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Sensation Chapter 5
Sensation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Sensation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Sensation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Sensation & Perception ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Bottom-up Processing ,[object Object],Letter “A” is really a black blotch broken down into features by the brain that we perceive as an “A.”
Top-Down Processing ,[object Object],T H E C H T
[object Object],Making Sense of Complexity “ The Forest Has Eyes,”  Bev Doolittle
Sensing the World ,[object Object],[object Object]
Exploring the Senses ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Psychophysics ,[object Object],Weight Pressure Sweet Sugar Volume Sound Brightness Light Psychological World Physical World
22 nd  October 1850 ,[object Object],[object Object],Gustav Fechner (1801-1887)
Detection No Intensity Absolute Threshold Detected Yes Yes No No Observer’s Response Tell when you (the observer) detect the light.
Thresholds ,[object Object],Proportion of “Yes” Responses 0.00  0.50  1.00 0  5  10  15  20  25 Stimulus Intensity (lumens)
Subliminal Threshold ,[object Object],Kurt Scholz/ Superstock
Difference Threshold ,[object Object],Difference Threshold Tell when you (observer) detect a difference in the light. No Observer’s Response No Yes
Weber’s Law ,[object Object],Constant (k) Stimulus 3% Tone 2% Weight 8% Light
Signal Detection Theory (SDT) Predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background noise (other stimulation). SDT assumes that there is no single absolute threshold and detection depends on: Person’s experience Expectations Motivation Level of fatigue Carol Lee/ Tony Stone Images
SDT Matrix The observer decides whether she hears the tone or not, based on the signal being present or not. This translates into four outcomes. Correct Rejection False Alarm Absent Miss Hit Present Signal No Yes Decision
Sensory Adaptation ,[object Object],Put a band aid on your arm and after awhile you don’t sense it.
Now you see, now you don’t
Vision
Transduction ,[object Object],[object Object]
The Stimulus Input: Light Energy Visible Spectrum Both Photos: Thomas Eisner
Light Characteristics ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Wavelength (Hue) ,[object Object],[object Object]
Wavelength (Hue) Different wavelengths of light result in different colors. 400 nm 700 nm Long wavelengths Short wavelengths Violet Indigo Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
Intensity (Brightness) ,[object Object]
Intensity (Brightness) Blue color with varying levels of intensity. As intensity increases or decreases, blue color looks more “washed out” or “darkened.”
Purity (Saturation) Monochromatic light added to green and red makes them less saturated. Saturated Saturated
Color Solid ,[object Object],http://www.visionconnection.org
The Eye
Parts of the eye ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Lens ,[object Object],[object Object]
The Lens ,[object Object],[object Object]
Retina ,[object Object]
Optic Nerve, Blind Spot & Fovea http://www.bergen.org Optic nerve:  Carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.  Blind Spot:  Point where the optic nerve leaves the eye because there are no receptor cells located there.  This creates a blind spot.  Fovea:  Central point in the retina around which the eye’s cones cluster.
Test your Blind Spot Use your textbook. Close your left eye, and fixate your right eye on the black dot. Move the page towards your eye and away from your eye. At some point the car on the right will disappear due to a blind spot.
Photoreceptors E.R. Lewis, Y.Y. Zeevi, F.S Werblin, 1969
Bipolar & Ganglion Cells Bipolar cells receive messages from photoreceptors and transmit them to ganglion cells, which are for the optic nerve.
Visual Information Processing Optic nerves connect to the thalamus in the middle of the brain, and the thalamus connects to the visual cortex.
Ganglion & Thalamic Cells Retinal ganglion cells and thalamic neurons break down visual stimuli into small components and have receptive fields with center-surround organization. Action Potentials ON-center OFF-Surround
Feature Detection Nerve cells in the visual cortex respond to specific features, such as edges, angles, and movement. Ross Kinnaird/ Allsport/ Getty Images
Shape Detection Specific combinations of temporal lobe activity occur as people look at shoes, faces, chairs and houses. Ishai, Ungerleider, Martin and Haxby/ NIMH
Perception in Brain Our perceptions are a combination of sensory (bottom-up) and cognitive (top-down) processes.
