traffic from VM! Ethernet frame from VM A1 to vswitch (untagged) Payload (IP Packet) 06:00:01:AA:BB:CC 06:02:12:1D:1E 0x800 46-1500 octets Dest, addr Src, addr Type Ethernet frame from vswitch to physical nic( tagged) Payload (IP Packet) 06:00:01:AA:BB:CC 06:02:12:1D:1E 0x8100 0xA 0x800 46-1500 octets Dest, addr Src, addr 802.1Q Tag Type *not all fields shown for clarity!
  • 31. Ingress Traffic to VM! From physical nic to vswitch( tagged) Payload (IP Packet) 06:02:12:1D:1E:1F 06:00:01:AA:BB:CC 0x8100 0xA 0x800 46-1500 octets From vswitch to VM A1 (untagged) Payload (IP Packet) 06:02:12:1D:1E:1F 06:00:01:AA:BB:CC 0x800 46-1500 octets
  • 32. VLAN networking! Trunks! Trunks! Trunks! User   A   User   A   User   A   User   User   B   A   User   B   …  
  • 33. 12 bits tag = 4094 virtual networks
  • 34. VLANs – other problems! •  Configuration complexity! –  Need to program switches carefully •  Large L2 domains! –  Broadcast in one VLAN can cause unintended load on unrelated hypervisors •  Live migration limited to a single VLAN! •  Limited mac table sizes in L2 switches! –  100s of vms per hypervisor –  1000s of mac addresses on uplink port
  • 35. Tunnels! •  Map VM address (Tenant Address) to Physical address (PA) of Hypervisor! –  Software IPv4 tunnels between hypervisors –  Tunnel endpoints are PA of hypervisor –  Discriminator in tunnel header identifies tenant/ network •  GRE key in (NV) GRE tunnels (24-32 bits) •  VxLAN Network Identifier (VNI) in VxLAN (24 bits) •  Context ID in STT (64 bits)
  • 36. GRE tunnel example! GRE  Key  1   GRE  Key  2   OVS   User   1   OVS   User   1   User   1   OVS   User   OVS   User   OVS   2   1   User   2   …   …   …  
  • 37. GRE Example! Hypervisor 1! Hypervisor 2! VM   VM   VM   VM   A1   B1   A2   B2   192.168.10.55! 192.168.20.88! 192.168.10.5! 192.168.20.8! vswitch   vswitch   10.10.10.5! 10.20.20.9! 10.20.20.9! 10.10.10.5! GRE key=10! MAC A2! MAC A1! 192.168.10.5! 192.168.10.55! A1->A2! B1->B2! 10.20.20.9! 10.10.10.5! GRE key=20! MAC B2! MAC B1! 192.168.20.8! 192.168.20.88! Physical Address! Tenant L2 header! Tenant L3 header! Wire format!
  • 38. Layer 3 cloud networking! Web   DB   Web   VM   VM   VM   Web   DB     Security   Security   Group   Group   Web   Web   DB   VM   VM   VM   …   …   …   Web   Web   VM   VM  
  • 39. L3 isolation with distributed firewalls! ! Tenant 10.1.0.2 Public Public IP 1 VM 1 Internet address 65.37.141.11! 65.37.141.24! 10.1.0.1 ! Pod 1 Tenant 10.1.0.3 65.37.141.36! ! Leaf 2 VM 1 65.37.141.80! Switch ! ! Tenant 10.1.0.4 1 VM 2 L3 Core ! Pod 2 10.1.8.1 …! ! Leaf Switch 10.1.16.1 ! Load Pod 3 ! Balancer Leaf Switch … !
  • 40. Networking in the Cloud Age! SERVICES!
  • 41. Virtual Network Services! •  Provide L2-L7 network services that applications expect:! –  Load balancing, firewall, IDS, VPN, NAT, etc. •  Services are inserted in the virtual network topology! –  usually in the path to the public network •  Services are on-demand (api-driven), scalable, elastic!
  • 42. Virtual Network Appliances! Network services are often provided by virtual appliances.! These are either commercial appliances in the virtual form factor or Linux-based networking appliances! Virtual Router! Public Network Nic! Virtual Network Nic! Control Network Nic!
