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By the Light 
of the Moon 
Comparing the Characteristics of the Earth and the Moon
By the Light of the Moon 
• The Earth is the third planet from the sun. 
• At about 12,756 km in diameter, the Earth is the 
fifth largest planet in our solar system. 
• The Earth has one natural satellite, the moon. 
The diameter of the moon is about ¼ of the 
diameter of the Earth. 
10/13/14 2
By the Light of the Moon 
• About ¾ of the Earth’s 
surface is covered with 
water. 
• There is no liquid water 
on the moon. However, 
scientists believe that 
there may be some 
frozen ice at the moon’s 
poles. 
10/13/14 3
By the Light of the Moon 
• Each day on Earth is 
about 23.93 hours. (It 
takes the Earth 23.93 
hours to rotate once on its 
axis.) 
• The same side of the 
moon always faces the 
Earth. 
• Standing on the moon, the 
sky always appears dark, 
even during the daytime. 
10/13/14 4
By the Light of the Moon 
• It takes the Earth about 365 ¼ days, or one 
year, to orbit the sun. 
• It takes the moon about 29.5 days (one 
month) to orbit, or revolve, around the Earth. 
10/13/14 5
By the Light of the Moon 
• The temperature on Earth ranges from between -88°C to 
58°C. The coldest recorded temperature was on the 
continent of Antarctica (Vostok in July, 1983). The 
hottest recorded temperature was on the continent of 
Africa (Libya in September, 1922). 
• The temperature on the Moon ranges from daytime 
highs of about 130°C to nighttime lows of about -110°C. 
10/13/14 6
By the Light of the Moon 
• The Earth's atmosphere is a thin layer of 
gases that surrounds the Earth. It is 
composed of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 
0.9% argon, 0.03% carbon dioxide, and 
trace amounts of other gases. 
•The moon has little or no atmosphere. On the 
moon, the sky is always dark, even on the 
bright side (because there is no atmosphere). 
Also, since sound waves travel through air, 
the moon is silent; there can be no sound 
transmission on the moon. 
10/13/14 7
By the Light of the Moon 
• The Earth is the densest planet in our Solar System. 
• To escape the Earth’s gravitational pull, a vehicle must 
travel 11,180 m/sec. 
• There is much less gravity on the surface of the moon. It 
is about one-sixth of that on the Earth. 
10/13/14 8
By the Light of the Moon 
• Mare (plural maria) means "sea," but maria are plains on 
the moon. 
• They are called maria because very early astronomers 
thought that these areas on the moon were great seas. 
• The first moon landing was in the Mare Tranquillitatis 
(the Sea of Tranquility). 
• Maria are concentrated on the side of the moon that 
faces the Earth; the far side has very few of these plains. 
10/13/14 9
By the Light of the Moon 
• The surface of the moon is scarred by millions of circular craters, 
caused by the impacts of asteroids, comets, and meteorites. 
• There is no atmosphere on the moon to help protect it from 
bombardment from potential impactors like on the Earth (most 
objects from space burn up in our atmosphere). 
• Also, there is no erosion (wind or precipitation) to wear away these 
craters, so they remain unchanged until another new impact 
changes it. 
• These craters range in size up to hundreds of kilometers, but the 
most enormous craters have been flooded by lava, and only parts of 
the outline are visible. The biggest unflooded lunar crater is Clavius 
which is 160 km in diameter. 
10/13/14 10
1. A rock is taken 
from the surface of 
the moon and 
brought to Earth. 
What is different 
about this rock on 
Earth? 
A Its mass 
B Its shape 
C Its length 
D Its weight
1. A rock is taken 
from the surface of 
the moon and 
brought to Earth. 
What is different 
about this rock on 
Earth? 
A Its mass 
B Its shape 
C Its length 
D Its weight
2. Tides on the 
Texas coast 
usually occur 
twice — 
A daily 
B weekly 
C monthly 
D yearly
2. Tides on the 
Texas coast 
usually occur 
twice — 
A daily 
B weekly 
C monthly 
D yearly
3. Which of these causes 
day and night on Earth? 
A Earth orbiting the 
sun 
B The moon orbiting 
Earth 
C Earth rotating on its 
axis 
D The moon blocking 
sunlight
3. Which of these causes 
day and night on Earth? 
A Earth orbiting the 
sun 
B The moon orbiting 
Earth 
C Earth rotating on its 
axis 
D The moon blocking 
sunlight
4. This model can be used to 
show how the moon moves 
around Earth. This model also 
shows all of the following 
EXCEPT — 
A the amount of light Earth 
reflects 
B the land areas of Earth 
and the moon 
C how the moon makes a 
revolution 
D how Earth and the moon 
compare in size
4. This model can be used to 
show how the moon moves 
around Earth. This model also 
shows all of the following 
EXCEPT — 
A the amount of light Earth 
reflects 
B the land areas of Earth 
and the moon 
C how the moon makes a 
revolution 
D how Earth and the moon 
compare in size
5. What is the 
Earth’s only natural 
satellite called? 