Visual Information Processing ,[object Object]
From Sensation to Recognition Tim Bieber/ The Image Bank
Theories of Color Vision ,[object Object],Blue Green Red Medium Low Max Standard stimulus Comparison stimulus
Subtraction of Colors ,[object Object]
Addition of Colors ,[object Object],Fritz Goro, LIFE magazine, © 1971 Time Warner, Inc.
Photoreceptors Red Cones Green Cones Long wave Medium wave Short wave MacNichol, Wald and Brown (1967) measured directly the absorption spectra of visual pigments of single cones obtained from the retinas of humans.  Blue Cones
Color Blindness ,[object Object],Ishihara Test
Opponent Colors Gaze at the middle of the flag for about 30 Seconds. When it disappears, stare at the dot and report whether or not you see Britain's flag.
Opponent Process Theory ,[object Object],Cones Retinal Ganglion Cells
Color Constancy ,[object Object],R. Beau Lotto at University College, London
Audition
The Stimulus Input: Sound Waves ,[object Object],Acoustical transduction:  Conversion of sound waves into neural impulses in the hair cells of the inner ear.
Sound Characteristics ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Frequency (Pitch) ,[object Object],[object Object]
Intensity (Loudness) ,[object Object]
Loudness of Sound 70dB 120dB Richard Kaylin/ Stone/ Getty Images
Quality (Timbre) ,[object Object],http://www.1christian.net www.jamesjonesinstruments.com Zither Guitar
Overtones ,[object Object]
The Ear Dr. Fred Hossler/ Visuals Unlimited
The Ear ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Cochlea ,[object Object]
Theories of Audition Place Theory   suggests that sound frequencies stimulate the basilar membrane at specific places resulting in perceived pitch. http://www.pc.rhul.ac.uk
Theories of Audition ,[object Object],Sound Frequency Auditory Nerve Action Potentials 100 Hz 200 Hz
Localization of Sounds ,[object Object]
Localization of Sound ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Hearing Loss ,[object Object],[object Object]
Hearing Deficits ,[object Object]
Deaf Culture ,[object Object],Cochlear Implant Deaf Musician EG Images/ J.S. Wilson © Wolfgang Gstottner. (2004)  American  Scientist,  Vol. 92, Number 5. (p. 437)
Other Important Senses ,[object Object],Bruce Ayers/ Stone/ Getty Images
Skin Senses ,[object Object],Burning hot Pressure Vibration Vibration Cold, warmth and pain
Pain ,[object Object],Ashley Blocker (right) feels neither pain nor extreme hot or cold. AP Photo/ Stephen Morton
Biopsychosocial Influences
Gate-Control Theory Melzak and Wall (1965, 1983) proposed that our spinal cord contains neurological “gates” that either block pain or allow it to be sensed. Gary Comer/ PhototakeUSA.com
Pain Control Pain can be controlled by a number of therapies including, drugs, surgery, acupuncture, exercise, hypnosis, and even thought distraction. Todd Richards and Aric Vills, U.W.  ©Hunter Hoffman, www.vrpain.com
Taste Traditionally, taste sensations consisted of sweet, salty, sour, and bitter tastes. Recently, receptors for a fifth taste have been discovered called  “Umami”. Sweet Sour Salty Bitter Umami (Fresh Chicken)
Sensory Interaction When one sense affects another sense,  sensory interaction  takes place. So, the taste of strawberry interacts with its smell and its texture on the tongue to produce flavor.
Smell Like taste, smell is a chemical sense. Odorants enter the nasal cavity to stimulate 5 million receptors to sense smell. Unlike taste, there are many different forms of smell.
Age, Gender, and Smell Ability to identify smell peaks during early adulthood, but steadily declines after that. Women are better at detecting odors than men.
Smell and Memories The brain region for smell (in red) is closely connected with the brain regions involved with memory (limbic system). That is why strong memories are made through the sense of smell.