  • 43. Service insertion example! Tenant 1 Virtual Network 10.1.1.0/24 Public Public IP ! Tenant 10.1.1.2 Network address Gateway 1 VM 1 65.37.141.11! address 10.1.1.1 65.37.141.36 ! Tenant 1 ! Tenant 10.1.1.3 Edge 1 VM 2 Services ! Appliance(s) NAT! Internet! ! Tenant 10.1.1.4 DHCP! 1 VM 3 FW ! Tenant 10.1.1.5 1 VM 4
  • 44. Service insertion with VLAN ! Trunks! Trunks! Trunks! Tena nt  1   Tena nt  1   Tena nt  1   Tena Tena nt  2   Rout nt  1   er   VM  1   …   Public VLAN! Public VLAN! Public VLAN! Rout er   VM  2  
  • 45. Network Services! Network Services! •  L2 connectivity! •  IPAM! •  DNS! •  Routing! •  ACL! •  Firewall! •  NAT! •  VPN! •  LB! •  IDS! •  IPS! !
  • 46. Network Services! Network Service Services! Providers! •  L2 ü  Virtual connectivity! appliances! •  IPAM! ü  Hardware •  DNS! firewalls! •  Routing! ü  LB •  ACL! appliances! •  Firewall! ü  SDN •  NAT! controllers! •  VPN! ü  IDS /IPS •  LB! appliances! •  IDS! ü  VRF! •  IPS! ü  Hypervisor! !
  • 47. Network Services! Network Service Network Services! Providers! Isolation! •  L2 ü  Virtual •  No connectivity! appliances! •  IPAM! isolation! ü  Hardware •  DNS! firewalls! •  VLAN •  Routing! ü  LB isolation! •  ACL! appliances! •  Firewall! ü  SDN •  Overlays! •  NAT! controllers! •  L3 •  VPN! ü  IDS /IPS isolation! •  LB! appliances! •  IDS! ü  VRF! •  IPS! ü  Hypervisor! !
  • 48. Service Catalog! •  Cloud users are not exposed to the nature of the service provider! •  Cloud operator designs a service catalog and offers them to end users.! –  Gold = {LB + FW, using virtual appliances} –  Platinum = {LB + FW + VPN, using hardware appliances} –  Silver = {FW using virtual appliances, 10Mbps}
  • 49. End-user experience! •  Deploy a VM in a network! –  VM Template = Windows 2008 with Joomla on VMWare! –  Service offering {m1.large} = 2 x CPU x 2.0Ghz, 8 GB RAM! –  Disk Offering {Super fast}! –  Network Offering {Gold} = Source NAT + LB+ FW + 20 Mbps Internet access!
  • 50. End-user experience! •  Deploy a VM in a network! –  VM Template = Windows 2008 with Joomla on VMWare –  Service offering {m1.large} = 2 x CPU x 2.0Ghz, 8 GB RAM –  Disk Offering {Super fast} –  Network Offering {Gold} = Source NAT + LB+ FW + 20 Mbps Internet access •  Network Offering Gold is realized by! –  VLAN isolation –  Source NAT & FW on Juniper SRX –  LB on F5 BigIp –  DHCP, DNS on virtual appliance
