Earth Science Chapter 22


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  • Stop Period 1 (Wednesday October 21)
  • Earth Science Chapter 22

    1. 1. Chapter 22 Sun-Earth-Moon System
    2. 3. 22.1 Planet Earth <ul><li>Planet Earth Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The position of the Earth, Sun, and moon affect us daily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasons change, day turns to night, tides rise & fall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Earth’s Shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Earth was once believed to be flat (YES, it is roundish) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aristotle reasoned that the Earth was round because it cast a round shadow (Not flat) on the Moon during eclipses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sailors used line of sight to show the Earth was curved </li></ul></ul></ul>Pgs. 613 - 622
    3. 4. Earth the Oblique spheroid <ul><li>Today we know the Earth is almost round </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a slightly flattened sphere (Oblique Spheroid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sphere: round three dimensional object </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly bulged at the Equator, Flatter at the poles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The axis runs through the poles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Axis: line around which the Earth spins (Rotation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rotation causes day and night </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Equator: line bisecting the Earth (90 O from Poles) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only known planet to have liquid water </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of 70% water. </li></ul><ul><li>97% of all water is salted. </li></ul><ul><li>Only known planet to have life </li></ul>
    4. 5. Earth Data (the Specifics) <ul><li>Diameter: (Pole to Pole) = 7,901 mi. </li></ul><ul><li>Diameter: (at Equator) = 7,926 mi </li></ul><ul><li>Earth rotates at about 1000 mi/hr. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass: 5.98 x 10 27 g = 5.98 x 10 23 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Density: 5.52 g/cm 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Average distance from the Sun = 149,600,000 km </li></ul><ul><li>Period of Rotation (1 day) = 23hr. 56 min. </li></ul><ul><li>Pd. of Revolution (1 year) = 365 days 6 hr. 9 min. </li></ul><ul><li>Polar tilt: 23.5 0 from vertical </li></ul><ul><li>Average Temperature is 60 o F </li></ul><ul><li>Hottest Temperature: 134 o F in Death Valley California (1913) </li></ul><ul><li>Coldest Temperature: -129 o F in Vostok, Antartica (1983) </li></ul><ul><li>This means the earth is constantly moving around the sun. </li></ul>
    5. 7. Earth’s Rotation <ul><li>The Earth rotates, the sun appears to move across the sky (from East to West) </li></ul><ul><li>Night is caused by ½ the Earth being in shadow </li></ul>
    6. 8. Earth’s Magnetic Field <ul><li>The Earth acts as a giant magnet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It produces a magnetic field just like a bar magnet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Magnetic field is produced from under the surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It radiates out into space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is affected by energy from the sun (causes distortion) </li></ul></ul>
    7. 9. Magnetic North <ul><li>Earth’s magnetic axis, does not line up with it’s polar axis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A compass points to magnetic North (not North Pole) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference is 11.5 0 from polar North </li></ul></ul>
    8. 10. Earth’s Orbit <ul><li>REVOLUTION – Yearly orbit around the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Just like the Moon is a satellite of the Earth, the Earth is a satellite of the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>The Earth revolves around the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Earth’s orbit is an ellipse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ellipse: off center oval (elongated closed curve) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance from the sun changes during the year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Closest to the sun = Perihelion Jan 3 rd and is about 91,500,000 miles from the sun. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farthest from the sun = Aphelion July 4 th and is about 94,500,000 miles from the sun. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 12. The Seasons <ul><li>Seasons: Annual change in climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to the Earth’s tilt on it’s axis 23.5 0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasons are opposite between hemispheres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daylight hrs are longer for the pole pointed toward the sun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More solar energy = warmer temperatures </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 13. Equinoxes <ul><li>Equinox: Equal amounts of sunlight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daylight = 12 hrs; Night = 12 hrs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight hits directly on the Equator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Hemisphere: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spring (VERNAL) Equinox (Marks beginning of Spring) March 20 th or 21 st </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autumn Equinox (Beginning of Fall) September 22 nd or 23 rd </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversed for the Southern Hemisphere </li></ul></ul>