Body Position and Movement The sense of our body parts’ position and movement is called  kinesthesis . The  vestibular sense  monitors the head (and body’s) position.  http://www.heyokamagazine.com Whirling Dervishes Wire Walk Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works

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Chapter5

  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13. Detection No Intensity Absolute Threshold Detected Yes Yes No No Observer’s Response Tell when you (the observer) detect the light.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18. Signal Detection Theory (SDT) Predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background noise (other stimulation). SDT assumes that there is no single absolute threshold and detection depends on: Person’s experience Expectations Motivation Level of fatigue Carol Lee/ Tony Stone Images
  • 19. SDT Matrix The observer decides whether she hears the tone or not, based on the signal being present or not. This translates into four outcomes. Correct Rejection False Alarm Absent Miss Hit Present Signal No Yes Decision
  • 20.
  • 21. Now you see, now you don’t
  • 23.
  • 24. The Stimulus Input: Light Energy Visible Spectrum Both Photos: Thomas Eisner
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27. Wavelength (Hue) Different wavelengths of light result in different colors. 400 nm 700 nm Long wavelengths Short wavelengths Violet Indigo Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  • 28.
  • 29. Intensity (Brightness) Blue color with varying levels of intensity. As intensity increases or decreases, blue color looks more “washed out” or “darkened.”
  • 30. Purity (Saturation) Monochromatic light added to green and red makes them less saturated. Saturated Saturated
  • 31.
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36.
  • 37. Optic Nerve, Blind Spot & Fovea http://www.bergen.org Optic nerve: Carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain. Blind Spot: Point where the optic nerve leaves the eye because there are no receptor cells located there. This creates a blind spot. Fovea: Central point in the retina around which the eye’s cones cluster.
  • 38. Test your Blind Spot Use your textbook. Close your left eye, and fixate your right eye on the black dot. Move the page towards your eye and away from your eye. At some point the car on the right will disappear due to a blind spot.
  • 39. Photoreceptors E.R. Lewis, Y.Y. Zeevi, F.S Werblin, 1969
  • 40. Bipolar & Ganglion Cells Bipolar cells receive messages from photoreceptors and transmit them to ganglion cells, which are for the optic nerve.
  • 41. Visual Information Processing Optic nerves connect to the thalamus in the middle of the brain, and the thalamus connects to the visual cortex.
  • 42. Ganglion & Thalamic Cells Retinal ganglion cells and thalamic neurons break down visual stimuli into small components and have receptive fields with center-surround organization. Action Potentials ON-center OFF-Surround
  • 43. Feature Detection Nerve cells in the visual cortex respond to specific features, such as edges, angles, and movement. Ross Kinnaird/ Allsport/ Getty Images
  • 44. Shape Detection Specific combinations of temporal lobe activity occur as people look at shoes, faces, chairs and houses. Ishai, Ungerleider, Martin and Haxby/ NIMH
  • 45. Perception in Brain Our perceptions are a combination of sensory (bottom-up) and cognitive (top-down) processes.
  • 46.
  • 47. From Sensation to Recognition Tim Bieber/ The Image Bank
  • 48.
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  • 51. Photoreceptors Red Cones Green Cones Long wave Medium wave Short wave MacNichol, Wald and Brown (1967) measured directly the absorption spectra of visual pigments of single cones obtained from the retinas of humans. Blue Cones
  • 52.
  • 53. Opponent Colors Gaze at the middle of the flag for about 30 Seconds. When it disappears, stare at the dot and report whether or not you see Britain's flag.
  • 54.
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  • 61. Loudness of Sound 70dB 120dB Richard Kaylin/ Stone/ Getty Images
  • 62.
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  • 64. The Ear Dr. Fred Hossler/ Visuals Unlimited
  • 65.