  • 51. End-user experience! •  CloudStack orchestration:! –  Pick a free VLAN, pick a free public IP, free private IP –  Pick hypervisor with spare capacity –  Pick primary storage of SSD type accessible in hypervisor cluster –  Pick a Juniper SRX and F5 with spare capacity –  Spin up a new virtual appliance if necessary that runs DHCP and DNS service •  Pick hypervisor, call hypervisor APIs to provision virtual appliance on selected VLAN –  Call hypervisor APIs to provision VM on selected VLAN –  Call SRX and F5 APIs to place their internal interfaces on the VLAN, public interfaces on public VLAN –  Call SRX API to provision source NAT, default FW rules
  • 52. Network services with VLANs! Tenant 1 Virtual Network 10.1.1.0/24 ! Tenant 10.1.1.2 Gateway 1 VM 1 address 10.1.1.1 ! Tenant 10.1.1.3 1 VM 2 Internet! ! Tenant 10.1.1.4 1 VM 3 ! Tenant 10.1.1.5 1 VM 4
  • 53. Network virtualization with VLANs! Tenant 1 Virtual Network 10.1.1.0/24 Public Public IP ! Tenant 10.1.1.2 Network address Gateway 1 VM 1 65.37.141.11! address 10.1.1.1 65.37.141.36 ! Tenant 1 ! Tenant 10.1.1.3 Edge 1 VM 2 Services Interne ! Appliance(s) NAT! ! Tenant t! DHCP! 1 VM 3 10.1.1.4 FW ! Tenant 10.1.1.5 1 VM 4
  • 54. Network virtualization with VLANs! Tenant 1 Virtual Network 10.1.1.0/24 Public Public IP ! Tenant 10.1.1.2 Network address Gateway 1 VM 1 65.37.141.11! address 10.1.1.1 65.37.141.36 ! Tenant 1 ! Tenant 10.1.1.3 Edge 1 ! Tenant 1 VM 2 Edge Services Services Appliance(s) NAT! ! ! Appliance(s) Internet! ! Tenant 10.1.1.4 DHCP! 1 VM 3 FW Load Balancing! ! VPN Tenant 10.1.1.5 1 VM 4
  • 55. Service insertion with VLANs! Tenant 1 Virtual Network 10.1.1.0/24 Public Public IP ! Tenant 10.1.1.2 Network address Gateway 1 VM 1 65.37.141.11! address 10.1.1.1 65.37.141.36 ! Tenant 1 ! Tenant 10.1.1.3 Edge 1 ! Tenant 1 VM 2 Edge Services Services Appliance(s) NAT! ! ! Internet! Appliance(s) ! Tenant 10.1.1.4 DHCP! 1 VM 3 FW Load Balancing! ! Tenant 10.1.1.5 1 VM 4 Tenant 2 Virtual Network 10.1.1.0/24 Public IP address 65.37.141.24! Gateway address Tenant 2 VM 1 ! 10.1.1.2 65.37.141.80 10.1.1.1 ! Tenant 2 ! Tenant 10.1.1.3 Edge 2 VM 2 ! Services Appliance VPN! NAT! DHCP Tenant 2 VM 3 ! 10.1.1.4
  • 56. Scaling services with VLANs! Scale out edge services using virtual appliances! 10.1.1.0/24! VLAN 100 VM 1! 10.1.1. 2 65.37.141.1 10.1.1.1 11! CS! 65.37.141.1 Virtual VM 2! 12 Router! 10.1.1. 3 DHCP, DNS! NAT! Load 10.1.1.4 VM 3! Balancing! VPN VM 4! 10.1.1.5
  • 57. Scaling services with VLANs! Scale out edge services using virtual appliances! Scale up using hardware devices! 10.1.1.0/24! 10.1.1.0/24! VLAN 100 VLAN 100 VM 1! 65.37.141.11 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 VM 1! 10.1.1. 1 Juniper 2 SRX! 65.37.141.1 10.1.1.1 11! CS! Firewall! NAT, 65.37.141.1 Virtual VM 2! VPN! VM 2! 10.1.1. 10.1.1.3 12 Router! 3 65.37.141.11 10.1.1.112 DHCP, DNS! 2 Netscaler! NAT! Load Load 10.1.1.4 VM 3! VM 3! Balancer! 10.1.1.4 Balancing! VPN VM 4! VM 4! 10.1.1.5 10.1.1. 5 CS! DHCP, Virtual Router! DNS!