    11. 14. Solstices <ul><li>Solstice: “longest” of the year </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun reaches its farthest point North or South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summer Solstice: (Northern Hemisphere) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs on June 21 st or 22 nd (Beginning of Summer) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight reaches the Tropic of Cancer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Longest day of the year” = 16 hrs. of sunlight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>North Pole = 24 hrs of daylight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>South Pole = 24 hrs of night </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 15. Winter Solstices <ul><li>Sun directly on Tropic of Capricorn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs on December 21 st or 22 nd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Hemisphere = Beginning of Winter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Longest night of the Year” (16 hrs. of night) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>North Pole: 24 hrs. of night </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>South Pole: 24 hrs. of daylight </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 16. 22.2 Earth’s Moon <ul><li>You know the moon looks different over the month </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You see different amounts visible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It rises at different times (sometimes even during the day) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Moon’s Rotation & Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The moon rotates on its axis (27.3 days = 1 rotation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It revolves around the Earth (27.3 days = 1 revolution) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique situation: We always see the same side of the moon </li></ul></ul>Pgs. 623 - 631
    14. 17. Why the Moon Shines <ul><li>The moon is not like the sun </li></ul><ul><li>It does not create it’s own light </li></ul><ul><li>It reflects sunlight = Moon light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only the side of the moon facing the sun can be seen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other side in shadow </li></ul></ul>
    15. 18. Moon Phases <ul><li>Phases: Daily change in the moon’s appearance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur because the moon reflects sunlight & orbiting Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our view point & Moon’s position determines what we see </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Waxing: More & more of the moon becomes visible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs between New moon and Full moon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Waning: Less & less of the moon is visible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs between Full moon and New Moon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are Eight Main Phases: </li></ul><ul><li>1.) New Moon 5.) Full Moon </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Waxing Crescent 6.) Waning Gibbous </li></ul><ul><li>3.) First Quarter 7.) Last Quarter </li></ul><ul><li>4.) Waxing Gibbous 8.) Waning Crescent </li></ul>
    16. 19. Phases of the Moon <ul><li>1.) NEW MOON – When the moon is completely in shadow </li></ul><ul><li>2.) WAXING CRESCENT – Right side of moon begins to become visible, Left side in shadow. </li></ul><ul><li>3.)FIRST QUARTER – Right half is visible, left half in shadow. </li></ul><ul><li>4.)WAXING GIBBOUS – More than half of the lit side is visible, moon takes on an egg shape </li></ul><ul><li>5.)FULL MOON – When all of the moon’s surface facing earth is lit up and visible. </li></ul><ul><li>6.)WANING GIBBOUS – Moon begins to appear less lit up, takes on an egg shape again (Left side still shines, Right side in shadow) </li></ul><ul><li>7)THIRD (LAST) QUARTER – Left half of moon visible </li></ul><ul><li>8) WANING CRESCENT – only a sliver of the left side is visible. </li></ul>
    17. 20. <ul><li>NEW MOON </li></ul><ul><li>WAXING CRESCENT </li></ul><ul><li>FIRST QUARTER </li></ul><ul><li>WAXING GIBBOUS </li></ul><ul><li>FULL MOON </li></ul><ul><li>WANING GIBBOUS </li></ul><ul><li>THIRD QUARTER </li></ul><ul><li>WANING CRESCENT </li></ul>
    18. 21. Phases of the Moon
    19. 23. <ul><li>Average Distance from the Earth to the Moon: 238,857 miles </li></ul><ul><li>The Harvest Moon is the FULL MOON nearest to the AUTUMNAL EQUINOX , which occurs (in the NORTHERN HEMISPHERE) on or about SEPT. 23rd </li></ul>
    20. 24. <ul><li>The Harvest Moon is also known as the Wine Moon, the Singing Moon and the Elk Call Moon. In MYTH and FOLKLORE the full moon of each month is given a name. There are many variations but the following list gives the most widely known names: </li></ul><ul><li>January – Wolf Moon July – Hay Moon </li></ul><ul><li>February – Ice Moon August – Corn Moon </li></ul><ul><li>March – Storm Moon Sept. – HARVEST MOON </li></ul><ul><li>April – Growing Moon Oct. – Hunter’s Moon </li></ul><ul><li>May – Hare Moon Nov. Snow Moon </li></ul><ul><li>June – Mead Moon Dec. – Winter Moon </li></ul><ul><li>When there are 2 full moons in a month the second is called a BLUE MOON . </li></ul>