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  • 67. Theories of Audition Place Theory suggests that sound frequencies stimulate the basilar membrane at specific places resulting in perceived pitch. http://www.pc.rhul.ac.uk
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  • 78. Gate-Control Theory Melzak and Wall (1965, 1983) proposed that our spinal cord contains neurological “gates” that either block pain or allow it to be sensed. Gary Comer/ PhototakeUSA.com
  • 79. Pain Control Pain can be controlled by a number of therapies including, drugs, surgery, acupuncture, exercise, hypnosis, and even thought distraction. Todd Richards and Aric Vills, U.W. ©Hunter Hoffman, www.vrpain.com
  • 80. Taste Traditionally, taste sensations consisted of sweet, salty, sour, and bitter tastes. Recently, receptors for a fifth taste have been discovered called “Umami”. Sweet Sour Salty Bitter Umami (Fresh Chicken)
  • 81. Sensory Interaction When one sense affects another sense, sensory interaction takes place. So, the taste of strawberry interacts with its smell and its texture on the tongue to produce flavor.
  • 82. Smell Like taste, smell is a chemical sense. Odorants enter the nasal cavity to stimulate 5 million receptors to sense smell. Unlike taste, there are many different forms of smell.
  • 83. Age, Gender, and Smell Ability to identify smell peaks during early adulthood, but steadily declines after that. Women are better at detecting odors than men.
  • 84. Smell and Memories The brain region for smell (in red) is closely connected with the brain regions involved with memory (limbic system). That is why strong memories are made through the sense of smell.
  • 85. Body Position and Movement The sense of our body parts’ position and movement is called kinesthesis . The vestibular sense monitors the head (and body’s) position. http://www.heyokamagazine.com Whirling Dervishes Wire Walk Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works

Editor's Notes

  1. OBJECTIVE 1 | Contrast sensation and perception, and explain the difference between bottom-up and top-down processing.
  2. OBJECTIVE 2 | Distinguish between absolute and difference thresholds, and discuss whether we can sense stimuli below our absolute thresholds and be influenced by them.
  3. OBJECTIVE 3 | Describe sensory adaptation, and explain how we benefit from being unaware of changing stimuli.
  4. OBJECTIVE 4 | Define transduction, and specify the form of energy our visual system converts into neural messages our brain can interpret.
  5. OBJECTIVE 5 | Describe the major structure of the eye, and explain how they guide the incoming ray of light toward the eye’s receptor cells.
  6. OBJECTIVE 6 | Contrast the two types of receptor cells in the retina, and describe the retina’s reaction to light.
  7. OBJECTIVE 7 | Discuss the different levels of processing that occur as information travels from the retina to the brain’s cortex.
  8. OBJECTIVE 8 | Discuss parallel processing and discuss its role in visual processing.
  9. OBJECTIVE 9 | Explain how the Young-Helmholtz and opponent-process theories help us understand color vision.
  10. OBJECTIVE 10 | Explain the importance of color constancy.
  11. OBJECTIVE 11 | Describe the pressure waves we experience as sound.
  12. OBJECTIVE 12 | Describe the three regions of the ear, and outline the series of events that triggers the electrical impulses sent to the brain.
  13. OBJECTIVE 13 | Contrast place and frequency theories, and explain how they help us to understand pitch perception.
  14. OBJECTIVE 14 | Describe how we pinpoint sounds.
  15. OBJECTIVE 15 | Contrast two types of hearing loss, and describe some of their causes.
  16. OBJECTIVE 16| Describe how cochlear implants function, and explain why Deaf culture advocates object to these devices. Where these implants are pertinent for hearing parents with deaf children, deaf culture advocate not using them especially on children deafened before learning to speak.
  17. OBJECTIVE 17| Describe the sense of touch. “Touch is both the alpha and omega of affection” (James, 1890).
  18. OBJECTIVE 18| State the purpose of pain, and describe the biopsychosocial perspective on pain.
  19. One way to treat chronic pain is to stimulate it through massage by electrical stimulation or acupuncture. Rubbing causes competitive stimulation to pain thus reduces its effect.
  20. Burn victims can be distracted by allowing them to engage in illusory virtual reality. Their brain scans show differences in pain perceptions.
  21. OBJECTIVE 19| Describe the sense of taste, and explain the principle of sensory interaction.
  22. OBJECTIVE 20| Describe the sense of smell and explain why specific odors so easily trigger memories.
  23. OBJECTIVE 21| Distinguish between kinesthesis and vestibular sense.