  • 58. Multi-tier virtual networking! Internet! ! Loadbalancer Virtual appliance/! Hardware Devices! (virtual or HW)! Network Services! •  IPAM! •  DNS! Web VM 1! •  LB [intra]! •  S-2-S VPN! •  Static Routes! Web VM •  ACLs! 2! •  NAT, PF! •  FW [ingress & egress]! Web VM 3! Web VM 4! Web subnet ! 10.1.1.0/24! VLAN 101
  • 59. Multi-tier virtual networking! Internet! ! Loadbalancer Virtual appliance/! Hardware Devices! (virtual or HW)! Network Services! App VM •  IPAM! 1! •  DNS! Web VM 1! •  LB [intra]! •  S-2-S VPN! App VM •  Static Routes! Web VM 2! VLAN 2724 •  ACLs! 2! •  NAT, PF! •  FW [ingress & egress]! VLAN 353 Web VM DB VM •  BGP! 3! 1! Web VM 4! Web subnet ! App subnet DB Subnet! 10.1.1.0/24! VLAN 101 10.1.2.0/24! 10.1.3.0/24!
  • 60. Multi-tier virtual networking! Internet! IPSec or SSL site-to-site VPN! ! Custome Loadbalancer Virtual appliance/! r! Hardware Devices! (virtual or HW)! Premises! MPLS VLAN! Network Services! App VM •  IPAM! 1! •  DNS! Web VM 1! •  LB [intra]! •  S-2-S VPN! App VM •  Static Routes! Web VM 2! VLAN 2724 •  ACLs! 2! •  NAT, PF! •  FW [ingress & egress]! VLAN 353 Web VM DB VM •  BGP! 3! 1! Web VM 4! Web subnet ! App subnet DB Subnet! 10.1.1.0/24! VLAN 101 10.1.2.0/24! 10.1.3.0/24!
  • 61. Multi-tier networking with Overlay! Internet! IPSec or SSL site-to-site VPN! Loadbalancer ! Custome (virtual Virtual Router! r! Premises! appliance)! MPLS VLAN! Network Services! App VM •  IPAM! Web VM 1! •  DNS! 1! •  LB [intra]! App VM •  S-2-S VPN! 2! •  Static Routes! Web VM GRE Key 2724 2! •  ACLs! •  NAT, PF! •  FW [ingress & egress]! Web VM GRE Key 353 DB VM •  BGP! 3! 1! Web VM 4! Web subnet ! App subnet DB Subnet! 10.1.1.0/24! GRE Key 101 10.1.2.0/24! 10.1.3.0/24!
  • 62. Multi-tier networking with Overlay! Internet! Loadbalancer vswitches! (virtual appliance)! App VM 1! Web VM 1! App VM Web VM 2! GRE Key 2724 2! Web VM GRE Key 353 DB VM 3! 1! Web VM 4! Web subnet ! App subnet DB Subnet! 10.1.1.0/24! GRE Key 101 10.1.2.0/24! 10.1.3.0/24!
  • 63. Networking in the Cloud Age! LAYER 3 ISOLATION!
  • 64. Layer 3 cloud networking! Web DB Web VM! VM! VM! Web! DB ! Security Security Group! Group! Web Web DB VM! VM! VM! …! …! …! Web Web VM! VM! Ingress Rule: Allow VMs in Web Security Group access to VMs in DB Security Group on Port 33
  • 65. L3 isolation with distributed firewalls! ! Tenant 10.1.0.2 Public Public IP 1 VM 1 Internet address 65.37.141.11! 65.37.141.24! 10.1.0.1 ! Pod 1 Tenant 10.1.0.3 65.37.141.36! ! Leaf 2 VM 1 65.37.141.80! Switch ! ! Tenant 10.1.0.4 1 VM 2 L3 Core ! Pod 2 10.1.8.1 …! ! Leaf Switch 10.1.16.1 ! Load Pod 3 ! Balancer Leaf Switch … !