A The sun 
B The moon 
C Mercury 
D Asteroids
5. What is the 
Earth’s only natural 
satellite called? 
A The sun 
B The moon 
C Mercury 
D Asteroids
6. What force keeps 
the distance between 
the Earth and the 
moon constant? 
A Thrust 
B Friction 
C Gravity 
D Acceleration
6. What force keeps 
the distance between 
the Earth and the 
moon constant? 
A Thrust 
B Friction 
C Gravity 
D Acceleration
7. Astronauts walking 
on the moon must 
wear helmets. What is 
different about the 
helmets on the moon? 
A Mass 
B Color 
C Weight 
D Shape
7. Astronauts walking 
on the moon must 
wear helmets. What is 
different about the 
helmets on the moon? 
A Mass 
B Color 
C Weight 
D Shape
8. Many events on 
Earth occur in cycles. 
Which of the following 
occurs about once 
every 28 days during 
the lunar cycle? 
A The seasons 
B A new moon 
C Day and night 
D High tides
8. Many events on 
Earth occur in cycles. 
Which of the following 
occurs about once 
every 28 days during 
the lunar cycle? 
A The seasons 
B A new moon 
C Day and night 
D High tides
9. Why are there no 
clouds on the moon? 
There is— 
A no liquid water on 
the moon 
B no solar energy 
on the moon 
C no living things on 
the moon 
D no gravity on the 
moon
9. Why are there no 
clouds on the moon? 
There is— 
A no liquid water on 
the moon 
B no solar energy 
on the moon 
C no living things on 
the moon 
D no gravity on the 
moon
10. Why do you see more 
impact craters on the moon’s 
surface than on the Earth’s 
surface? 
A. The moon is hit by more 
meteors since it is further out in 
space than Earth. 
B . Meteors hitting the moon 
make deeper craters than 
meteors hitting Earth. 
C . The moon’s soil is softer than 
Earth’s, so the craters are deeper. 
D . Weathering and erosion 
smoothed out many craters on 
the Earth’s surface.
10. Why do you see more 
impact craters on the moon’s 
surface than on the Earth’s 
surface? 
A. The moon is hit by more 
meteors since it is further out in 
space than Earth. 
B . Meteors hitting the moon 
make deeper craters than 
meteors hitting Earth. 
C . The moon’s soil is softer than 
Earth’s, so the craters are deeper. 
D . Weathering and erosion 
smoothed out many craters on 
the Earth’s surface.

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By the light of the moon a cedited - comparing earth and moon

  • 1. By the Light of the Moon Comparing the Characteristics of the Earth and the Moon
  • 2. By the Light of the Moon • The Earth is the third planet from the sun. • At about 12,756 km in diameter, the Earth is the fifth largest planet in our solar system. • The Earth has one natural satellite, the moon. The diameter of the moon is about ¼ of the diameter of the Earth. 10/13/14 2
  • 3. By the Light of the Moon • About ¾ of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. • There is no liquid water on the moon. However, scientists believe that there may be some frozen ice at the moon’s poles. 10/13/14 3
  • 4. By the Light of the Moon • Each day on Earth is about 23.93 hours. (It takes the Earth 23.93 hours to rotate once on its axis.) • The same side of the moon always faces the Earth. • Standing on the moon, the sky always appears dark, even during the daytime. 10/13/14 4
  • 5. By the Light of the Moon • It takes the Earth about 365 ¼ days, or one year, to orbit the sun. • It takes the moon about 29.5 days (one month) to orbit, or revolve, around the Earth. 10/13/14 5
  • 6. By the Light of the Moon • The temperature on Earth ranges from between -88°C to 58°C. The coldest recorded temperature was on the continent of Antarctica (Vostok in July, 1983). The hottest recorded temperature was on the continent of Africa (Libya in September, 1922). • The temperature on the Moon ranges from daytime highs of about 130°C to nighttime lows of about -110°C. 10/13/14 6
  • 7. By the Light of the Moon • The Earth's atmosphere is a thin layer of gases that surrounds the Earth. It is composed of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.9% argon, 0.03% carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of other gases. •The moon has little or no atmosphere. On the moon, the sky is always dark, even on the bright side (because there is no atmosphere). Also, since sound waves travel through air, the moon is silent; there can be no sound transmission on the moon. 10/13/14 7
  • 8. By the Light of the Moon • The Earth is the densest planet in our Solar System. • To escape the Earth’s gravitational pull, a vehicle must travel 11,180 m/sec. • There is much less gravity on the surface of the moon. It is about one-sixth of that on the Earth. 10/13/14 8
