Stars & The Solar System


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Stars & The Solar System

  1. 1. SolarSystemT- 1-855-694-8886Email- info@iTutor.comBy
  2. 2.  Sun is a star at the centre of thesolar system. The heat & light from the sun iscaused by nuclear reactions in itscentre. It is one of may billions of starswhich form the Milky Way galaxy. Every second 700 million tons ofhydrogen converted to 695million tons helium, and 5million tons of energy.
  3. 3. `Solar System
  4. 4. `Known to the ancients: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn arevisible to the naked eye and have been known since prehistoric times.Modern Planets: Uranus (1781), Neptune (1846) and Pluto (1930) werediscovered only after the invention of the telescope. In 2006, Pluto wasreassigned to a new class of planets known as the dwarf planets.Solar System
  5. 5.  The Sun and the celestial bodies which revolve around it formthe solar system. It consists of large number of bodies such asplanets, comets, asteroids and meteors. The gravitationalattraction between the Sun and these objects keeps themrevolving around it. The eight planets in their order of distance from the Sun are:MercuryVenusEarthMarsJupiterSaturnUranusNeptuneSolar System
  6. 6. Mercury(0.055 Earth masses) Mercury is nearest to the Sun. It is the smallest planet of our solar system. It is very difficult to observe it, as most of the time it is hidden in the glareof the Sun. However, it can be observed just before sunrise or just aftersunset, near the horizon. Mercury has no satellite of its own Orbital Periods of this planet is 88 days .Mercury:Radius: 2,440 kmMass: 3.3x1023 kgOrbit: 5.8 x 107 kmMade of : rockAtmosphere: yes (unstable)Temperatures vary from 90K to 700K - largest range in solar systemSolar System
  7. 7. From space Venus is earth’s nearest planetary neighbor. It isthe brightestplanet in the night sky. Venus appears in the eastern sky before sunriseand western skyjust after sunset. It is often called a morning or an evening star Venus has no moon or satellite of its own. Venus rotates from east to west while the Earthrotates from westto east.Venus:Radius: 6,052 kmMass: 4.9 x 1024 kgOrbit: 1.1 x 108 kmMade of: rockAtmosphere: yes (CO2)Surface temperature: 750K1 year = 225 days1 day = 243 daysSolar System
  8. 8. The Earth The Earth is the only planet in the solar system onwhich life is known to exist. From space, the Earth appears blue green due to thereflection of light from water and landmass on itssurface. The Earth has only one moon. Some special environmental are responsible for the existence andcontinuation of life on the Earth. These include just the right distancefrom the Sun, so that it has the right temperature range, the presence ofwater and suitable atmosphere and a blanket of ozone The axis of rotation of the Earth is not perpendicular to the plane of itsorbit. The tilt is responsible for the change of seasons on the Earth.Solar System
  9. 9. The EarthRadius: 6,678 kmMass: 5.9x1024 kgOrbit: 1.5 x 108 kmMade of: rockAtmosphere: yes (nitrogen, oxygen, argon)Moons: 11 day = 24 hours1 year = 365.25 daysSolar System
  10. 10.  The first outside the orbit of theEarth is Mars. It appears slightly reddish Mars is also called the red planet. Mars has two small natural satellites.MARSRadius: 3,397 kmMass: 6.4x1023 kgOrbit: 2.3 x 108 kmMade of: rockAtmosphere: yes(CO2)Moons: 21 year = 78 days1 day = 25 hoursSolar System
  11. 11. Jupiter Jupiter is the largest planet of the solar system. It isso large that about 1300 earths can be placed insidethis giant. Jupiter has a large number of satellites. Easily recognize Jupiter as it appears quite bright inthe sky. Jupiter has four large moons (Io, Callisto, Ganymede,and Europa) which is easily seen by telescope.Jupiter and Its 4 big Moon SurfaceSolar System
  12. 12. Jupiter:Radius: 71,492 kmMass: 1.9x1027 kgOrbit: 7.8 x 108 kmMade of: hydrogen (90%),helium (10%),ice and rockAtmosphere : YesMoons: 61Day: 9.8 hoursYear: 4,333 daysSolar System
  13. 13.  Saturn which appears yellowish in color, has a large numberof satellites. Saturn is the least dense among all the planets. Its density isless than that of water.Satrun1 year = 10832 days1 day = 11 hoursMean Radius : 58,232 kmMass : 5.7x1026 kgOrbit : 1.4 x 109 kmMade of : Hydrogen, Helium ice, and rockAtmosphere: yesMoons : 31Least dense planet 0.7 g cm-3 (water = 1)Solar System
  14. 14.  The outermost planet of the solar system. They can beseen only with the help of large telescopes. Uranus rotates from east to west. Uranus has highly tilted rotational axis As a result, inits orbital motion it appears to roll on its side.UranusRadius : 25,559 kmMass : 8.7x1025 kgOrbit : 2.9 x 109 kmMade of : ices, rock,hydrogen, heliumAtmosphere: YesMoons : 27Day : 17 hoursYear : 30,700 daysUranus and It’s MoonsSolar System
  15. 15. Neptune:Radius : 24,766 kmMass : 1.0x1026 kgOrbit : 4.5 x 109 kmMade of : ices (H20, CH4, NH3), rock, hydrogen (15%)helium.Atmosphere : YesMoons : 13 known-Internal heat sourceradiates twice theenergy it receives-Fastest winds in solarsystem > 2000km/hr1 day = 16 hours1 year = 60,225 daysNeptuneSolar System