  • 66. L3 isolation with distributed firewalls! ! Tenant 10.1.0.2 Public Public IP 1 VM 1 Internet address 65.37.141.11! 65.37.141.24! 10.1.0.1 ! Pod 1 Tenant 10.1.0.3 65.37.141.36! ! Leaf 2 VM 1 65.37.141.80! Switch ! ! Tenant 10.1.0.4 1 VM 2 L3 Core ! Pod 2 10.1.8.1 …! ! Leaf Switch 10.1.16.1 ! Load Pod 3 ! Balancer Leaf Switch … ! Tenant 1 VM 3 ! 10.1.16.47 ! Tenant 10.1.16.85 1 VM 4
  • 67. L3 isolation with distributed firewalls! ! Tenant 10.1.0.2 Public Public IP 1 VM 1 Internet address 65.37.141.11! 65.37.141.24! 10.1.0.1 ! Pod 1 Tenant 10.1.0.3 65.37.141.36! ! Leaf 2 VM 1 65.37.141.80! Switch ! ! Tenant 10.1.0.4 1 VM 2 L3 Core ! Pod 2 10.1.8.1 …! ! Leaf Switch ! Tenant 10.1.16.12 10.1.16.1 2 VM 2 ! Load Pod 3 ! Balancer Leaf ! Switch Tenant 2 VM 3 10.1.16.21 … ! Tenant 1 VM 3 ! 10.1.16.47 ! Tenant 10.1.16.85 1 VM 4
  • 68. 1 Firewall per Virtual Machine
  • 69. A Million Firewalls?! VM! VM! VM! …! …! VM! VM! …! …! VM! VM! …! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! …! …! VM! VM! …! …! VM! VM! …! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! …! …! VM! VM! …! …! VM! VM! …! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! …! …! VM! VM! …! …! VM! VM! …! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! …! …! VM! VM! …! …! VM! VM! …! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! …! VM! VM! …! VM! VM! …! VM! VM! …! …! VM! …! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! …! …! VM! VM! …! …! VM! VM! …! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! …! …! VM! VM! …! …! VM! VM! …! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM! VM!
  • 70. Networking in the Cloud Age! SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORKING!
  • 71. Definition! •  Separation of Control Plane from the hardware performing the forwarding function! •  Control plane is logically centralized!
  • 72. SDN Advantages! •  Centralized control makes it easier to configure, troubleshoot and maintain •  Eliminates ‘box’ mode of configuration •  Enables control at a high level
  • 73. Related to SDN! •  API layer over a collection of ‘boxes’! –  API layer communicates with boxes using box-level APIs / ssh / telnet •  OpenFlow! –  Standard protocol for the centralized control plane to talk to the forwarding elements. •  Tunnels / overlays! –  SDN is valuable for virtual topologies –  Initial target of SDN implementation
  • 74. Centralized control plane! Admin/User  API   Controller  Cluster   MySQL/NoSQL   Openflow/ssh/netconf/other! Boxes!
  • 75. SDN problems! •  Discovery of virtual address -> physical address mapping! –  VxLAN = multicast –  GRE = programmed by control plane –  L3 isolation = no mapping, no discovery
  • 76. SDN problems! •  State maintenance! –  Large number of endpoints + flows –  High arrival rate of new flows –  Needs fast and scalable storage and processing
  • 77. CloudStack and SDN! Hypervisor   Hypervisor   Resource   5 4 Resource   Hyperviso Hyperviso r  Plugins   r  Plugins   Plugin   Framew 6 ork   Network   API   7 SDN   Resource   Network     API   Network   controller   OrchestraSon  Engine   Plugins   1   API   Plugins     2 8 Allocator   9 3 Storage   Plugins   Plugins   Storage   Storage   Resource   Resource   Allocator   Allocator   Plugins   Plugins   Physical Resources ! Network plugin is the glue that understands the SDN controller’s API!
  • 78. Virtual Networking "! NETWORKING IN APACHE CLOUDSTACK!
  • 79. Regions and Zones! •  A cluster of CloudStack management servers manage the physical resources of a region –  Single API endpoint per region •  Each region consists of zones •  Zones are physically proximate, but provide distinct failure domains (e.g., flood, earthquake, power) •  Zones are interconnected with high speed low latency links
  • 80. Region “West” Region “East” Geographic separation Internet Low Latency Region “South”
  • 81. Region “West” Zone “West-Beta” Zone “West-Alpha” High Speed Backbone (e.g., SONET ring) Zone “West-Delta” Zone “West-Gamma”
  • 82. Inside a zone! Admin/User  API   End  users   CloudStack  Cluster   DC  Edge   MySQL   L2/L3  core   Leaf  Sw   Hypervisor  (Xen   /VMWare/KVM)   Secondary  Storage   Primary  Storage   NFS/ISCSI/FC   Pod   Pod   Pod   Pod   Pod  
  • 83. Orchestration! •  Orchestration describes the automated arrangement, coordination, and management of complex computer systems, middleware and services –  Wikipedia!
