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Hey Captain, Where’s Your Ship?
Attacking Vessel Tracking Systems for
Fun and Profit
Marco Balduzzi, Kyle Wihoit, Alessandro Pasta
(@embyte / IZ2PMO, @lowcalspam, IZ2RPA)
Ingredients
Automatic Identification System
●

Tracking system for ships
–

Centralized management for port authorities (VTS)

–

Ship-to-ship communication in open-sea

●

Used for plot, course, position, and speed

●

Some Applications:
–

Vessel Traffic Services

–

Collision Avoidance

–

Maritime Security

–

Aids to Navigation (AtoN)

–

Search and rescue, Accident investigation

–

Binary messages, e.g. weather forecasting
3
Automatic Identification System
●

●

Introduce to supplement the existing safety
systems, e.g. traditional radars
IMO agreement 2002, widely used since 2006
–

–

●

Required on any international ship with gross
tonnage of 300 or more tons.
Also required on ALL passenger ships regardless
of size

Estimated 400,000 installations. Expected
over a million within 2014.
4
5
Online AIS Services
●

●

Collects and
visualizes ships
information
Upstream done via:
–

Email

–

TCP/UDP Socket

–

Commercial Software

–

Smartphone Apps

–

Radio-Frequency
Gateways (deployed
regionally)

6
MarineTraffic Demo

7
AIS Application Layer
●

AIVDM Sentences

●

NMEA Sentences , as GPS
!AIVDM,1,1,,B,177KQJ5000G?tO`K>RA1wUbN0TKH,0*5C
TAG, FRAG_#, FRAG_ID, N/A, CHANNEL, PAYLOAD, PAD, CRC

8
Message 1/18: Position Report
Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI)
number: Shared among multiple messages
●

●

●

Longitude, latitude, navigation status, speedover-ground (SOG), course-over-ground
(COG)
Sent every 3 to 30 seconds, depending from
ship speed
168 bits
9
Message 24: Static Report
●

Types 24A [160 bits] and 24B [168 bits]

●

Name, callsign, dimension

●

Type of ship and cargo type, e.g.
–

35: Engaged in military operations

–

51: Search and rescue

–

55: Law enforcement

–

5X: Carrying dangerous goods (e.g. Nuclear)

10
Few-Others
●

Type 8: Binary Broadcast Message
–

●

Type 22: Channel-Management
–

●

Weather Forecasting
Reserved for Port Authorities

Type 14: Safety-Related Broadcast Message
–

SOS, Man-In-Water

11
Generate Valid AIVDM Sentences

12
AIVDM_Encoder Example
●

Example of generation of AIVDM Sentence for

●

Ship involved in Military Operations

●

Named HiTB13

13
Identified Threats
●

Grouped in two macro families:
–

Implementation-specific VS protocol-specific

14
Spoofing Attack
●

Ships, AtoN, Aircrafts

15
North Korea... What?!

16
And...

17
Autopwning
●
●

Script to make a ship follow a path over time
Programmed with Google Earth's KML/KMZ
information

18
Ship Hijacking via AIS Gateway

19
Eleanor Gordon
●

Eleanor Gordon...Real ship...

20
Eleanor Gordon Popping Up in
Dallas?

21
Landing Lake

22
Replay Attack

23
24
AIS Communication over the Air
●

No authentication, no integrity check

●

Protocol designed in a “hardware-epoch”

●

Hacking: Difficult and cost expensive

●

Fake AIS Signals?

●

Let's do it via software!

25
SDR: Software Defined Radio
●

Paradigm switch from Hardware to Software

●

Reduced costs, Reduced complexity, Increased flexibility

●

Many application, e.g. Radio/TV receiver, 20 USD

●

Accessible by many, bad guys included!

26
GnuRadio and USRP Synergy

Universal Software Radio Peripheral

27
AIS Transmitter

●

GnuRadio flowchart
message on the air

for

●

AIS

4 main components / blocks

●

transmitting

IDE → Python script

28
AIS Frame Builder
●

Implements the AIS Stack (C code)

●

Builds the Frame to be modulated

29
30
Equipment

Universal Software Radio Peripheral

AIS Transceiver

31
Outdoor experiments

Standard VHF Transceiver (Radio)
MOXXON Directional Antenna
32
Attack 1: Man-in-water Spoofing
●

Fake a "man-in-the-water" distress beacon at
any location

●

Similar to Avalanche Safety Beacons

●

<live demo>

33
Attack 2: Frequency Hopping [1/2]
●

Disable AIS transponders
–

Up to 5 weeks

●

Switch to non-default frequency

●

Stored in flash memory

●

Specify a desired targeted region
–

●

Geographically remote region applies as well

E.g. Pirates can render a ship invisible in
Somalia

34
Attack 2: Frequency Hopping [2/2]

35
Attack 3: CPA Alerting [1/2]
●

Fake a CPA alert (Closest Point of Approach)
and trigger a collision warning alert.

36
Attack 3: CPA Alerting [2/2]

37
Attack 4: Weather Forecasting

38
Real-World Experiment
●

Generate a valid over-the-air AIS message

●

Target: AIS proxy

●

Demo

39
Responsible Disclosure
●

Our experiments are conducted without interfering
with existing systems
–

●

●

We reached out the appropriate providers and
authorities within time
Online providers:
–

●

Messages with safety-implications tested only in remote
lab environment

MarineTraffic, AisHub, VesselFinder, ShipFinder

Standard bodies:
–

ITU-R: 11 September 2013

–

IALA, IMO, US Coast Guards: No answer yet
40
Countermeasures
●

Authentication
–

●

Integrity Monitoring
–

●

Tamper checking of AIS message

Time Check
–

●

Ensure the transmitter is the owner

Avoid replay attack

Validity Check on Data Context
–

E.g., Geographical information
41
Take Home
●

AIS is widely used – Mandatory installation

●

AIS is a major technology in marine safety

●

AIS is broken at implementation-level

●

AIS is broken at protocol-level

●

We hope that our work will help in raising the
issue and enhancing the existing situation!

42
Questions?

●

Thanks! FTR, Germano (IW2DCK), ITU-R
43

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