  16. 16. The EarthThe MoonEarth‘s Moon • Moons are like littleplanets that encircle thereal planets..Usually,they are much smallerthan planets.The Moon revolves around the Earth.The Earth along with the moon, revolvearound the SunSolar System
  17. 17. Earths Moon: Facts &FiguresAverage Distance fromEarth3.844 x 105 kmMean Radius 1.738 x 103 kmMean Circumference 1.0917 x 104 kmVolume 2.197 x 1010 km3Mass 7.3477 x 1022 kgSidereal RotationPeriod (Length of Day)27.322 Earth daysSidereal Orbit Period(Length of Year)27.322 Earth daysMinimum/MaximumSurface Temperature-233 / 123 °CThe MoonSolar System
  18. 18.  The day on which the whole disc of the moon isvisible is known as the full moon day. On the fifteenth day the moon is not visible. This day is knownas the new moon day. The next day, only a small portion of the moonappears in the sky. This is known as the crescentmoon. The various shapes of the bright the moon as seenduring a month are called phases of the moonEarth‘s Moon The moon completes one rotation onits axis as it completes one evolutionaround the EarthSolar System
  19. 19. Earth‘s MoonMoon does not produce itsown light We see the moonbecause the sunlight fallingon it gets reflected towards usWe, therefore, see only thatpart of the moon, from whichthe light of the Sun isreflected towards us.Solar System
  20. 20. Phases of the moon It is also sometimes possible for Earth toblock sunlight to the Moon. This happenswhen the Moon is in its Full Moon phase.When this happens, Earth simply casts ashadow on the Moon. It can either bepartially or totally eclipsed. During a totallunar eclipse, the Moon doesnt appeartotally dark as light from the Sun isrefracted through Earths atmospherewhich reflects dimly on the Moon and givesit a dull brownish colour as shown in theimage below.Solar System
  21. 21. Phases of the moonThe moon has no atmosphere. It has no water.On July 21, 1969 (Indian time) theAmerican astronaut Neil Armstronglanded on the moon for the first timefollowed by Edwin Aldrin.Solar System
  22. 22.  There is a large number of stars in the sky. Observe carefullyon a dark night Stars emit light of their own The stars are millions of times farther away than the Sun.Therefore, the stars appear to us like points. The Sun is also a star nearly 150 million km away from theEarth. The next nearest star is Alpha Centauri. It is at adistance of about 40,000,000,000,000 km from the Earth. If the stars appear to move from east to west, It mean thatthe Earth, If light from stars takes rotates from west to east. The pole star, which is situated in the direction of theearth’s axis. It does not appear to move.The Stars
  23. 23. The stars forming a group that has a recognizable shape is called a constellationThe Big Dipper, the Great Bear or the Saptarshi. There are seven prominent stars in this constellation.constellation
  24. 24. Phases of the moonAsteroidsThere is a large gap in between the orbitsof Mars and Jupiter. This gap is occupiedby a large number of small objects thatrevolve around the Sun. These are calledasteroids.Asteroids can only be seen through largetelescopes.
  25. 25. Phases of the moonCometsComets are also members of our solarsystem. They revolve around the Sunin highly elliptical orbits. However,their period of revolution round theSun is usually very long. A Cometappears generally as a bright headwith a long tail. The length of the tailgrows in size as it approaches the sun.The tail of a comet is always directedaway from the sun
  26. 26. Phases of the moonMeteorsThese are commonly known as shooting stars,although they are not stars. They are calledmeteors. A meteor is usually a small object thatoccasionally enters the earth’s atmosphere. At that time it has a very high speed. The frictiondue to the atmosphere heats it up. It glows andevaporates quickly. That is why the bright steaklasts for a very short time
  27. 27. Meteorites Some meteors are large so that they canreach the Earth before they evaporatecompletely. The body that reaches theEarth is called a meteorite. Meteorites help scientists in investigatingthe nature of the material from which thesolar system was formed
  28. 28. Artificial Satellites The artificial satellites are man-made.They are launched from the Earth.They revolve around the Earth muchcloser than earth’s natural satellite. Artificial satellites have many practicalapplications. They are used for forecastingweather, transmitting television andradio signals. They are also used fortelecommunication and remote sensing.
  29. 29. Artificial Satellites By India India has built and launched severalartificial satellites. Aryabhatta was thefirst Indian satellite. Some other Indian satellites are INSAT,IRS, Kalpana-1,EDUSAT, etc
  30. 30. They called these objects planets, meaning wanderers, and named them afterRoman deities -- Jupiter, king of the gods; Mars, the god of war; Mercury,messenger of the gods; Venus, the goddess of love and beauty; and Saturn, fatherof Jupiter and god of agriculture.From our small world we have gazed upon thecosmic ocean for thousands of years. Ancientastronomers observed points of light that appearedto move among the stars
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