  • 84. CloudStack Architecture! Hypervisor   Hypervisor   Plugins   Plugins   Plugin   Framework   Network  Plugins   OrchestraSon  Engine   Network  Plugins   Allocator   Allocator   Plugins   Plugins   Storage  Plugins  
  • 85. CloudStack Architecture! •  XenServer   • VMWare   • KVM   • OracleVM   Hypervisor     Hypervisor   Plugins   Plugins   Plugin   Framework   Nicira   •  • Netscaler   • Brocade   Network  Plugins   OrchestraSon  Engine   Network  Plugins   idoNet   • M   Allocator   •  Random   Allocator   • User-­‐ Plugins   Plugins   concentrated   • Intel  TXT   • Affinity    
  • 86. CloudStack Architecture! Hypervisor   Hypervisor   Resource   5 4 Resource   Hyperviso Hyperviso r  Plugins   r  Plugins   Plugin   Framew 6 ork   Network   API   7 Network   Resource   Network     API   Network   Resource   OrchestraSon  Engine   Plugins   1   API   Plugins     2 8 Allocator   9 3 Storage   Plugins   Plugins   Storage   Storage   Resource   Resource   Allocator   Allocator   Plugins   Plugins   Physical Resources ! Orchestration steps can be executed in parallel or in sequence!
  • 87. Problem: Manage Configuration of! 1000s of virtual appliances (or VRF) Dozens of HW appliances Solution: Database-driven state management of appliances! Message queues + Retry Logic Idempotent updates, Recreatable virtual appliances
  • 88. Problem: Manage Configuration of! 1000s of virtual appliances (or VRF) Dozens of HW appliances Solution: Database-driven state management of appliances! Message queues + Retry Logic! Idempotent updates,! Recreatable virtual appliances! !
  • 89. Problem:! Single-tenant HW appliances! Solution:! CloudStack API layers multi-tenancy, provides abstraction! No direct access to devices!
  • 90. Problem: Hardware appliances with no APIs CLI only Limited concurrent login sessions Solution: Recommend appliances with APIs Integrate with Network Orchestrators !
  • 91. Problem: Manage the configuration of 100s of thousands of firewalls Solution: Well-known software scaling techniques •  Message queues •  Consistency tradeoffs •  Idempotent configuration & retries CloudStack uses •  special purpose queues •  optimized for large security groups •  eventual consistency for rule updates
  • 92. Problem: Firewall (iptables) rules explosion on the host firewall! Allow Security Group {Web} on TCP port 3060 ! ! -A FORWARD -m tcp –p tcp –dport 3060 –src 10.1.16.31 – j ACCEPT -A FORWARD -m tcp –p tcp –dport 3060 –src 10.1.45.112 – j ACCEPT -A FORWARD -m tcp –p tcp –dport 3060 –src 10.1.189.5 – j ACCEPT …! -A FORWARD -m tcp –p tcp –dport 3060 –src 10.21.9.77 – j ACCEPT For large security groups, performance suffers
  • 93. Problem: Firewall (iptables) rules explosion on the host firewall ! Solution:! Use ipsets: ! ipset –N web_sg iptreemap ipset –A web_sg 10.1.16.31 ipset –A web_sg 10.1.16.112 ipset –A …! web_sg 10.1.189.5 ipset –A web_sg 10.21.9.77 -A FORWARD –p tcp –m tcp –dport 3060 –m set –match-set web_sg src -j ACCEPT
  • 94. Apache CloudStack! •  Apache CloudStack! –  http://www.cloudstack.org/! –  Download it! –  Use it! –  Contribute to it! •  Citrix CloudPlatform! –  Based on Apache CloudStack! –  Commercial support!