    21. 26. Eclipses: <ul><li>Eclipses occur when the sun, Earth, & Moon align </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the position of the moon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The moon’s orbit is not on the same plane as Earth’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can only occur when orbits cross </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shadows are the reason for the phenomena </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Moon’s orbit is tilted about 5 degrees from the Earth’s </li></ul></ul>
    22. 27. Parts of a Shadow: <ul><li>Shadows have 2 parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Umbra: Darkest part (center) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penumbra: Lighter part (outside) </li></ul></ul>
    23. 28. Solar Eclipses <ul><li>Solar Eclipse: Moon’s shadow covers part of the Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocks view of the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only occur during New Moon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur every year, only seen in specific areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total Solar Eclipse: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The moon blocks out the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only the Corona is seen glowing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partial Solar Eclipse: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon’s penumbra shades part of sun </li></ul></ul>
    24. 29. <ul><li>Total Solar Eclipse Partial Solar Eclipse </li></ul>
    25. 30. Lunar Eclipses <ul><li>When the moon passes into the Earth’s Shadow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partial eclipse occur when the moon is in the Penumbra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total eclipse occur when the moon is in the Umbra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Eclipse must occur during Full moons (about once a year) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon turns blood red in color </li></ul></ul>
    26. 31. Stages of a Lunar Eclipse
    27. 32. Moon’s Surface Tycho Mare Imbrium Copernicus Mare Serenitatis Mare Tranquillitatus Notice the rays from Tycho Kepler
    28. 33. Moon Surface Features <ul><li>We can see light and dark parts with our eyes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maria- Dark colored lava plains with circular basins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlands- Areas of light colored crust </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lunar Highlands- made up of mountain chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found around maria edges, and extinct volcanoes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Moon is riddled with craters </li></ul><ul><li>Lunar Dirt: Called Regolith (rock particles and dust) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not soil- contains no water or organic material </li></ul></ul>
    29. 34. The Moon’s Interior <ul><li>Apollo Missions left instruments to study the moon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learned about what is below the moon’s surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>35 miles thick facing the Earth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>90 miles on other side </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid Mantle: Lies below the surface (600 miles deep) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partially molten zone: Lies below solid mantle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core: Iron-rich & solid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Moon is prone to Moonquakes due to structure </li></ul>
    30. 36. Origin of the Moon <ul><ul><li>Impact theory: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Mars sized object collided with the Earth (6.4 b.y.a.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vaporized material thrown into space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Material condensed & formed the moon </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 37. 22.3 Exploration of the Moon <ul><li>No manned missions to the moon since Apollo </li></ul><ul><li>None scheduled missions either </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1994, one spacecraft was placed in lunar orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clementine: two month mission to survey the moon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clementine the Spacecraft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carried & tested sensors to track cold objects in space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold objects include satellites, warheads & Asteroids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also compiled detailed maps of the moon’s surface </li></ul></ul>Pgs. 632-633
    32. 38. <ul><li>Moon’s average day time temperature is 214 o F </li></ul><ul><li>Moon’s average night time temperature is -300 o F </li></ul><ul><li>Moon’s Gravity is 6x lighter than the Earths. </li></ul><ul><li>Moon has not atmosphere so it is always black there. </li></ul><ul><li>Moon’s diameter is 2160 miles </li></ul>
    33. 39. Moon Missions <ul><li>12 Americans landed on the moon between 1969-1972 during the Apollo Program </li></ul><ul><li>July 20,1969 – Apollo 11 first manned lunar landing. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walked on the moon. </li></ul>