  • 9. By the Light of the Moon • Mare (plural maria) means "sea," but maria are plains on the moon. • They are called maria because very early astronomers thought that these areas on the moon were great seas. • The first moon landing was in the Mare Tranquillitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). • Maria are concentrated on the side of the moon that faces the Earth; the far side has very few of these plains. 10/13/14 9
  • 10. By the Light of the Moon • The surface of the moon is scarred by millions of circular craters, caused by the impacts of asteroids, comets, and meteorites. • There is no atmosphere on the moon to help protect it from bombardment from potential impactors like on the Earth (most objects from space burn up in our atmosphere). • Also, there is no erosion (wind or precipitation) to wear away these craters, so they remain unchanged until another new impact changes it. • These craters range in size up to hundreds of kilometers, but the most enormous craters have been flooded by lava, and only parts of the outline are visible. The biggest unflooded lunar crater is Clavius which is 160 km in diameter. 10/13/14 10
  • 11. 1. A rock is taken from the surface of the moon and brought to Earth. What is different about this rock on Earth? A Its mass B Its shape C Its length D Its weight
  • 12. 1. A rock is taken from the surface of the moon and brought to Earth. What is different about this rock on Earth? A Its mass B Its shape C Its length D Its weight
  • 13. 2. Tides on the Texas coast usually occur twice — A daily B weekly C monthly D yearly
  • 14. 2. Tides on the Texas coast usually occur twice — A daily B weekly C monthly D yearly
  • 15. 3. Which of these causes day and night on Earth? A Earth orbiting the sun B The moon orbiting Earth C Earth rotating on its axis D The moon blocking sunlight
  • 16. 3. Which of these causes day and night on Earth? A Earth orbiting the sun B The moon orbiting Earth C Earth rotating on its axis D The moon blocking sunlight
  • 17. 4. This model can be used to show how the moon moves around Earth. This model also shows all of the following EXCEPT — A the amount of light Earth reflects B the land areas of Earth and the moon C how the moon makes a revolution D how Earth and the moon compare in size
  • 18. 4. This model can be used to show how the moon moves around Earth. This model also shows all of the following EXCEPT — A the amount of light Earth reflects B the land areas of Earth and the moon C how the moon makes a revolution D how Earth and the moon compare in size
  • 19. 5. What is the Earth’s only natural satellite called? A The sun B The moon C Mercury D Asteroids
  • 20. 5. What is the Earth’s only natural satellite called? A The sun B The moon C Mercury D Asteroids
  • 21. 6. What force keeps the distance between the Earth and the moon constant? A Thrust B Friction C Gravity D Acceleration
  • 22. 6. What force keeps the distance between the Earth and the moon constant? A Thrust B Friction C Gravity D Acceleration
  • 23. 7. Astronauts walking on the moon must wear helmets. What is different about the helmets on the moon? A Mass B Color C Weight D Shape
  • 24. 7. Astronauts walking on the moon must wear helmets. What is different about the helmets on the moon? A Mass B Color C Weight D Shape
  • 25. 8. Many events on Earth occur in cycles. Which of the following occurs about once every 28 days during the lunar cycle? A The seasons B A new moon C Day and night D High tides
  • 26. 8. Many events on Earth occur in cycles. Which of the following occurs about once every 28 days during the lunar cycle? A The seasons B A new moon C Day and night D High tides
  • 27. 9. Why are there no clouds on the moon? There is— A no liquid water on the moon B no solar energy on the moon C no living things on the moon D no gravity on the moon
  • 28. 9. Why are there no clouds on the moon? There is— A no liquid water on the moon B no solar energy on the moon C no living things on the moon D no gravity on the moon
  • 29. 10. Why do you see more impact craters on the moon’s surface than on the Earth’s surface? A. The moon is hit by more meteors since it is further out in space than Earth. B . Meteors hitting the moon make deeper craters than meteors hitting Earth. C . The moon’s soil is softer than Earth’s, so the craters are deeper. D . Weathering and erosion smoothed out many craters on the Earth’s surface.
  • 30. 10. Why do you see more impact craters on the moon’s surface than on the Earth’s surface? A. The moon is hit by more meteors since it is further out in space than Earth. B . Meteors hitting the moon make deeper craters than meteors hitting Earth. C . The moon’s soil is softer than Earth’s, so the craters are deeper. D . Weathering and erosion smoothed out many craters on the Earth’s surface.